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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Indian Music influence

America has been influenced by Indian Music since the 1960's

they have a great history of music tradition

Similarities between Western and Indian Music

-Popular danceand film music

-Music forreligion and rituals

-Classical andtraditional music

-Work songs

-Festive musicfor occasions

Indian Classical Music

-Art Music ( Highly developed music that has been researched, recorded, and reported)

~bases on ancient traditions and associated with great artists

~"classical" music based off a musical theoretical system created by Indian Scholars

Indian classical Music and Harmony

~harmony (chord progressions) not valued as part of music however simultaneous sounds played by plucked instruments and vocal line together will create harmony

2 Kinds of Indian Music

1. North-Hindustani Music

2. South-Karnatic Music


the power of music to convey thoughts, feelings, moods, and images

Valued in Indian Music

-Music to nature relationships

-religious relationship

-Stages of time (seasons, life events, time of day)


-Main instrument-Sitar

-Other instrument-Sarod

-Rhythmic Stability-Tabla

-Drone Instrument (Constant repetition, trancelike sound)-Tambura


-Main Instrument-Vina

-Other Instrument-Sarangi (Bowed instrument)

-Rhythmic Stability-Mridangam

-No Drone Instrument-Possible solosinger will provide the drone





the one on the right

the one on the right



Similarities between Hindustani and Karnatic

-Precomposed songs learned from memory-Notation exists but is not commonly used

-Raga-Melodic pattern of organization

-Tala- Rhythmic pattern of organization

~True artistry-Being able to expand and explore all aspects of the Raga and Tala within a given song

~Practice this by studying with a Guru (Master)


-Melodic Aspect of a piece is determined by the raga

-Western Music-Scales

-Sequence of ascending and descending pitches to scale, but conveys more than a scale.

~Melodic Shape rather than Abstract pitch structure

-Convey many different patterns

~Pitch register-High, middle, low


-Communicated the mood and feeling of the piece


-Organizing rhythm or durational aspect

-Dictates the complete pattern or cycle of counts, as well as subdivisions in the cycle

-Example: 16 beats= 4+4+4+4: 14 beats=5+2+3=4 -Two or more Tala patterns make a Phrase

-Drummer learns improv using drum strokes, and rhythmic patterns that subdivide the ongoing pulse of the Tala

-The Drummer will learn patterns that pull AWAY from the Tala

~Creates Tension

- Will then return to the regular pattern to created

Listening to Indian "Art" Music

-Raga performance can be 30 minutes or longer What you will hear

1. Lead instrumentalist-slow rhythmically free, improvised statement of the raga to establish musical theme

2. Second section-Provides repetitive rhythmic intensity in anticipation of the next section

3. Final Section-Establish the Tala and devoted to extend the improvisation and interaction between the lead and percussion

Indian Popular Music

-The Cassette Tape-Main way to spread popular music from film and radio

-India’s Music Industry known as the Cassette Culture

-Has many Western Genres of music Jazz, Rock and Roll


-Music in Indian films mostly produced in Mumbai

-Success-Male star, Director and Music

-Almost all of the films are musicals

-Instrumental Music in Bollywood Films

~100-Piece Orchestras or small synthesizers ~Combine Indian Music with Western Music ~Playback-Singers that record music for the star of the movie in advanced

~Lata Mangeshkar

African Music Influences

-Africa is a country with over 200 languages and even more different cultures

-North Africa-Mediterranean countries

~ Algeria, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia and Egypt

~Influence-Islamic and Arab traditions

-South Africa: Sub-Saharan

~INFLUENCED American Music

~Spirituals, Blues, Jazz, Ragtime, and Gospel

Music in Context

-music is was created for a specific purpose and only performed for that purpose Some music isn't just

~ex. religious, work, dancing, and entertainment

-includes props, costumes, dancing, sculpture, and drama

~increases the level of participation from several people

African Music is...

-outlet for social integreation and shared attitudes

-Enhancessocial activities and is performed of amusements, communicates importantmessages and feelings

-Traditionalmusic is more popular amongst older people

~ Younger peopleabandon tradition for Western influences

Performers for African Music

- performing groups may be organized or spontaneous

-range from 2-3 musicians

-Large drum orchestras numbering at the hundreds

Instruments of African Music

Instruments of African Music Cont.

African Musical Characteristics

-Voice: Limitedrange, disjunct melodic contour (rhythmic interruption with calls)

-Melody andHarmony progressions are not important in TRADITIONAL music

~In folk andpopular music it has more of an influence

Rhythm of African Music

-The Heart of African Music

~more integral than Melody and harmony

-Rhythmic textures are complicated and very complex.

-Produced not only drums but also strings, winds, and voices

African Popular Music

-The urbanization of the cultures were influenced by Western Music

~jazz, rock, soul, African-Latin music (reggae) and Brazilian Samba

-Africans are also creating their own gneres of music

~nationalism, Regionalism

African Genres


-juju-Nigerian popular music

-Afro beat

-Griot MUsic

African Artists

-Miriam Makeba-Popular singer. Spoke and sang out against Apartheid (Racial Segregation of South Africa) Grammy winner in 1966 with Harry Belefonte (Folk Song)

-Fela Kuti-Nigerian Singer. Used songs as political expression for human rights and equality. Afro-Beat

-King Sunny Adé- Popularmusician from Nigeria. Singer, composer, guitarist. “King of Juju”


Study of Music from other cultures and what music is and why it exists in that cultural setting

Training forEthnomusiclolgy



- FolklorePerformancestudies

- Dance

- Gender studies

- Racial Studies

The Beliefs of Ethnomusicologists

-Taking a global approach to music regardless of area, style, origin, or genre

-understand music as a social practice

~viewing music as a human activity that is shaped through cultural context

-Engaging on ethnographic fieldwork

~participating and observing music being studied and relating it to the cultural context

Important People to Ethnomusicology

-MantleHood-Indian Ethnomusicologist. Created the first ethnomusicology program in acollegiate setting.

-BelaBartok-Hungarian Ethnomusicologist. Recorded Folk songs, and had a huge role inpreserving those works.

-Frances Densmore-NativeAmerican Ethnomusicologist-Collected Thousands of recordings of Native AmericanSongs

-Jaap Kunst-Created the Term Ethnomusicology in 1955. Prize namedafter him for excellence in the field


-Set of instruments as well as a genre of music

-Gongs-Forged metal


-Metal Mallet Instruments (Xylophone)

-Can have Winds, Strings, or Singers

Gamelan Orchestras

-Used forrecreation and entertainment

- Provide musicfor ceremonies, weddings, funerals, street music

- 4-30 musicians

- Formalconcerts are rare

- Connection topoetry, drama, or dance

Balinese Gamelans

-Most highlydeveloped and known in the United States

-PerformTraditional as well as new Music

-Not performedfrom notation

- Veryrepetitive

Balinese Gamelans Tuning

-Orchestras useTwo tunings or scales

1. 5-note-Slendro

2. 7-note-Pelog

- Tuning willsound “out of tune” to Western Ears

Indonesian Popular Music

-Diverse,commercial, hit-based, star oriented

-Uses Westerninstruments and other elements of music

- Kroncong-The “old” style. Popular in films through 20th century

~Named forukulele-type instrument that represents patriotism and authentic culture

Indonesian Popular Music Contd.

- Used fordancing, film religion (Islam), protest

-Inspired byWestern pop and rock

- Drum Set,Electric Guitar

- Rhoma Irama-First Dangdut superstar

Music in Eastern Europe

-Greece-GreekOrthodox Church chants

- Mongolia-Pentatonicmodes

-Islamicnations-Various genres of music, Calls to Worship

-Whytraditional music barely exists in these cultures

~UrbanInfluences and the shift to industrialization

~Governmentcontrol of traditional music in the most oppressive regimes

~Changes innational and regional boundaries ~Ethnicpopulation shifts and changing loyalties

Instrumental Music in Eastern Europe

-Very common

- Used as dancemusic, or accompaniment to song

- Instruments

~Bagpipe,double recorder, cimbalom (hammer dulcimer)

~ Buttonaccordion, Fiddle, several types of flutes

Government and Music (Europe)

-Governments try to control the music that is created

-Government approved music may receive funding, and other support

-The opposite for disapproved music

-Export music the Government likes; may not represent the population accurately

European Artists

- Gheorge Zamfir-Romania

- BulgarianRadio Woman’s Choir

-Ivo Pasasov-Bulgarianjazz clarinetist

- Márta Sebestyén- Hungary’s leading folk singer

-Tánchéz-Dance house

~ HungarianTraditional music andHungariangypsy music

Japanese Music Origin

-Very set in old tradition

-however, modern music is influenced by Western Music

-Texture: Band,choir, big band jazz

- ChordProgressions and Harmonies

- Major andMinor tonalities with emphasis on tonic and dominant

- Melodicchanges and use of different timbres

Performance Practice of Japanese Music
-Performed in concert halls, theaters, courtyards of shrines and temples

- When indoors-used of painted scenery that create an illusion of nature and being outside

- Part of theatrical productions

-Music meant to be seen and heard

-Performances in traditional dress

Musical Characteristics of Japanese Music

- Value small-group performances

~ Public performances 1-3 performers

~Hear each part separately

-Manipulates TRADITIONAL material

~Does not explore new material within an already begun song

-Restraint and control is used to communicate the emotion of the song rather than the performers emotions

- Music learned by memory

~Teacher called Sensai

~Notation is vague and needs interpretation by student and sensai

Musical Characteristics of Japanese Music Contd.
-Narrow rangeof dynamics

- Pentatonicscale with ornamentation

- Nonexistent ofincidental harmony

- Regular rhythm

-Variedtimbres, unblended, delicate

- Melody andtimbre are main values

- Little to noimprovisation


-Oldest instrumental music in the WORLD

- Imperial courts in ninth-eleventh century

- Total theater experience

~ Dance, Music, Masks, and Visual effects

-Musical Characteristics


~Blocks of sounds

~ Hichiridi-double-reed, oboe like instrument

~Sho-Mouth organ having 17 small pipes


-Large 13stringed instrument

- Uses slide,scrapes, plucked strings

-Genteel instrument of Japan

- Presence of a Koto in a Japanese home suggests goodbreeding and upbringing



-Descendant ofa bamboo flute

-Used forornaments

-3 Stringedinstrument

-Used for folkmusic

- Plucked


Combination of Koto, Shakuhachi, and Shamisen


-Theater andmusic

- Noh traditionoutside of imperial court

- Noh-Classicalmusic drama that has been performed since the 14th century

- Melodrama

~ Colorfuldancing

~ Onstageensemble called Nagauta

Nagauta and other aspects of performance
-Provides basicvocal and instrumental accompaniment- Developed ownpopularity outside of Kabuki - 12 Musicians ~ 3 drums, Flute, SeveralShamisen Players, and Singers -Gidayu Songs-Narrative songs performed onstage with shamisenaccompaniment- Geza-Offstage ensemble that performs noises, sound effects