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95 Cards in this Set

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As compared with Paleolithic and Neolithic societies, the agriculture of civilizations
changed man's physical environment.
The period of Neolithic Revolutions and river valley civilizations ended when
various civilizations fist established contacts between the regions.
The first truly revolutionary transformation of early human society was
the agricultural revolution.
In most ancient and classical civilizations and societies, priests developed considerable social power and influence because they
interpreted the gods' wishes and placated the dieties.
Which of these is an example of patriarchal society in the classical world?
After marriage, a woman moved to the residence of her husband's family.
Periodic nomadic invasions in the early history of Eurasia
caused disruptions, but facilitated innovations and prompted synthesis.
Unlike Sumer and Egypt, the Indus Valley or Harappan civilization
had a system of writing that has never been translated.
Compared with river valley cultures in Egypt and Mesopotamia, civilization in China
probably developed after civilizations in the Nile Valley and Southwest Asia.
Classical China and the post-classical Muslim world are similar in that unity and cultural identity were provided by
commonalities of the spoken or written language.
In order to counterbalance feudalism and its tendency to decentralize ruling power, and
created strong national armies capable of suppressing aristocratic independence.
Peasants in Zhou China, serfs in Medieval Europe, or slaves in Aryan India
were burdened by obligations to the rulers and local nobles.
Classical differd from river valley civilizations in all of these ways EXCEPT:
classic religions wer largely monotheistic or atheistic.
Historically, pastoral nomads
lived on the grassy plains of the continents, where eedentary agriculture was extremely difficult.
In comparison to women in sedentary societies, women in nomadic, pastoral societies
belonged to paternalistic societies as strong as any sedentary societies.
All of these actions and responses typified contacts between sedentary and nomadic peoples EXCEPT:
acceptance of each other and each other's ways of life.
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, as well as Buddhism
originated as responses to societal problems during times of disruption.
Although they varied greatly in wealth and social status in the classical world,
the commoners, especially the peasants remained the largest group.
Women in most Classical Age societies
al all class levels, were legally subordinated to fathers and husbands.
Rural population pressures in classical societies such as China, India, and Rome
were avoided by infanticide, high death rates, and selling children into slavery.
Despite their material success and increasedd wealth, in China and Rome
merchants often ranked below peasants and had little societal influence.
The major impact of Alexander the Great's conquests was
the spread of Greek culture throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, Southwest Asia, and into India.
In comparison to the Hindus, Persians, and Jews, religiously, the Greeks
never developed a major religion.
Much of what is called classical Greek and Chinese philosophy traces its origins to the
cultural crisis and intellectual uncertainty that followed prolonged periods of war.
Unlike Qin legalist philisophy, Roman imperial law
rested heavily on toleration and local autonomy.
What sentence BEST describes both Roman and Chinese gender relations?
While subordinate to men, Roman women were considerably freer and less oppressed then were their Chinese counterparts.
Far more than classical Greece, India, or China, slavery in Rome
dominatied the labor markets- Rome became dependent on slavery.
With regard to merchants, classical civilizations in Rome, Greece, China, and India
were ambivalent towards merchants despite their vital roles in commerce.
The major difference between Buddhism and Hinduism was
Buddhism denied the need for castes, rites, and sacrifice to achieve nirvana.
Although the Mayas developed similarly to other civilizations, they never
progressed much past Neolithic technologies.
When the Bantu migrated, they
spread agriculture, crops, and iron technologies across much of Africa.
Contacts with China introduced all of these to Japan EXCEPT:
patriarchal and patrilineal family relationships.
All of these happenings must generally occur for a new period in world history to begin EXCEPT:
nomadic peoples must overrun sedentary civilizations.
At the end of the Classical Age
There was a religious upsurge as a result of social and economic problems.
In comparison with the end of classical civilizations in China and India, the collapse of the Roman Empire was
more severe and extensive than elsewhere.
In contrast to Mahayana Buddhism, as Christianity evolved and spread, it
was intolerant of other faiths.
All of these developments characterize the post-classical age EXCEPT the:
Domination of the Atlantic and Mediterranean by Christian Europeans.
The leading civilization during the Post-classical Era (450-1450 C.E.) was
Islam
One of the strengths of Islam that made it a successful universalizing faith similar to Christianity and Buddhism was its
Egalitarianism that transcended previous loyalties, ethnicities, or allegiances.
The pillar of Islam that helped create the first trans-regional civilization was
the pilgrimage by the faithful to Mecca.
Initially, Islam, with reagard to women and gender roles
greatly strengthened the position of women.
Unlike merchants in classial civilizations, Muslim traders
acquired great wealth and were protected and encouraged by Muslim states.
Memeluks
were Turkisn-speaking slave armies used by Muslims.
The Seljuks
settled in the lands of modern Turkey and became the Abbasid's protector.
The impact of the Crusades
Was greater on the Europeans because it brought Europe into contact with Muslim civilizations and their accomplishments.
Contacts between Hindus and Muslims led to
the absorption by the Muslims of many Hindu social practices.
Unlike the Americans, sub-Saharan Africa
was never totally isolated from other civilizations.
Sub-Saharan African societies are similar to Latin American Indiean societies in that both
Are so numerous that it is impossible to generalize about them.
Prior to the 15th century C.E., islam was spread through West and East Africa as well as Southeast Asia by
Mass conversions ordered by the rulers and monarchs.
The slave trade from West Africa ot the Muslim world
preffered males slaves for administration and military occupations.
As had Hammurabis's Code (Mesopotamia), Justinian's Code (Byzantine)
became the basic unified law code for states, which existed after its original creator.
Within the Byzantine state, as had been the case with government in most of the dynasties in China, the chief power and influence was
emperors and their trained bureaucrats.
Unlike monarchs in western Europe, but like the caliphs, the Byzantine emperor
held political but not religous power.
When scholars began to study Greek classics, most early West European intellectuals and scholastics, like their Muslim counterparts
found the Greek notion of reason troubling because it questions faith.
Manorialism in Medieval Europe was characterized by all of these conditions EXCEPT:
Manors and peasants depended on merchants for most necessitites.
European serfs differed from slaves in that
they could not be bought of sold, and owned some of the land they farmed.
As happened in the Fertile Crescent, India, and China, the fall of civilizations in the Americas was often due to
mmigrating nomadic invaders.
Neo-confucianism
emphasized tradition, authority, and harmony at the expense of innovation.
Both foodbinding in China and the harem and veil in Islam
symbolized the increasing subordination of women to men.
Tang military expansion into central Asia.
promoted renewed commercial contacts between China and west Asia.
The only indeigenous aspect of Japanese culture during the Heian era was
Shinto.
The group that most directly challenged Chinese influences in Japan and Vietnam during the Post-Classical era was
aristocrats and loval provincial administrators.
The typical pattern for relations between China and its neighbors during the post-classical period was
for states to acknowledge Chinese superiority, pay tribute, but remain independent.
Although the Mongols were often brutal, they were
tolerant of religious differences and supportive of trade.
Pastoral nomads form the Central Asian steppe who had threatened sedentary civilizations throughout world history included all of these EXCEPT:
Bantu
The greatest long-term demographic impact of the Mongol unification of much of Central Eurasia was the
spread of the Black Death from China to Europe and the Muslim world.
The transformation that most immediatly weakened the power and influence of pastoral nomads over sedentary civilization was due to
newer technologies, especially weapons, used by sedentary civilizations.
Besides the Italian city-states, the geographic region or state in West Europe MOST supportive of change at the end of the post-classical era was
the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)
The major barrier to West European expansion prior to teh 15th century C.E. was
the low level of European technology.
The Ming Chinese naval expeditionsof the early 15th century C.E.
ended because they challenged Confucian values and typical expenditures.
All of these events led to the weakening or end of Medieval West European institutions EXCEPT:
The Ottoman Turk invasion of Western Europe.
A major feature of the early modern globalization of international trade was the
unequal commercial relationships and the dependence of many states on Europe.
The major development between 1450 and 1750 was the rise of
the first truly global world trade network.
Fundamental to the European acquisition of colonies between 1450 and 1750 was
European naval and maritime technologies
All world labor systems during the Early Modern period can be characterized as
largely unfree.
The Columbian exchanges involved all of these global movements EXCEPT:
Indian populations were resettled to the Pacific islands and African lands.
Under the doctrine of mercantilism, Spain and Portugal encouraged their Latin American colonies to
buy manufactured goods only from the mother country.
What event was most directly responsible for the rise of the gunpowder empires in Turkey, Iran, and India and similar states in Tsarist Russia and Ming China?
The Mongol Empire and its khanates collapsed.
The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires possessed all of these shared characteristics EXCEPT:
All ruled predominantly Muslim populations.
With regard to the West Europeans and their institutions and technologies, the Ottomands and Safavids
ignored and looked down upon all things European, which later hurt them.
Which of these statements about women in India during the Mughal Empire is TRUE?
the practice of sati (widow burning) ended.
The Renaissance was largely influenced and financed by
the urban environment and commercial economy.
Renaissance humanism would ahve been most comfortable with the values and ideas of which world belief system?
Hellenism
The fragmentation of Christianity during the Reformations into Catholic and Protestant sects most closely resembles
Sunni-Shia divisions within Islam over political leadershipe of the Muslim community.
West European monarchs, as did the Japanese Tokugawa shoguns, employed all of these methods or groups to win "absolute" control of their states EXCEPT:
Allowing representative assemblies to make and to pass laws.
The main reason European conquerers and navigators were able to sail and continue to explore, and the reason the Ming Chinese fleets in the Indian Ocean failed was
European governments supported and encouraged overseas expeditions, the Ming did not.
European nations aquired thier first colonies in the Americas
following the conquests by military, gold seeking adventureres.
In Africa during the Early Modern period, Europeans
had to negotiate with African kings, who had controlled slave trade.
All of Russia's reforms under Peter the Great were largely attempts to
modernize the state and strengthen the army in order to conquer desired lands.
Modernization and westernization in Russia under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great did not include
liberalizing state policies and tolerating democratic ideas.
In comparison with American slaves, Russian serfs
Could neither be owned nor sold.
The greatest source of social unrest in early modern Russia was
the lack of real reform, especially rights for the serfs.
All of these Iberian traits influenced Spain and Portugal colonial patterns and society in the Americas EXCEPT:
local political and religious autonomy.
The Spanish assimilation of the American peoples and the replacement of Indian by Spanish cultures were facilitated by
the demographicc decline of Indian populations caused by European diseases.
The export of silver from the Americas led to all of these outcomes EXCEPT:
the discouragement of foreign rivals and pirates.
Within the Spanish American Empire, the Roman Catholic Church
supported the state, influenced cultural life, and defended Indian rights.