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219 Cards in this Set

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What are the three function of blood?
Transportation, Regulation, and protection
Function of blood that transports nutrients and vitamins to cells and waste product from cells?
Transportation
Function of the blood for body temperature, PH, fluid balance?
Regulation
Function of blood done by carrying the cells and antibodies to protect against infection?
Protection
Two main components of blood?
Plasma, Formed elements
Component of blood that is the liquid part of blood?
Plasma
Component of blood that includes cells and cell fragments?
Formed elements
Plasma is what percentage of H2O?
90%
Subcomponent of plasma important in maintaining healthy tissues?
Proteins
Four types of blood plasma protein?
Albumin, clotting factors, anti-bodies, complement
Type of plasma protein that maintains proper pressure in blood?
Albumin
Type of plasms protein necessary for blood coagulation?
Clotting Factor
Type of plasma protein that fight infections?
Anti-bodies
Type of plasma protein whose enzymes help maintain the anti-bodies that fight infection?
Complement
Type of formed element that are known as RBC?
Erythrocytes
Type of formed element known as WBC?
Leukocytes
Type of formed element are cell fragment?
Platelets
What type of tissue is blood classified as?
A connective tissue
Why is blood a connective tissue?
Because it consists of cells suspended in an intercellular background material, or matrix.
What is the main difference between regular connective tissue and blood?
Blood cells move freely, are not fixed, move freely in plasma (liquid)
Oxygen from inhaled air diffuses into the blood through?
Thin membrane in the lungs
How do the nutrients to support cells enter the blood stream?
The digestive system or storage reserves
How is the waste expelled from the blood stream?
By kidneys, liver, lungs
Blood carries hormones from the secreting origin to?
Target tissues
What help keeps the PH of blood?
Buffers
The PH of blood is?
7.35-7.45 PH
Blood regulates the amount of fluid in the ?
Tissues
Which substances maintain osmotic pressure?
Mainly proteins
The blood transports heat produced by the?
muscles
Erythrocytes transport?
Oxygen to cells and tissue
Leukocytes protect agains?
Infection
Thrombocytes or Platelets do what?
participate in blood clotting
What is the percentage of plasma in whole blood?
55%
What is the percentage of formed elements in whole blood?
45%
Of the 55% plasma, what percentage are proteins?
8%
Of the 55% plasma, what percentage is water?
91%
Of the 45% of formed elements, what % is leukocytes and platelets?
0.9%
Of the 45% of formed elements, what is % of erythrocytes?
99.1 %
The most abundant protein in plasma?
Albumin
Type of blood proteins, manufactured in the liver?
Albumin, clotting factor
Type of blood protein important in maintaining osmotic pressure?
Albumin
Anti-bodies are made by certain ?
Leukocytes WBC
The remaining ___% of plasma consists of nutrients, electrolytes, and other materials that must be transported?
1%
Next to water what is the most abundant type of substance in plasma?
RBC erythrocytes
Tiny biconcave disks without a nucleus?
RBC
Iron containing protein that binds to oxygen in the blood?
Hemoglobin
Larger than RBC with prominent nucleus?
WBC
Leukocytes can be segmented or ?
granulocyte
Leukocytes can be unsegmented or?
agranulocyte (a=without)
Fragment of large cell or megakaryocyte are description of?
Platelets
The principle carbohydrate found in plasma is?
glucose
All of the blood formed elements are produced in ?
Red bone marrow
The ancestors of all the blood cells are called?
hematopoietic stem cells
These cells have the potential to develop into any of the blood types produced within red marrow?
Hematopoietic stem cells
Anuclear=
without nucleus
What give blood its' red color?
Hemoglobin bound to oxygen
Enzymes that exist to battle pathogens?
Compliment
The watery fluid that remains after a blood clot is removed?
Serum
The most abundant type of white blood cell in whole blood?
Neutrophils
A mature mononcyte?
Macrophage
A lymphocyte that produces antibodies?
Plasma cell
A leukocyte that stains with acidic dyes?
Eosinophils
The largest blood luekocyte?
monocyte
A substance that often accumulates when leukocytes are actively destroying bacteria?
Pus
A plasma protein that is activated to form a blood clot?
fibrinogen
An enzyme that triggers the final clotting mechanism?
Prothrombinase
The process by which cell become clumped when mixed with a specific antiserum?
Agglutination
Contraction of smooth muscles in the blood vessel wall?
Vasoconstriction
Another term for profuse bleeding?
hemorrhage
A protein in blood cells that causes incompatibility reactions?
Antigen
The blood antigen involved in a hemolytic disease of newborn, which results from a blood incompatibility between a mother and fetus?
Rh Factor
The procedure for removing plasma and returning formed elements to the donor?
plasmapheresis
The procedure for removing specific components and returning the remainder of the blood to the donor?
hemopheresis
Blood donated by an individual for use by the same individual?
autologous
The volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood?
Hematocrit
The administration of blood or blood components from one person to another?
transfusion
Plasma can be given to anyone without danger of incompatibility because it lacks?
Red cells
Polymorphs, PMNs and segs are alternate names for?
Neutrophils
Blood clotting occurs in a complex series of steps, the substance that finally forms the clot is?
Fibrin
An Rh incompatibility problem occurs when?
the mother is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive
Intrinsic factor is?
A substance needed for absorption of vitamin B12
Electrophoresis is?
A process by which normal and abnormal types of hemoglobin can be seperated
An immature neutrophil?
Band cell
Blood that contains antibodies against A antigen is termed?
Type B
The conversion of prothrombin requires the element?
Calcium
The gas that is necessary for life and is transported to all parts of the body by the blood is?
Oxygen (O)
The most important function of blood lymphocytes is to engulf disease-producing organisms by the process called?
phagocytosis (phag=eat, cyte=cell, osis=condition of)
The chemical element that characterizes hemoglobin?
Iron (Fe)
What type of blood contains anitbodies to both A and B antigens?
Type O
Substances that induce blood clotting are called?
procoagulants
Twelve substances designated by roman numerals that regulate blood clotting?
Clotting Factors
Visual count of blood cells is completed by using a microscope and a special slide called?
hemocytometer
In the formed elements of blood, how many eythrocytes per microliter of blood?
5 million
In the formed elements of blood, how many leukocytes per microliter of blood?
5,000 to 10,000
In the formed elements of blood, how many platelets per microliter of blood?
150,000 to 450,000
Mature erythrocytes are constantly replaced because?
They cannot divide and they have not nucleus
After leaving the bone marrow to circulate in the blood stream, these RBC are in the body for how many days?
120
RBC are destroyed by which organs?
Liver and spleen
Which hormone is released from the kidneys in response to a decrease in oxygen supply?
Eryhtopoietin (EPO)
Which vitamins are required for the production of DNA?
B (B12)
Which minerals are important in hemoglobin production?
Copper and Iron
Why is Vitamin C important from the small intestines?
For proper absorption of Fe
Red blood cells are modified to carry a maximum amount of hemoglobin, what is the main function of hemoglobin?
Delivers oxygen to all parts of the body via the bloodstream
Luekocytes differ in appearance from erythrocytes due to?
They contain prominent nuclei of varying shapes and sizes, the cells are round
Luekocytes differ in color because they tend to be?
Colorless
How are leukocytes identified?
By their size, shape of nucleus, appearance of granules in the cytoplasm when stained
The most common stain used for blood is called?
Wright Stain
A mixture of dyes that differentiates the various blood cells?
Wright Stain
The granules in the leukocytes are?
Lysosomes and other secretory vesicles
Two cataegories of leukocytes?
Granulocyte and Agranulocyte
This category of leukocytes has a very distinctive, highly segmented nucleus?
Granulocyte
Type of Granulocytes?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Type of granulocyte that is stained with both acidic and basic dyes, and shows lavender granules?
neutrophils
Type of granulocyte that is stained with acidic dyes and have beadlike, bright pink granules?
Eosinophils
Type of granulocyte that is stained with basic dyes and have large, dark blue granules that often obsure the nucleus?
Basophils
The relative percentage of neutrophils in an adult?
54-65%
The main function of neutrophils is?
Phagocytosis
Relatic percentage of Eosinophils in an adult?
1-3%
The main function of eosinophils is?
Allergic reactions; defense against parasites
Relative percentage of basophils in an adult?
Less that 1%
Main function of Basophils?
Allergic reactions: Inflammatory reactions
Type of granulocyte that nuclei are various shapes?
Neutrophils
Before reaching maturity these type of granulocytes become segmented and the nucleus looks like a thick curved band?
Band cells (immature cells of neutrophils)
An increase in the number of band cells also called stab or staff cells may?
Indicate an infection
What types of granulocytes increase in numbers during allergic reactions?
Eosinophils and basophils
Type of leukocytes that lack easily visible granules?
Agranulocytes
Their nuclei are round and curved and are not segmented?
agranulocytes
Types of agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
The second most numerous white cell?
Lymphocytes
Type of agranulocyted that originates in the bone marrow but matures in lymhoid tissue?
Lymphocytes
Type of agranulocyte that circulate in the lymphatic system and are active in immunity?
Lymphocytes
The largest of the wbc?
Monocytes
Type of blood cell that clear the body of foreign material and cellular debris?
Leukocytes
The engulfing of foreign matter is termed?
phagocytosis
A mixture of dead and living bacteria together with dead and living leukocytes forms?
Pus
A collection of pus localized in one area is?
abcess
Mature monocyte?
macrophage
The smallest formed element?
Platelets (thrombocytes)
Are not cells in themselves, but rather fragments constantly released from giant bone marrow cells?
platelets
Giant bone marrow cells?
Megakaryocytes
Formed element that does not have nuclei or DNA but contain enzymes and mitochondria?
platelets
Life span of a platelet?
10 days
Life span of a leukocyte?
6-8 hours
The process that prevents blood loss from the circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by an injury?
Hemostasis
Events in hemostasis?
Contraction, platelet plug, blood clot
Reduces the flow of blood and loss from the defect in the vessel wall Or vasoconstriction?
Contraction
Activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect to form a temporary plug?
Platelet plug
When injured what type of coagulant is activated?
procoagulant
A substance that triggers the final clotting mechanism?
prothrombinase
Calcium is needed to convert blood into?
thrombin
Converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin?
Thrombin
Forms a network of threads that entraps plasma and blood cell to form a clot?
fibrin
Contains all the components of blood EXCEPT the clotting factor?
Serum
What happens when fibrigen converts to fibrin?
Forms a clot
Certain proteins on the surface of the red cells cause incompatibility reactions in types of blood called?
Antigens or agglutinogens
Name the four blood types involving the A and B antigens?
A, B, AB, and O
If only the A antigen is present then the persons type of blood is?
Type A
If only the B antigen is present then the persons type of blood is?
Type B
Blood type that has both A and B antigens?
AB
Blood type that doesn't have any antigens?
O
Type A reacts with which antiserum?
Anti-A
Type A plasma antibodies?
Anti-B
Type A can receive blood from?
Type A and O
Type a Can donated to?
A, AB
Type B reacts with antiserum?
Anti-B
Type B plasma antibodies?
Anti-A
Type B can receive blood from?
B, O
Type B can donate blood to?
B, AB
Type AB reacts to which antiserum?
Anti-A, Anti-B
Type AB plasma antibodies?
None
Type AB can recieve from?
AB, A, B, O
Type AB can donate to?
AB
Type O antigen?
NONE
Type O Antiserum?
NONE
Type O plasma antibodies?
Anti-A, Anti-B
Type O can receive from?
O
Type O can donate to?
O, A, B, AB
Blood serum containing antibodies that can agglutinate and destroy red cells with B antigen?
Anti-B serum
Blood serum containing antibodies that can agglutinate and destroy cells with A antigen?
Anti-A serum
People with type O blood are called?
Universal DONORS
People with type AB blood are called?
Universal RECIPIENTS
Why is Type O blood considered universal donor?
It doesn't contain A or B antigens
Why is Type AB considered universal recipient?
Contains no antibodies to agglutinate red cells
Named for Rhesus monkeys?
Rh Factor
Also known as the D antigen?
Rh Factor
People with the D antigen are considered?
Rh Positive
People without the D antigen are considered?
Rh Negative
HDN=
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
HMD is also called?
erythroblastosis fetalis
The disease when a mothers Rh antibodies pass to the fetus and destroy the fetus's red blood cells?
HMD
HMD is prevented by administering what immune globin?
RhD
To keep blood from clotting at a blood bank, what solution is added?
CPDA-1 (citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine)
Blood may be stored for how many days?
35 days
A machine that spins in a circle at high speed to separate components of a mixture according to density?
Centrifuge
Can be used alone in an emergency to replace blood volume and prevent circulatory failure (shock)?
Plasma
Plasma can be separated by chemical means into?
plasma protein fraction, serum albumin, immune serum, and clotting factors
Cell free isotonic solutions used to maintain blood fluid volume to prevent circulatory shock?
Plasma expanders
A white precipitate which forms of frozen blood plasma bags?
cryoprecipitate
The normal range for hematocrit in adult men is?
42-54%
The normal range for hematocrit in adult women is?
36-46%
A decrease in hemoglobin to below normal levels signifies?
Anemia
Normal and abnormal types of hemoglobin can be separated and measured by what process?
electrophoresis
A ruled slide used to count the cells in a given volume of blood under the microscope?
hemocytometer
An increase in red cell count is termed?
Polycythemia
A decrease in the red cell count is termed?
Anemia
When the white cell count is below 5000 cells per mL?
Leukopenia
When the white cell count exceeds 10,000 cells per mL?
leukocytosis
CBC=
Complete Blood Count
The name given a erythrocyte prior to leaving the marrow and entering the bloodstream?
reticulocytes
A decreased platelet count is termed?
thromocytopenia
What type of blood component contains anti bodies?
Gamma globulin
What are two types of hemoglobin tests?
color test and electrophoresis
Red blood cells live how many days?
120 Days
The circulating platelets can live how many days?
10 days
Also known as agglutinins?
Antibodies (Ab)
Also known as agglutinogens?
Antigens (Ag)
Substance produced in response to a specific antigen?
Antibodies
Foreign substance that produces an immune response?
Antigens
NLMEB=
Greatest to smalles White blood cells=Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils