Scientific Reforms In The Early 20th Century

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Scientific discoveries both from the United States and Europe, during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, heralded a dramatic break between public health services’ control and improvement of society. It was a moment of contradiction that created unmatched medical advancement that was accompanied by intense imperial force abroad. While these two centuries saw the advancement to infectious disease treatment, reform of individual and household hygiene, and collective health practices, it also used these same advancements as justification to control and reshaping European political and economic influence over the world. The same public health campaigns that helped improve the lives of middle class, also created a society of surveillance for working class people both in the metropoles and abroad. Late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries public health campaigns highlight the complexities of the advancement of science during a moment of global …show more content…
The railroad connected most of India with other heavily populated cities in Asia. The railroad was an underlying mechanism used to control the class and religious castes of India separating the Muslim from the Hindu (Hays 196). Secondly, the piped water supply, built in Calcutta in 1869, was not intentionally built to improve the lives of native Indians, but to protect the European population. Moreover, the outbreak of plague and cholera during this same moment led to civil unrest because public health campaigns against rats conflicted with Hindu beliefs, and vaccinations were fought against due to a collective belief that they were “poison prepared by the government” (199). This imperial control under the guise of modernization and health justice ultimately led to mistrust between the Indian population and British authority. A concept not unique to British

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