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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
A rapid chemical reaction that gives off energy and products of combustion that are very different in composition from the fuel and oxygen that combined to produce them.
page 33
Physical science
The study of the physical world around us and includes the sciences of chemistry and physics and the laws related to matter and energy.
page 33
The capacity to perform work.
page 34
Describe the two states of energy
Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a moving object.

Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object that can be released in the future.
page 35
The amount of energy delivered over a given period of time.
page 35
The energy transferred from one body to another when the temperatures of the bodies are different, the most common form of energy encountered on earth.
page 36
An indicator of heat and is the measure of the warmth or coldness of an object based on some standard.
page 36
The point-to-point transmission of heat energy, direct contact.
page 37
(like in duck duck goose where there is direct contact)
The transfer of heat energy by the movement of heated liquids or gases.
page 37
The transfer of heat through electromagnetic wave such as light waves, radio waves, or X rays.
page 37
Is anything that occupies space and has mass.
page 38
A measure of how tightly the molecules of a solid substance are packed together.
page 39
Specific gravity
The ratio of the mass of a given volume of a liquid compared with the mass of an equal volume of water. Water equals 1. Less than 1 floats, more than 1 sinks.
page 39
Vapor density
The density of gas or vapor in relation to air, air equaling 1. Less than one will fall, more than 1 will rise.
page 39
Chemical reaction
When matter is transformed from one state to another or a new substance is produced.
page 39
The formation of a chemical bond between oxygen and another element.
page 40
A self-sustaining chemical reaction yielding energy or products that cause further reactions of the same kind.
page 40
A rapid, self-sustaining oxidization process accompanied by the evolution of heat and light of varying intensities.
page 40
List the four components of fire tetrahedron/triangle
-Oxygen (oxidizing agent)
-Self-sustained chemical reaction
page 40
Oxidizing agents
Those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction. Not combustible themselves, but rather they support combustion when combined with a fuel.
page 41
List some common Oxidizers
Bromates, bromine, chlorates, chlorine, fluorine, iodine, nitrates, nitric acid, nitrites, perchlorates, permanganates, peroxides
page 41
Oxygen enriched
When oxygen concentration exceed 21%.
page 42
The material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.
page 42
The chemical decomposition of a substance through the action of heat. Simply stated, as solid fuels are heated, combustible materials are driven from the substance.
page 42
Surface-to-mass ratio
The surface area of the fuel in proportion to the mass.
page 42
What increases vaporization?
page 43
flammable (explosive) range
The range of concentrations of the fuel vapor and air. The flammable range of a fuel is reported using the percent by volume of gas or vapor in air for the lower flammable limit (LFL) and for the upper flammable limit (UFL).
page 44
Lower flammable limit (LFL)
The minimum concentration of fuel vapor and air that supports combustion. Concentration below LFL are said to be too lean to burn.
page 44
Upper flammable limit (UFL)
The concentration above which combustion cannot take place. Concentrations that are above UFL are said to be too rich to burn.
page 44
NFPA Standard 49
Hazardous Chemicals Data
page 44
NFPA Standard 325
Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids
page 44
The energy component of the fire tetrahedron.
page 45
What ways does heat support the combustion reaction when it comes in contact with a fuel?
-Causes the pyrolysis or vaporization of solid and liquid fuels and the production of ignitable vapors or gases
-Provides the energy necessary for ignition
-Causes the continuous production and ignition of fuel vapors or gases so that the combustion reaction can continue
page 45
List the stages of fire:
-Fully developed
page 48
When the four elements of the fire tetrahedron com together and combustion begins.
page 48
Shortly after ignition, a fire plum begins to form above the burning fuel, drawing in air, spreading the fire.
page 49
The transition between the growth and the fully developed fire stage and is not a specific even such as ignition. Prior to flashover, the temperature rapidly increases, additional fuel become involve, pyrolysis is given off by fuel, that gas ignites resulting in full room involvement.
page 49-51
Fully developed
When all combustible material in compartment are involved in fire.
page 51
When fire diminishes due to fuel control, all available fuel is consumed.
page 51
Flameover or rollover
When flames move through or across unburned gases during a fire's progression.
page 53
Thermal layering (or thermal balance, heat stratification)
The tendency of gases to form layers according to temperature. The hotter gases tend to be in the top layers, while cooler gases form the lower layers.
page 53
Disrupting the thermal balance
When water is applied to upper level of the layer, where the temperature is the highest, the rapid conversion to steam can cause the gases to mix rapidly.
page 54
When the compartment has all of the fire tetrahedrons accept for sufficient heat available to actually ignite. Any action allowing air to mix with these hot gases can result in an explosion.
page 54-55
List conditions that indicate a potential for a backdraft:
-Pressurized smoke exiting small openings
-Black smoke becoming dense gray yellow
-Confinement and excessive heat
-Little or no visible flame
-Smoke leaving the building in puffs or at intervals (appearance of breathing)
-Smoke-stained windows
page 55
List the extinguishment theories:
-Reduction of Temperature
-Exclusion of oxygen
-Removal of fuel
-Inhibition of chain reaction
page 57
Class A
Fires involving ordinary combustible materials such as wood cloth paper rubber, and many plastics. Cooling method is the most common and effect extinguishment
page 58
Class B
Fire involving flammable and combustible liquids and gases such as gasoline, oil, lacquer, paint, and alcohol. Oxygen exclusion is the most effective for extinguishment.
page 58
Class C
Fire involving energized electrical equipment. The fastest and most effective extinguishment method is de-energizing (stop the flow of electricity to the building) and fight the fire appropriately upon the fuel involved.
page 58
Class D
Fire involving combustible metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, and zinc. Special extinguishment agents can be used.
page 59-60