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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Advantages of Water
-universal abundance
-ability to absorb heat
-can be conveyed long distances
-easily stored
page 379
List the three means of moving water:
-Direct pumping system
-Gravity system
-Combination system
page 380
Direct pumping system
use one or more pumps that take water from the primary source and discharge it through filtration and treatment process where it is than pumped into the distribution system.
page 380
Gravity system
the water is stored in an elevated storage tank above the distribution system.
page 381
When water flows through pipes,...
its movement causes friction that results in a reduction of pressure.
page 382
dead-end hydrant
a hydrant that only receives water from one direction.
page 382
circulating feed or a looped line
a hydrant that receives water from two or more directions.
page 382
The water distribution grid systems consist of what?
-Primary feeders
-Secondary feeders
-Distributors
page 382-383
Primary feeders
Large pipes (mains), with relatively widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points of the system for local distribution to the smaller mains.
page 382
Secondary feeders
Network of intermediate-sized pipes that reinforce the grid within the various loops of the primary feeder system and aid the concentration of the required fire flow at any point.
page 383
Distributors
Grid arrangement of smaller mains serving individual fire hydrants and blocks of consumers.
page 383
Typical pipe size:
-Feeder
-Secondary
-Distributors
-Feeder 16in
-Secondary 12 in
-Distributors 8 in
page 383
Valves for water system are divided into...
indicating and nonindicating.
page 384
indicating valves
visually show whether the gate or valve is open, closed, or partially closed.
page 384
List the two types of indicating valves and briefly explain
-PIV post indicating valve has a valve stem that operates with a handle and visually posts the words OPEN (white) or SHUT (red).
-OS&Y outside screw and yoke have a yoke on the outside with a threaded stem that controls the valve. If the stem is out the valve is open, if it is inside the valve is closed.
page 384
nonindicating valve
are normally buried or installed in manholes but if properly buried/installed it can be control from aboveground through a valve box.
page 384
High friction loss could be caused by, what?
Valves that are only partially open.
page 385
List the four types of pressure related to fire service:
-Static pressure
-Normal operating pressure
-Residual pressure
-Flow pressure
page 385
Pressure (fire service)
the velocity of water in a conduit (either pipe or hose) of a certain size measure in psi (pounds per square inch) or kPa (kilopascal).
page 385
static pressure
Stored potential energy that is available to force water through pipe, fittings, fire hose and adapters. It is when water is not moving, this is why it is rarely found in a water supply system. In those cases it is defined as the normal pressure existing on a system before a flow hydrant is open.
page 386
Normal operating pressure
The pressure found in a water distribution system during periods of normal consumption.
page 386
Residual pressure
The part of the total available pressure that is not used to overcome friction or gravity while forcing water through pipe, fitting, fire hose, and adapters.
page 386
Flow pressure
The forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening while water is flowing. This is the pressure we get when we test the hydrant with a pitot tube.
page 386
List and define the two types of fire hydrants
Wet barrel and dry barrel

Wet barrel are used in areas where it doesn't freeze, have a valve at each outlet, and holds water to the valves near discharge as it is always filled.

Dry barrel are used in areas where it freezes and the water is kept under a valve that is below the the freezing point. You operate that valve at the top of the hydrant and that releases the water into the hydrant.
page 386 to 387
NFPA Hydrant color code
Light blue
Class AA 1,500 gpm or greater
page 388
NFPA Hydrant color code
Green
Class A 1,000 to 1,499 gpm
page 388
NFPA Hydrant color code
Orange
Class B 500 to 999 gpm
page 388
NFPA Hydrant color code
Red
Class C Less than 500 gpm
page 388
In general, fire hydrants should not be spaced more than ________ apart in high-valve districts.
In general, fire hydrants should not be spaced more than 300 FEET apart in high-valve districts.
page 388
Pitot tube measures
the flow pressure coming from the hydrant.
page 389
drafting
The process of raising water from a static source to supply a pumper.
page 390
When drafting from a natural source what must all suction lines have?
A strainer so it doesn't get clogged or put in rocks, trash, etc. into the pumper or hose.
page 390
Water shuttle
The hauling of water from a supply source to portable tanks from which water may be drawn to fight a fire. Recommend for distances greater than a half mile depending on department.
page 391
NFPA 1901 requires that apparatus on level ground be capable of dumping or filling at rates of at least...
1,000 gpm
page 392-393
With relay pumping the apparatus at the water source should be the one with..
the greatest pumping capacity.
page 393