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60 Cards in this Set

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Before entering fire area remember to do the following with the nozzle:
-Bleed the air from the line

-Test range

-Set pattern base on attack plans
page 522
The fire should be approach from the ________ side to keep it from spreading throughout the structure.
The fire should be approach from the UNBURNED side to keep it from spreading throughout the structure.
page 523
The proper hose pattern to use when adequate ventilation is supply is...
narrow fog
page 523
What are the advantages with a vented fire and the use of narrow fog pattern?
-Gives smoke, heat, & steam a place to go

-Helps maintain thermal layering
page 523
If proper ventilation can not be apply to structure before attack it is important to use what type of hoseline pattern?
straight stream
page 523
What are the advantages of using straight stream pattern in an unvented fire?
-Avoids upsetting thermal layering as much as a fog stream would due to the push of less air in front of it
page 523
If a door must be open in fire area
position all members of hose team to one side of entrance, stay low, donot use stream until fire is encountered. A stream before fire is encountered will only worrsen visibility.
page 524
Water application is only successful if
the amount of water is sufficent to cool the fuels that are burning.
page 525
direct attack
involves applying water directly to the burning material, the base of the fire for short burst until the fire darkens down.

*Note: Water should not be apply for too long as it will upset the thermal layering!
page 525
indirect attack
used when the fire is too intense to enter for a direct attack. Directing the stream into the superheated atmosphere near the ceiling playing back in forth causing steam conversion, than shut down stream quickly before disturbing thermal layering.

*Note: Donot use when firefighters or victims may be in the area or spread of fire cannot be contained.
page 527
combination attack
uses the steam generating technique of ceiling-level attack combined with direct-level attack by moving in a T Z or O pattern.
page 527
Three main uses for master streams:
1) Direct fire attack

2) Backup handlines that are already attacking the fire from the exterior

3) Exposure protection
page 528
Position master stream so it enters the structure with an ______ angle. Why?
upward angle
This allows it to deflect off the ceiling and break up into small droplets & rain down on the base of the fire.
page 528
A master stream should be supply with ______________ hoselines
A master stream should be supply with two 2 and 1/2" hoselines
page 529
It takes a minimum of ____ firefighters to deploy and supply water to a master stream device.
two
page 529
Flammable liquids flash point...
are those that have flash points less than 100 degrees F.
page 529
Combustible liquids flash point...
are those that have a flash point higher than 100 degrees F.
page 529
hydrocarbons
those that do not mix with water.
page 529
polar solvents
those that mix with water.
page 529
BLEVE
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
page 530
The perferred cooling or extinguishing agent for class B fires is
foam
page 530
What would happen if you plung a stream into burning flammable liquids?
"Plunging" stream into burning flammable liquids increases production of flammable vapors and greatly intense fire intensity.
page 531
natural gas vapor density
is lighter than air so it tends to rise and diffuse in the open.
page 533
natural gas odor
has no odor of its own, but an additive called mercaptan
page 533
natural gas explosion percentage
explosive in concentrations between 5 to 15%
page 533
LPG odor
has no odor of its own, but odor is added
page 534
LPG vapor density
is about one and half times as heavy as air, so it generally seeks lowest point.
page 534
LPG explosion percetage
The gas is explosive between 1.5 to 10%
page 534
The main concerns for firefighters at the scene of leaking gas should be:
evaculation immediatiately around break, downwind, and eliminate ignition source.

Donot extinguish, turn off.
page 534
The firefighter first priority to extinguish class C fires is
stop the flow of electricity to the object
page 535
With broken power lines what distance should be cleared?
an area equal to a span between the poles should be cleared on either side of the break
page 536
utility vault on fire
Supply discharge carbon dioxide or dry chemical and replace cover. A wet blanket or salvage cover should be placed over the cover to help exclude oxygen.
page 537
How may you clear or get off a apparatus that is in contact with electrical wire(s)?
If you must leave the apparatus, personnel should jump clear of the apparatus, touching neither the apparatus nor the ground at the same time.
page 540
Water is only effective againts class D fires when...
large enough quantities to cool the metal beyond its ignition temperature.
page 541
The usual way of control with class D fires is...
to protect exposures and permit the metal to burn itself out.
page 541
RIC
Rapid Intervention Crew

According to NFPA 1500 fire departments must "...provide personnel for rescue of members operating at emergency incidents..."

Two or more fully prepared members at moment of notice.
page 544
Generally, a fire attack of a mutistory building floor will be initiated from...
the floor below the fire floor.
page 545
Generally, staging of extra equipment and personnel in a mutistroy building fire is established...
two floors below the fire floor.
page 545
What are the three most important factors with wildland fire behavior?
Fuel, weather, & topography
page 552
Wildland fuel is divided into three catergories, what are they?
subsurface fuels
surface fuels
and aerial fuels
page 553
Parts of wildland fire:
Origin
The area where the fire started, and the point from which it spreads.
page 554
Parts of wildland fire:
Head
The part of a wildland fire that travels or spreads most rapidly.

Usually the key in controlling the fire is controlling the head and the prevention of a new head.
page 554
Parts of wildland fire:
Finger
The long narrow strips of fire extending from the main fire.
page 554
Parts of wildland fire:
Perimeter
The outer boundary outside the burning or burned area.
page 554
Parts of wildland fire:
Heel or rear
The side opposite of the head.
page 554
Parts of wildland fire:
Flank
The sides of the wildland fire. A shift in wind can change the flank into a head.
page 555
Parts of wildland fire:
Islands
Unburned areas inside the fire perimeter.
page 555
Parts of wildland fire:
Spot fire
Separate area of fire cause by sparks or embers landing outside the main fire area. The must be extinguish fast before they grow to a large fire.
page 555
Parts of wildland fire:
Green
The unburned fuel next to the involved area of fire. It is not a safe area, just simply the opposite of the burned area.
page 555
Parts of wildland fire:
Black
The area where the fire has consumed or "blackened" the fuels. This is a relatively safe area minus the smoke and hot environment.
Page 555
FIRE ORDERS
F
Fight fire aggressively but provide safety first.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
I
Initiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
R
Recognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
E
Ensure instructions are givee and understood.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
O
Obtain current information on fire status.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
R (second)
Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor, and adjoining forces.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
D
Determine safety zones and escape routes.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
E (second)
Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous sitiations.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
R (third)
Retain control at all times.
page 556
FIRE ORDERS
S
Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively.
page 556