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42 Cards in this Set

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What are construction classifications based off of?
Type of materials used in the construction, and the fire-resistance rating requirements of certain structural components.
page 65
The five types of build constructions include:
-Type I Fire-resistive construction
-Type II Noncombustible or limited combustible construction
-Type III Ordinary construction
-Type IV Heavy Timber construction
-Type V Wood-frame construction
page 65
Type I construction has construction features:
Fire-resistance, type I, construction has structural members (walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs) made of noncombustible or limited combustible material.
page 65
What is the primary fire hazard of Type I?
Fire-resistive primary fire hazard is the contents of the structure.
page 65
Noncombustible is limited combustible are similar to fire-resistive construction except...
that the degree of fire resistance is lower.
page 66
What is the primary fire hazard of type II?
The primary fire hazard of noncombustible or limited combustible is the contents of the building.
page 66
What is the hazard with roofs of type II?
Structural members can fail as heat rises, with fire extension to the roof can eventually cause the entire roof to come involved and fail.
page 66
Ordinary construction features include...
exterior walls and structural members constructed of noncombustible or limited combustible materials, while interior structural members, including walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs are completely or partially constructed of wood.
page 66
What is the primary fire concern for type III?
The primary fire concern for Ordinary Construction is the fire and smoke spreading through concealed spaces (between the walls, floors and ceiling).
page 66
Heavy timber construction features include, type_...
Type IV, exterior and interior walls and their associated structural members made of noncombustible or limited combustible material. Other interior structural members including beams, columns, arches, floors, and roofs, are made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces.
page 67
What is the primary fire hazard associated with type IV?
Heavy timber primary fire hazard is the massive amount of combustible contents presented by the structural timbers in addition to the contents of the building. The timber will give off tremendous amounts of heat which poses a serious problem when trying to protect exposures.
page 67
Type V construction features include...
Wood-frame construction includes exterior walls, bearing walls, floors, roofs, and supports made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials of smaller dimension than those used for heavy timber.
page 67
What is a fire concern with type V?
Wood-frame construction presents firefighters with fire coming from windows extending to the exterior of the structure.
page 67
load-bearing walls
those that support structural weight.
page 68
nonload-bearing walls
those that do not support structural weight.
page 68
party wall
supports two adjacent structures is a load-bearing wall.
page 68
partition wall
simply divides two area within a structure and is a nonload-bearing wall.
page 68
The reaction of fire on wood depends on what two factors?
The size of the wood and the moisture content
page 68
Water (as an extinguisher) has what effect on wood?
Minimizes damage by stopping the charring process, which would reduce woods strength.
page 68
Masonry
bricks, stones, and concrete (blocks) masonry products.
page 69
Fire walls
often made of masonry to separate two connected structures and prevent the spread of fire from one structure to another.
page 69
cantilever walls
are free standing fire walls commonly found on large churches and shopping centers.
page 69
veneer wall
decorative masonry usually attached to the outside of some type of load-bearing frame structure.
page 69
How does masonry react to the heat and exposure of fire?
Rarely shows signs of loss of integrity. Blocks may crack but still hold their integrity. The mortar which is used between stone and bricks deteriorates.
page 69
Water (as an extinguisher) has what effect on masonry?
Causes rapid cooling, which can cause bricks, blocks, or stone to crack.
page 69
Cast Iron water effect in heat instances is...
basically the same as masonry but with an added effect of shattering when rapidly cooled by water.
page 69
When steel structural members are subjected to heat what happens?
They elongate, and even push out load bearing walls causing collapse.
page 70
At what temp is steel structural members predicted to fail?
1,000 F degrees
page 70
What is water's effect on steel structural members?
Water can cool and reduce the risk of failure.
page 70
Reinforced concrete
Concrete that is internally fortified with steel reinforcement bars or mesh.
page 70
What is heats effect of reinforced concrete?
Loses strength as it causes a failure in the bond between the concrete and the steel
page 70
Gypsum
An inorganic product from which plaster and plasterboards are constructed.
page 71
Where and why is gypsum used?
Is used to commonly provide insulation to steel and wood structural members that are less adapted to high heat situations because it breaks down gradually under fire conditions.
page 71
Fire load
The maximum heat that can be produced if all the combustible materials in a given area burn.
page 72
Heavy fire loading
The presence of large amounts or combustible materials in an area of a building.
page 72
Indicators of building collapse include:
-Cracks or separations in walls, floors, ceilings, and roof structure
-Evidence of existing structural instability
-Loose bricks, blocks, or stones falling from building
-Deteriorated mortar between masonry
-Walls that appear to be leaning
-Structural members that appear to be distorted
-Fires beneath floors that support heavy loads
-Prolonged fire exposure to the structural members
-Unusual creaks and cracking noises
-Structural members pulling away from walls
-Excessive weight of building contents
page 73-74
The collapse zone should be equal to...
one and half times the building height.
page 74
Trusses
lightweight steel trusses and lightweight wood trusses which are becoming very common in houses, apartments, and small commercial buildings and are very weak and due to fail.
page 74-75
Gusset plates
Small metal plates with prongs that penetrate about 3/4 of an inch into the wood.
page 75
Trusses will fail after...
five to ten minutes of fire exposure.
page 75
If one member on a truss fails...
the whole truss fails.
page 76
Truss-containing building exposed to fire conditions for 5 to 10 minutes should...
not be entered, and crews should not go onto the roofs.
page 76