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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
E. Chadwick
Used medical and sociological studies to argue relation of disease to filth, need for clean water supply and sewers, construction of water and sewage systems initiated in 1848, paralleled in US, France, Germany
L. Pasteur
Bacterial Revolution initiated by L. Pasteur.
Discovery of organisms causing fermentation and spoilage in 1857. Pasteurization circa 1865, vaccines against anthrax 1881, rabies 1885
J. Lister
Connected Pasteur's organisms in air with infections of compound fractures developed "antiseptic principal"
German surgeons extended this to sterilizing everything in operating rooms.
R. Koch
Theory of immunology and many bacteria, including tuberculosis. (research)
Information card
Chemistry: oxygen "discovered" by Joseph Priestly & A. Lavoisier
Periodic table devised by Mendeleyev
Motors by Farady
Light bulb by Edison
Internal combustion engine by Otto & Daimler
Airplane by Wright Brothers
Louisiana Purchase
Doubled U.S. territory (1809)
Early United States
(Progressions 1)
Westward expansion with Appilacians to Mississippi by 1800
Steamboat 1809 Erie Canal 1825
Railroards 1830 more tranportation links
Sewing Machine 1836, changed farming and home... increased industry in northern states.
Early United States
(Progression 2)
Treaty with Britain and Gadsen Purchase from Mexico established boundaries of existing 48 states.

Kansas-Nebraska Act, forced slavery issue, as did immigration increase to free areas
Early United States
(Progression 3)
A. Lincoln elected 1861-65, brought Civil War, victory by the North.

1865- Ended slavery, was normally over 'states rights' and powers of federal vs. state governments... BUT 'de facto' over slavery.
North sought no extension of slavery while south feared eventual constitution prohibition
Homestead Act
160-acre (.25 miles) parcel of government land could be claimed by living on it and improving it over 5 years.
Land Grant
(morill act)
Gave federal lands to states to fund colleges to teach "useful subjects" (engineering, agriculture)
Early United States
(Progression 4)
1870-1914: rapid population growth, westward expansion supported by transportation increase. 1st transcontinental rail line created 1868

Reconstruction failed to address problems of south, left blacks segregated disadvantage. 'Plessy vs. Ferguson' ...'seperate but equal'
Early United States
(Progression 5)
U.S. recongnized as World power after Spanish American War (t. roosevelt pres.)
Panama Canal enabled expansion in Pacific/
Manufacturing and Agriculture helped U.S. be a power
U.S "Melting Pot"
Immigration from Western Europe, then East and South Europe.
14 million 1860-1900
another 14 million 1900-1914
...Ameridians forced onto reservations as ward form government.
Boer War
(South Africa) 1899-1902
Pushed Britain out of "splendid isolation" into alliances with Japan, 1902, and France, 1904
War in Balkans over the European remains in Ottoman Empire... did what?
Set stage for WWI
German Schlieffan Plan
swift, massive invasion of France through Belgium to knock France out of the war, then attack Russia.
1914- Poorly executed Schleiffan Plan stopped by British and French at 1st Battle of Marne race to the sea"
Armistice at Brest-Litovsk
Germany initiated unlimited submarine warfare to cut off Britain, bringing U.S. into war; Russia collapsed in revolution, signed "armistice at Brest-Litovsk" ending eastern front.
Bolsheviks did what?
reorganized military, nationalized farming and manufacturing, instituted reign of terror, gained complete control over Russia 1918-20
Versailles Treaty
negotiated by W. Wilson of U.S., D. Lloyd-George of Britain, G. Clemenceau of France

included highly puntative terms for Germany, attempt to establish self-determination in eastern Europe based on nationalism, formation of League of Nations.

Wilson refused to modify treaty to meet objection tha League of Nations provisions overrode Congressional right to declare war; U.S. Senate defeated ratification; U.S. neither joined League of Nations nor accept defensive alliances.
WWI innovations:
machine gun, long-range artillery, airplane, submarine, poison gas, tank
WWI casualties:
estimated 20,000,000 dead- had major impact on participants, notabaly Britain, where it was widely believed they "lost the brightest and best"
Republic at Ankara
Turkish nationalists under Kemal Ataturk, organized Republic at Ankara

Gained recognition with treaty at Lausanne, extensive modernism, end of religiously structured society.
Balfour Deceleration
That it would be a Jewish homeland opposed by Arabs, despite condition of no displacement. British protectorate under League of Nations, with limited Jewish immigration.
Mohandas Gandhi
Returned to India from South Africa, led non-violence movement to gain independence.
"Long March"
Communists under Mao Zedong, organized soviets in Southern China seeking peasant-based Marxist revolution, Made "Long March" to Shensi Province.
Great Depression
Reduced Japanese trade with major negative impact on economy; solution by military conquest to secure raw materials and markets appealed to army officers and ultra-nationalists who gained political control; initiated conquest of Manchuria, war with China
Weimar Republic
Search for peace and political stability after WWI, badly designed and poorly executed: harsh peace terms handicapped Germany's Weimar Republic; U.S. isolationism hobbled League of Nations.
Dawes Plan
Germany bordered on anarchy, civil war, currency expansion to pay reparations generated ruinous inflation that destroyed economy, economic recovery enabled by "Dawes Plan" financing revised reparations by private U.S. loans, fairly successful and progressing.
Wall Street Crash
Great Depression initiated by "wall street crash" extensive margine purchase of stocks resualted in called loans. Federal reserve tightened money supply; rapid and extensive fall in credit impacted U.S. and Europe, exacerbated and continued by high tariffs on all sides.
President F.D. Roosevelt "New Deal"
To revive U.S. Economy by government spending: construction programs including Works Progress Administation, farm subsides, federal deposite insurance, minimum wage, National Labor Relations Act, social security, attempts to control production; not successful in ending depression, WWII did that
Sought to control basic political machinery, ensured continued control by ruling groups, but did not extend control to all aspects of life.
Poland under Pilsudski, Hungary, Yugoslavia, were examples in 1930s
"radical revolt against liberalism" dictatorships sought to control all aspects of life government, business, labor, press arts, no individual rights, total mass commitment to state.

totalitarianism left and right: left effectively abolished private property, right maintained it. Both versions of totalitarianism sought social unity through propaganda of all types, enforced commitment through terror.
Communist Party, seized power through his position. "revolution in one country"
5-Year Plans
Steel production increased 500% 25,000,000 moved into urban areas, new cities built, major investment at cost of decline in standard of living.
forced consolidation of farms, resisted by many peasants. "kulaks"- any resiting collectivization-- killed or shipped to Siberia for re-education. resulting collapse of agriculture overcome by heavy investment and mechanization- but estimated 10,000,000 dies of of starvation.
What glorified Stalin and Russia?
Party LIne

Constant propoganda through art music, drama, literature, and "newspapers" glorified Stalin and Russia. Education included Communist indoctrination; "party line" enforced in military by political officers in all units; religion prohibited.
Italy; Mussolini
(Dictatorships Fascist Style)
Organized Fascist party, appointed premire distoral powers. ruled by decree, ended press freedom, abolished independent labor unions, but left business, army, landowners in place.
National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP/Nazis)
(Dictatorships Fascist Style)
Reorganized under A. Hitler, became mass movement, using propaganda, mass rallies, with speakers defended bu Schtutztaffle opposition intimidated by Sturmabteilung
Nazi main thesis:
(Dictatorships Fascist Style)
1. Germany betrayed in 1918.
2. socialists and communists continuing the betrayal as agents of international Jewry.
3. Establish a pure Aryan state and race and gain living room so this select group can lead world to new heights.
Enabling Act
Authorized under Germany's "Weimar Constitution" gave Hitler right to rule by decree and claim constitutional legitimacy; Hitler named Reichs-chancellor
How did WWII begin?
With Japans Invasion of China
Winston S. Churchill
Bristish Prime Minister, led Britain agaisnt Germany despite likely defeat and sympathy for negotiated peace when he took office "I have nothin got offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.. what is out policy? to wage war... what is our aim? victory at all costs.
Battle of Britain
German bombing raids on Royal Air Force bases, then English cities.
Battle of Atlantic
German submarine campaign attempted to cut off Britain. 752 German Subs, Won by U.S.- Britain convoy strategy
6,000,000 Jews, 2,000,000 others exterminated in concentration camps. Polands Jewish population, largest in prewar Europe, effectively eliminated
Marshall Plan
U.S. offered aid through "Marshall plan" requirement that participants join European Economic Community unacceptable to Russia, so Stalin refused participation.
Russia; de-Stalinization under Krushchev after death of Stalin. relaxed totalitarianism: forced labor camps reduced; policy of peaceful co-existence implemented. more production of consumer goods. some improvement in Russian life.
Examples of U.S. Civil Rights
Supreme Court "Brown vs. Board of education" ended "separate but equal"
Prohibiting Jim Crow Laws
Civil Rights Act adopted.
"Space Race"
Initiated by Russian satellite, U.S. space prgram pushed forward under Kennedy and Johnson, with landing on moon 1969
F. Castro
Cuban Revolution under Castro. threatened communist expansion in Americas. attempted invasion of Cuba by Anti-Castro forces poorly supported by U.S. at Bay of Pigs a disaster.