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457 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

the mixture of gases surrounding the earth

the layer of atmosphere above the stratosphere to an altitude of around 80km above the surface of the earth


the layer of atmosphere above the troposphere in which temperature does not decrease with altitude


the outermost layer of the earth's atmosphere to around 100km above the surface of the earth where temperature falls with height


the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere


the layer of atmosphere extending around 8-17km above the surface of the earth in which temperature decreases with height


incoming solar radiation from the sun
energy surplus

occurring at the equator and low latitudes, more energy is obtained than necessary due to proximity to sun
energy deficit

occurring at the poles and higher latitudes, less energy is obtained than needed due to the angle at which insolation reaches the earth

a surface's ability to reflect energy, if a surface is white it will reflect more


the height above sea level


the distance in degrees north or south of the equator

what are the gases in the atmosphere held to earth by?

gravitational forces

which layer is most important? why?


the weather happens here

by how much do temperatures generally decrease with each km gained in altitude?

6.5 degrees C
what 2 things does the atmospheric heat budget depend on?

the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing radiation from the planet
general atmospheric heat circulation

the pattern of wind and pressure belts within the atmosphere, the circulation is complex but patterns are present

jet stream

bands of fast moving air that can be hundreds of kilometres in width but have a vertical thickness of only 1,000-2,000m

what are jet streams the result of?

the large temperature gradient between 2 air masses
how fast do jet streams move?

up to 250km/hr -1
lapse rate

the rate at which temperature changes with altitude

name the three different types of lapse rate

- environmental

- dry adiabatic

- saturated adiabatic

Rossby waves

a series of large waves that occur in the westerlies in the mid-latitudes in both hemispheres

how many Rossby waves are typical in the westerlies?

between 4 and 6 and can stretch from polar to tropical latitudes
Hadley cell

form the basis of tropical air circulation and are responsible for seasonal changes in the climate of those regions

inter-tropical convergence zone

area of low pressure between Hadley cells that experiences high levels of insolation, evaporation and condensation

coriolis effect

result of the earths rotation that deflects winds
Ferrell cell

occurring at 30 degrees N/S and 60 degrees N/S and are responsible for the climate types in the mid-latitudes

Polar cell

third cell occurring at 60 degrees N/S and 90 degrees N/S that create high pressure at the poles

trade winds

air moving back towards the equator as part of the Hadley cell affected by the coriolis effect that form the ITCZ when they reach the equator

an oceans own circular pattern of currents produced by masses of water moving from one climatic zone to another

What can the temps rise to in the atmosphere?

draw the diagram to show the structure of the atmosphere
did you do it?
Name the 3 main instruments for measuring weather




to main gases in the atmosphere



what are variable gases in the atmosphere such as water vapour responsible for?
Cloudformation, precipitation, reflects/absorbs incoming radiation, keeps globaltemperatures constant, natural greenhouse effect

pollutants such as SO2 and nitrogen oxide cause _____ _____ in the atmosphere

acid rain

there is a _____ _____ in radiation everywhere except...

net gain

polar latitudes due to albedo

there is a _____ _____ in radiation throughout the atmosphere

net loss

there is a surplus between ____S and _____N due to insolation. The degrees are different due to the...



larger landmasses in the northern hemisphere

name the two processes that take place to prevent tropical overheating

vertical heat transfer

horizontal heat transfer

horizontal heat transfer

heat is transferred away from the tropics towards poles through mechanisms such as wind

vertical heat transfer

atmosphere must not get colder and earth not warmer so heat is transferred through conduction, convection, radiation and transfer of latent heat

winds account for ____% of horizontal heat transfer whilst oceans account for _____%



name the four factors that affect the amount of incoming solar radiation

The solar constant

Distance from the sun

Altitude of the sun in the sky

length of day and night

on a global scale hat is the most important factor determining heat

name the two factors that influence temperature

thickness of atmosphere

angle of overhead sun


short wave radiation emitted by the sun

____% of solar energy is reflected back into space whilst ____% is absorbed by theearth and the atmosphere



transfer of heat by ocean currents affects...

Regulation of temperature extremes

Stabilisation of global climate patterns

cycling of gases

regulation of local temperatures

two types of ocean currents



surface circulation

occurs in top 400m and accounts for 10% of overall circulation in oceans

thermohaline circulation
driven by density and salinity indicators and accounts for 90% of overall circulation

global conveyor belt

Constantlymoving system of deep-ocean circulation driven by temp, salinity and densitythat includes both surface and thermohaline currents

Theglobal conveyor belt circulates the globe every _____ years as a result of twosimultaneous processes which are …


Warm less dense water is carried away from the equator

Cold more dense water is carried away from thepoles
how does ocean circulation affect climate?

Asheat is absorbed by the ocean from insolation some of it evaporates causinghumidity and increase in temperature which results in storms and rain that areblown vast differences by trade winds
surface currents are generally driven by...

winds as they come into contact with the ocean and friction is created

gyres are created due to the ________ _______

coriolis force

surface currents are generally found in...

basins rather than belts

what and where drives the belt?
Coldand salty water sinks in Greenland driving the system and as it reaches theequator warms and rises creating the belt

how does the water become more salty as it moves through the belt?

Asit moves towards the north Atlantic evaporation makes the water more salty aswater is evaporated rather than the salt and so it sinks due to density
describe the general relationship between temperature, altitude and latitude

the higher the altitude the colder it is

the higher the latitude the colder it is

describe a convection cell in the atmosphere

- Long wave radiation heats the ground or ocean

- Short wave radiation is re-radiated and trapped in the atmosphere heating the air

- Air rises as it is warm causing it to expand as pressure decreases

- Air condenses as it cools

- Produces rain and other precipitation and begins global circulation

- Latent heat energy needed to evaporate water is taken up with the rising air and released when water condenses

- Airsinks at the tropics where it is dry and begins to warm up again

when is maximum convection and why?

Earlyafternoon between 1-2pm as the ground has been sufficiently heated whilst lateron clouds begin to form limiting the suns insolation

draw the tri-cellular model
did you do it?

Whatair pressure is needed to create a cyclone environment?

Low pressure

Converging air

Whatair pressure is needed to create an anticyclone environment?

high pressure

diverging air

what is the basis for the global circulation?

all to do with the imbalance of temperatures globally

Foranticyclonic or cyclonic conditions _____ doesn’t matter


Ifthe uni-cellular model was right then wind patterns would be ….. and the UKwoul d have a _______ prevailing wind

simple going straight from poles to equator


Whichway does the Coriolis force deflect in the north?
to the right

Thetrade winds at the equator are affected by the Coriolis effect and so aredeflected _________ -________ in the northern hemisphere
north easterly
the ITCZ is initially driven by the sun, why?

because it overhead at the equator at 90 degrees
Inthe winter, where are the ITCZ and the sun found directly overhead? Specificdate?

tropic of Capricorn

Dec 22

Inthe summer, where are the ITCZ and the sun found directly overhead? Specificdate?

tropic of cancer

June 22

TheITCZ moves _____ in winter and ____in summer



Thetropopause becomes narrower as it moves towards the poles. True or false?


Windsmove from areas of ____ pressure to areas of ____ pressure creating the _________ ______



pressure gradient

steeper pressure gradients are created when..
air changes pressure rapidly over a short distance

jet streams

Currentof fast moving air found in the upper levels of the atmosphere

where are jet streams located?

60and 30 degrees north and south between the circulation cells where thetemperature difference is great

non-geostrophic winds

Ifthe isobars are curved the centrifugal force pushes the winds away from thecentre of a circle so the winds flow parallel to the isobars
dimensions of jet streams

Thousandsof kms long, a few hundreds of kms wide and few kms thick

where are jet streams typically found? (height)


position of the upper jet stream denotes the location of...

Thelocation of the strongest surface temperature contrast

jet streams occur due to variables such as

location of high and low pressure

warm and cold air

seasonal changes

anticylones/high pressure areas are created by the jet stream when..

Windsslow down and converge which forces air out of the jet stream and down onto theearth’s surface
Thereare _____ and ____in the jet stream that are part of creating high and lowpressure



Jetstreams are mainly found in which layer of the atmosphere?


major jet streams are..
high speed winds flowing from west to east
Rossby waves

large scale motions in the atmosphere
Coriolis force

Anapparent movement due to the fact that the earths speed of rotation is slowerat the poles than at the equator
what causes Rossby waves?

Temporaryareas of high pressure block the jet stream and divert its path

areas of low pressure are created by the jet stream when...

Windaccelerates as it goes towards the ridge and air gets sucked up into the jetstream from the surface
CTWM climate

Theseasonal pattern of weather experienced in the mid-latitudes (between 45 and 60degrees) on the western side ofcontinental land masses, cool temperate western climate

frontal rain

Warmair rises over colder air or is undercut by it causing it to rise, cool andcondense creating clouds

relief rain

Whenwarm humid air is forced to rise over an upland area causing it to cool andcondense which leads to heavy rain

convectional rainfall

Earth’ssurface heats the air above it causing it to rise, condense and rain and thencold air moves in to replace the warm air leading to thunderstorms


Low-pressureweather system frequently experienced in the CTWM climate associated withrising air, wind and precipitation

which way do depressions blow in the northern hemisphere?

Low-pressureweather system frequently experienced in the CTWM climate associated withrising air, wind and precipitation


Highpressure weather system with diverging air near the ground
which way do anticylones blow in the northern hemisphere?


air mass

Ablanket of air that originates in a certain area that has the characteristicsassociated with that area

Climaticeffect that causes the climate inland to be different to that on the coasts asit is not regulated or controlled by ocean or winds currents

prevailing winds

Themost common direction from which the wind blows

prevailing wind direction in the UK

north Atlantic drift

GulfStream, a warm ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and travelsnorth east across the Atlantic that helps regulate the climate of the UK
what is each air mass separated by?

Atransition zone or boundary called a front
where are the main source regions for air masses?

Highpressure belts in the sub-tropics and around the poles

why is tropical air unstable but polar air stable?

Becauseit is heated from below whilst polar air is cooled from below

why is maritime track air moist but continental air dry?

Becauseas the air travels over the ocean it picks up moisture and deposits it on land

what is used to classify air masses?

temperature and humidity characteristics

name the 6 major air masses affecting the UK

- Tropical continental

- Polar continental

- Tropical maritime

- Polar maritime

- Returning polar maritime

- Arctic maritime

name the 3 types of front




name the stages in the formation of a depression

- Origin and infancy

- Maturity

- Occlusion

- Death

depressions follow the....and usually move at around _____mph and occur in ______

Zigzag path of the fast jet stream in the upper troposphere


Whyis the western side of the UK warmer in the winter compared to the rest of thecountry?

gulf stream

prevailing winds

four conditions needed for major precipitation to form

Air cooling

Condensation and cloud formation

Accumulation of moisture

Growth of cloud droplets

what is pressure measured in?


isobars are usually drawn at intervals of...

4 millibars
Pressurevalues are corrected to ______ to ensure that ______ doesn’t affect the mapping

Mean Sea Level Pressure MSLP

isobars close together show..

strong winds



- Large area of widely spaced isobars

- Centre of high pressure

- Warm sunny summers

- Cold foggy winter



- Closely spaced isobars

- Centre of low pressure

- Accompanied by fronts

- strong winds and heavy rain



- Elongated extensions of areas of low pressure

- depression weather


- Elongated extensions of areas of high pressure

- anticyclone weather



Areaof slack pressure between two anticyclones and two depressions


cold fronts

- Bold blue lines with triangles on

- Points of triangle indicate direction of wind

- short spells of heavy rain


warm fronts

- Bold red lines with semi-circles on

- Direction of humps show wind direction

- Prolonged heavy rainfall and strong winds


occluded front

- Bold lines with triangles and semi-circles on

- Direction of shapes show direction of wind


warm sector

- Of a depression

- Located behind the warm front and ahead of the cold front

- Mild temperatures

- Overcast and drizzle
plotted weather charts

- Made up of individual station circles

- Each observation takes a graphical format


wind speed and direction

- Single line coming from circle which indicates direction from which wind is blowing

- feathers’ on the end show direction



- Whole feather is 10 knots

- Triangle is 50 knots

- Combinations get it to nearest five

cloud cover

Indicatedby shading of centre of station circle

- Plotted to nearest degree

- Top left hand corner



- top right hand corner


- total of 99 codes for weather

Lowpressure systems frequently experienced in CTWM climate associated with risingair, wind and rain, they blow in an anticlockwise direction

warm front

Leadingedge of depression where warm less dense air rises over the colder air ahead

cold front

Rearedge of the depression where colder dense air pushes against warm air ahead

warm sector

Areaof warm moist air that lies between the two fronts


where the cold front catches up to the warm front and undercuts it, lifting it so it no longer touches the ground


Windchanges direction from south to southwest to west to northwest experienced insouthern UK


Windchanges direction from southeast to east to northeast to east experienced innorthern UK

Airmasses can be modified and are made unstable when heated from below


Airmasses can be modified and are made stable hen cooled from below

synoptic chart

Chartshowing atmospheric conditions of an area at a particular time showingconditions such as weather, temperature and pressure

pressure gradient

Differencein pressure between areas of high and low that controls the speed of wind

pressure gradient is directly proportional to the...

speed of wind
where do depressions affecting the UK originate?

NorthAtlantic where the polar maritime and tropical maritime meet

temp differences between the polar and equatorial climates is one of the...

Oneof the driving forces that creates depressions
where are most weather systems found?
on the polar front
is the temperature gradient stable of unstable?

weather systems are a bit like waves. when the wave breaks...

Thisis an effective way of distributing global temperatures

draw the diagram showing the wave breaking system
did you do it?

atmospheric pressure

Theweight of the column of air above us to the top of the atmosphere

Ina depression the _____ of air is greater than the _____ of air



Strongerpressure gradients lead to weaker winds. True or false?


what would make depressions fade quickly?

Ifthere wasn’t an input of moist air into the system

first sign of an emerging weather system?

Aband of cloud at the warm conveyor belt

signs of developing weather system?

Anemerging cloud head associated with the cold front

Whatshows that a depression is developing into an occluded front?

the hook of the cloud appears

when does the depression decay?

When the warm conveyor belt air ceases
describe the mid-latitude depressiom across the UK

- ahead of the depression in the cold sector

- warm front passes overhead

- in the warm sector

- cold front passes overhead

- behind the cold front

ahead of the depression in the cold front

- high cirrus clouds form

- temperatures rise

- pressure falls steadily

warm front passes overhead

- drizzle then rain

- amount of cloud increases

- continuous rain as pressure falls

in the warm sector

- pressure stabilises

- amount of clouds decrease

- precipitation stops

- slight rise in pressure

- temperatures fall slightly

cold front passes overhead

- large cumulonimbus clouds

- heavy rain with possible thunder

- pressure rises

- temperatures drop

behind the cold front

- heavy rain stops

- pressure rises

- fince and cool with some showers

in what year did the Great Storm hit the UK?

what month did the Great Storm of 1987 hit?

days before what was predicted or known about the Great Storm?

- not much to suggest what was about to happen

- severe winds were expected

- due to pass south of the country

what happened on the 15th of October in regards to the Great Storm?

- light winds felt in UK

- depression forming over Bay of Biscay

where is the Bay of Biscay?

the bay between France and Spain
what was unusual about the depresson forming over the Bay of Biscay that led to the Great Storm?

it formed to the south of the UK rather than developing over the Atalntic and approaching from the west as most autumnal storms do
by 12:00 noon on the 15th of October where was the depression and what was its pressure?

centred near 46 degrees N 9 degrees W


by midnight on the 15th of October where was the depression and what was its pressure?

centred over the western English Channel


what direction did the depression continue to move? what did it bring? example?

north eastwards

high temperatures as the warm front passed over

some areas experienced a 6degree increase oer 5 hours

what caused the depression in the Bay of Biscay?


- especially warm tropical air met particularly cold polar air forcing the warm air to rise creating an area of low pressure that was accentuated by the big difference in temperature

- pressure at the centre of the depression rose rapidly due to ascending air creating huge pressure difference

- remnants of Hurricane Floyd which left energy behind in the upper atmosphere increasign thermal contrast

sting jet

distinct and violent jet of cold dry air

at what height does the jet stream start?

3-4 km above the surface
how does the sting jet work?

- shortly after a cold front 'fractures' the sting jet reaches the ground near the break

- most damaging winds are here

- sting jet enlarges over a few hours

- cold jet eventually wraps aroud the cold centre and catches up with the sting jet

what speeds can wind reach as part of a sting jet?


were warnings put out before the 1987 Great Storm? what were they?


warnings given to military and London Fire Brigade for example

public recieved warnings for heavy rain

why weren't the public warnings given out good for the 1987 Great Storm?

they warned of heavy rains not stong or severe winds
strongest gust felt in UK during 1987 Storm? where? what did other inland locations experience?

100 knots over Sussex coast

80 knots

which other two countries were affected by the Great Storm of 1987?

northern France


impacts on UK of Great Storm

- 18 killed

- 15 million trees blown down

- buildings damaged

- ships or boats blown onland

- Shanklin Pier on south-east coast of Isle of Whight was shattered into 3 pieces by waves

- National Grid sustained damage

why were the trees blown down an issue?

- they went on to roads and raliways

- took down electricity and telephone lines leaving thousands without power for 24 hours or longer

how many calls did the Fire Brigade recieve in 24hours during the Great Storm?
the Great Storm cost the insurance industry how much?

$2 billion making second most expensive storm

examples of ships or boats affected by the Great Storm?

- one ship blown over at Dover

- channel ferry blown onshore near Folkestone

impacts on France of Great Storm of 1987?

- 1.79 million homes left without electricity and water

- quater of Brittany's forest destroyed

- total damage cost estimated at 23billion French Francs

responses to Great Storm


- money and effort into clean up

- gale warnings given throughout the storm

- severe weather warnigns for emergency services

- people started to claim for damage afterwards

responses to Great Storm


- observational coverage improved in for west and south of UK by increasing quality and quantity of observations

- resolution of computer models has gone from 150km to 25km globally

- temperatures, humidities an wind speeds are now available at a variety of heights for use by the MET office

- increases availability of information

- National Severe Weather Warning system established by government allowing information to be given to police and emergency services at a county level

what dates did the Cumbria storm hit?

18th-24th November

places that were flooded in Cumbria 2009 storm?





what was the cause of the weather that caused the 2009 Cumbria storm?

warm and dry conditions experienced at the start of October led to rainfall and high winds that were emphasised by depressions crossing from the Atlantic that meant soils were saturated and river levels were pushed higher than average
what was spotted on 16th November 2009 as part of the Cumbria storm?

a large depression with a long trailing cold front

what did the large depression mean for Cumbria in 2009?

the long trailing cold front showed the boundary between the tropical maritime air and the polar maritime air and depression waves were noticed along the cold front that brought heavy rainfall

impacts of the Cumbria 2009 storm?

- 1794 residential properties were flooded

- 445 commercial properties were flooded

- 80% of Cockermouth businesses were flooded

- 1-1.5m of floodwater in Cockermouth

- 8 bridges closed

- PC Bill Barker died

- 110 farmers suffered severe consequences

- schools closed temporarily

responses in Cumbria 2009 storm?

- army built temporary bridge in Workington

- temporary railway stations

- Cumbria Flood Recovery Fund reached £1 million in 10 days

- flood defences put up around the town

- river dredging


large mass of subsiding air that causes high pressure at the surface leading to hot sunny dry days in summer and cold crisp sharp days in winter

which way do the winds blow in an anticyclone?


dew point

the temperature at which condensation occurs and dew is formed

radiation fog

fog associated with anticyclones in the winter caused by rapid heat loss at night, can develop into smog in industrial areas
advection fog
forms when a mass of relatively warm air moves horizontally across a cooler surface where it is cooled to its dew point and condensation occurs
temperature inversion

when air at altitude is marginally warmer than air at lower levels causing pollutants to be trapped

blocking anticyclone

high pressure systems that persist for days as they are stable and block out any depressions

frets are haars

advection fog that is found around coasts ad over the sea in summer that evaporates as it moves inland
how are anticyclonic ad anticyclones different?
the first refers to high pressure systems of belts on a larger scale such as globally whereas the other refers to weather systems
what can blocking anticyclones result in?

sustained weather conditions such as heat waves or big freezes
anticyclones tend to be ______ than depressions and can be ______ of miles across



diagram of how anticyclones form in relation to polar jet stream?

anticyclone weather in winter

- temperatures are lower than average

- sunny but cool days with heights of 6 degrees

- long cold nights

- frost and fog on valley floors

- radiation fog

- trapped pollutants

why are there cold days in winter during an anticyclone?

- short hours of daylight

- weak winter sun

- long angle of incidence so insolation is low

why is there frost in winter during an anticyclone?

clear skies allow heat loss from ground at night which leads to ice when moisture comes into contact with it
why is there fog in winter during an anticyclone?

- radiation fog

- under the clear night skies as moist atmosphere is cooled through radiation of heat from the ground that leads to condensation as air is cooled to dew point

summer weather under anticyclones

- temperatures above average

- strong sunshine

- clear cloudless skies

- heat waves

- hot days of over 23 degrees

- warm night may not fall below 15 degrees

- advection fog

- thunderstorms

why are there hot days in summer during an anticyclone?

- long hours of daylight

- cloudless skies

- sun at high angle so greater insolation

when dates did the July 2013 heatwave occur?

how did the July 2013 heatwave end?
with heavy thunderstorms on 23rd July which led to flooding and the lightning to power cuts and fires

what caused the July 2013 heatwave?

high pressure in first 2/3rds of July
the July 2013 heatwave was the .... since ....

warmest driest and sunniest


despite being warm, July 2013 heatwave wasn't a record breaker with...


hours of sunshine:

mean temp:

189mm of rain


15.2 degrees

highest temperature experienced during 2013 heatwave

34.1 degrees at Heathrow

how many additional deaths in the UK were caused by the 2013 heat wave?

when did the June 2003 heatwave take place?
June - mid-August
what caused the June 2003 heat wave?

huge blocking anticyclone anchored over western Europe
the death toll from the 2003 heatwave had the highest death toll from a natural hazard in 50 years, what was it?

estimated 300,000 deaths

impacts of the June 2003 heatwave

- wheat production fell by 21% in France

- Alpine Glaciers were down by 10%

- France's energy exports fell by over half as nuclear reactors had to be switched off

- more than 250,000 forest fires in 8 countries

NHS key messages for the public in heatwaves

- stay out of the heat from 11-3

- cool yourself down

- keep environment cool

- look out for others especially old, young and sick

what's the aim of the NHS's heatwave plan?

make the public aware of the dangers of the heat
effectiveness of NHS heatwave plan

excess deaths from heat dropped after the pan was put in place

2,000 in 2003

300 in 2009


the seasonal reversal of pressure and wind direction commonly associated with heavy rainfall, experience when winds blow in from the ocean in southeast Asia during May-October


when the lower air in the atmosphere is heated from below by the ground causing it to expand and rise which in turn leads to instability within the atmosphere and the formation of cumulonimbus clouds
orographic enhancement

moist air is forced over mountains which causes it to condense which leads to rainfall experienced in monsoons, the Western Ghats for example

inter tropical convergence zone

occurs along a line where the northeast trade winds blowing away from the sub-tropical high pressure cell in the N hemisphere meet the south east trade winds blowing in a similar way from a sub-tropical high in the S hemisphere and is a major influence on the monsoon climate and the role of subtropical anticyclones

subtropical high pressure (anticyclones)

as air moves towards the subtropics as part of the global circulation of air, it descends over the oceans and creates semi-permanent circulation features which result in sunny skies and dry weather due to the air warming and drying as it descends

NE monsoon
period of time from October to December that sees the major period of rainfall activity over the south peninsula of India, particularly in the east, as the ITCZ moves south creating low pressure over oceans
SW monsoon

period of time from July to September where Indian sub-continent warms up as the ITCZ moves north causing low pressure overhead which results in moist which from the ocean moving inland where it condenses causing the rain of the monsoon
the frequency of storms is increased on the __________ side of oceans because .....


the tendency for air to be lifted by convergence is greater there

ITCZ marks an area of ...

low pressure

land mass is heated and cooled quicker than oceans, true or false?


ITCZ moves _____ in ______ to a high of ____ degrees over India and ______ in ______






what is a monsoon?
the seasonal change in the direction of the prevailing or strongest wind evident in the area
where is a monsoon climate found?

south/central America

most of the tropics

southeast Asia

south Asia

central Africa


characteristics of the monsoon climate

- mean temperature of above 18 degrees each month

- more than 1000mm of rainfall each year

- small variation in temperature

- driest month after the winter solstice

- can experience less than 60mm of rain in driest month

how is the monsoon climate caused?

- as the ITCZ moves north and south during the year, the point of maximum insolation changes

- in summer as the ITCZ moves north over India, the ground is heated causing pressure differences between land and ocean

- this leads to south-westerly winds being created which blow moist air onto land as the air goes from high pressure on the oceans to low pressure on the land

- as the moist air reaches the land, it encounters mountains, is forced to rise, condense leading to rain and thunderstorms

- in the winter, this process is reversed as the winds blow from a north-westerly direction causing dry air to be blown onto the oceans

how do sub-tropical anticyclones and monsoon climate link?

as the winds move away from the land in the winter monsoon, an area of sub-tropical high pressure/anticyclone is created

as winds move onland during summer monsoon, an area of sub-tropical high pressure/anticyclone is created over the ocean

why is the wettest place on earth in eastern India?

the mountains in south India split the monsoon rains to travel up the western sides and eastern sides of the country meaning that the eastern side has a longer sea track over the Bay of Bengal so more moisture is available to be deposited and the Himalayas
why is it drier behind the Himalayas?

the rainshadow effect
which part of India experiences the longest monsoon? why?

the south

because the monsoon both travels inland through the south and retreats that way also

why does the south of India experience two peak rainfalls during monsoon season?
because the rains travel north accounting for one and then the retreat accounts for another

tropical cyclone
slow moving systems of extreme low pressure that form over very warm tropical oceans

when are tropical cyclones most common?


other names for tropical cyclones?



where are tropical storms found?

in the trade wind belt

in what direction do tropical cyclones travel and how do they move?

travel westwards on unpredictable courses and once they make landfall they move towards the poles

the area in the centre of the cyclone that has a diameter of around 30-50km
conditions in the eye of a cyclone

light winds

high temperatures

clear skies

subsiding air

when does the eye develop?

when the storm is in the mature stage
latent heat

heat required to turn liquid into a vapour and is transferred to the rising air as a tropical cyclone develops and is released through the condensation and subsequent heavy rainfall as it develops further driving the storm as a system

storm surge

large rises in sea level caused by the low pressure and high winds of a storm, water rushes inland and causes extensive flooding in low lying areas of the coast
Saffir-Simpson Scale

scale of five levels based upon central pressure, wind speed, storm surge and damage potential used to measure tropical revolving storms

Federal Emergency Management Agency, an organisation in the USA that coordinates all the emergency work during a disaster such as a hurricane
formation of a tropical cyclone

- as the ITCZ moves north in summer it heats the ocean to great depths so the air above it is warmed also causing convergence, uplift and low pressure/high winds

- if a constant supply of heat and moisture is maintained then it develops from a depression into a tropical cyclone

- as winds sweep over the ocean, evaporation is increased and latent heat is transferred to the rising air

- moist air then rises and condenses into clouds and heavy rainfall which releases latent heat drives the storm

- in the mature stage an eye develops and the descending air increases instability by warming and intensity

- once a storm reaches land it declines rapidly as moisture and heat are lost

average lifespan of a tropical storm

7-14 days

in what ways was Katrina a man made disaster?


- levees built to withstand a category 1-3 storm

- calls to fix levees went unnoticed and ignored

- Mississippi River Gulf outlet built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1968 provided a 76 mile long and 200m wide inlet for the storm surge

- levees and flood walls were built with a 1.3 safety factor which is way lower than todays standard

- bad engineering meant the flood walls were breached

- in 2004 Army Corps asked for $22.5 million to put towards storm protection in NO but it was slashed to $3.0 million by Bush in 2005

in what ways was Katrina a man made disaster?


- failure by politicians to fix the decades long assault on Louisiana coast wetlands that they had pledged to do

- Army Corps water projects either reduced silt content or cut through marshlands directly

- Obama pledged a $19 million fund to restore coast but it was never funded

- oil and gas extraction increased subsidence

quote from Obama about Katrina and man made disaster

what started out as a natural disaster became a man-made disaster - a failure of government to look out for its own citizens

what percentage of NO lies below sea level?


demographic indicators in NO


- 2/3rds of people are black

- 1/3rd live below the poverty line

name of hurricane in the simulation before Katrina


what was learned from the hurricane Pam simulation?

- NO would face dire consequences

- 300,000 would have to be rescued as they couldn't leave themselves

- almost half had no cars so transport would have to be provided

- rescuing 30,000 people a day would take 10 days but 30,000 is ideal

- FEMA promised to provide resources after the disaster

- tent cities were suggested

how many hours before Katrina did FEMA have access to everything they could have needed?

48 hours
was an evacuation ordered in New Orleans?


by the Mayor but it was last minute

what time did Katrina hit NO?

how powerful was Katrina?

10x that of an atomic bomb

how many people turned up at the super dome in Katrina? for how many people had FEMA planned for?



when was a public health emergency declared in NO as part of Katrina?

aug 31st

conditions in the aftermath of Katrina were similar to what?

a third world country as people had no food or water

death toll for Katrina

aftermath of Katrina

- city descended into chaos as people started to loot

- military was called in

- people took things into their won hands

- people continued to show up at the dome but there were still no provisions

- more helicopters in NO than in Iraq in 72 hours

- forced evacuation

for how long was relief waiting on the edge of NO
3 days

on what date did the head of FEMA resign?

September 10th
in what year did Katrina occur?

August 2005


25th August

- reached hurricane strength

- predicated track goes over one of most densely populated areas on Gulf coast

- intensified over warm waters of Gulf of Mexico going from category 3 to 5


26th August

- very warms waters of Loop Current reduce central pressure and raise wind speed


27th - 28th August

- strength escalated from 3-5 in one day

- reached category 5 at 1:00pm on 28th

- mayor ordered evacuation


29th August

- category 3 by the time it reaches Mississippi/Louisiana border

- winds of 280km/hr

- central pressure of 902mb

- storm surge of 3 - 8.2m

- torrential rain with peaks of 380mm

- artificially enhanced levees break

- flood walls breached


30th August and onwards

- local government response is inadequate

- FEMA supply one fifth of 700,000 requested trailers

- FEMA pays for temporary hotel costs of around 12,000 people

- government criticised

factors that made Cyclone Nargis worse

- southern coast line of Irrawaddy Delta in low lying

- most of delta is just above sea level

- since 1962 the country has been run by military junta with limited communication with the outside world


29th April

- storm veers north-eastwards and becomes stronger


1st May

- cyclone rapidly intensifies as it heads east due to presence of an upper level trough that reduces pressure


2nd May

- becomes category 4

- winds of 215km/hr

- makes landfall at peak strength on the south east coast of Burma

- 3.5m high storm surge

- roads were flooded or washed away

- 42% of food stacks were destroyed

- winds of 130 km/hr now



- refusal to accept scale of problem by government

- aid agencies refused entry

- lack of information and a state of confusion

- 75% of hospitals damaged

- diarrhoea, dysentery and skin infections broke out

- pledges of foreign aid build up

what temperatures do oceans need to be above for hurricanes to form?

27 degrees
when did Haiyan hit the Philippines?

8th November 2013
what was Haiyan classified as?

category 4-5

a super typhoon

was Haiyan the strongest typhoon at landfall?


why was Haiyan so strong?

- it had ideal conditions

- system was very compact and intense

- moved unusually quickly meaning cold water that weakens a typhoon was upturned and the eyewall was not replaced so wind speed was maintained

- configuration of islands steered storm straight at Tacloban

- shallow water forced surge higher

how many landfalls did Haiyan make?


started with Guiuan in Samar

what strength was Haiyan at when it made landfall?

category 5
how high was Haiyan's storm surge?

preparation for Haiyan in the Philippines

- low level Public Storm Warning was issued on November 6th which was raised to highest level within 24hrs

- as it made landfall, the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was initiated so relief agencies could have access to satellite images to help recovery

- military deployed planes and helicopter in advance to expected worst hit-areas

- community buildings are storm shelters

- whole island evacuations took place

- Purok system in which community members agree to deposit money into a community fund to be used post-disaster rather than wait on aid agencies

impact of Haiyan

- worst hit region was Eastern Visayas with flooding upto 1km inland

- death toll of 6021

- all buildings not made of concrete were destroyed

- no clean water, food or electricity

- storm surge destroyed terminal building at Tacloban

- fishing industry badly affected with 95% of boats/equipment being destroyed in some areas

relief in Haiyan

- survivors searched settlements for bodies

- government response was slow

- roads were covered in debris so aid distribution was slowed

- UK and USA sent diggers, land rovers, heavy lifting gear and helicopters

- European Commission released $4m in emergency funds


the reflectivity of a surface, the ratio between the amount of incoming insolation and the amount of energy reflected back into the atmosphere
which type of surfaces and area have a higher albedo?

light surfaces

rural areas


areas of small-scale variation in temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation that occur in areas such as mountains, coastal and forests
photochemical smog

associated with high pressure weather systems, exhaust fumes and volatile organic compounds become trapped by temperature inversions and react with the sunlight to form the yellowy-brown smog found in cities

temperature inversions

atmospheric conditions in which temperature increases with height rather than decreasing creating stable conditions that trap pollutants as they can't rise
urban heat island UHI

zone around and around an urban area which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas

convectional rainfall

the earth's surface heats the air above it causing it to rise, the water vapour to condense and then rainfall happens as cold air moves into replace the warm air which leads to thunderstorms
condensation or hygroscopic nuclei

water attracting particles produced by industrial processes and as water gathers around them, smog and fog form and hours of sunshine are reduced

particulate matter

the solid matter in the urban atmosphere which derives from power stations and vehicle exhausts and other sources such as cement dust, ash, coal dust and pollen

Clean Air Act

in the 1950s the UK put this in place and saw smoke production and particulate emissions dramatically reduce and the number of foggy days declined also

Venturi effect

pressure within the gap between two buildings that causes the wind to pick up speed and reach high velocities

why do cities tend to be warmer than rural areas?

- building materials absorb and release heat

- industries burn fuel and release heat

- air pollution traps radiation

- little water means more heat for atmosphere

example of an area that experiences UHI? minimum temperatures?


in mid-may the centre can reach 11C whilst the outskirts reach 5C
draw an urban heat island profile

studies in which USA cities have found that urban-induced rainfall and thunderstorms are mainly the result of the UHI?





benefit of UHI? researchers opinion about this?

in wintertime, energy can be saved as it is relatively warmer

negatives in summer outweigh this positive

UHI mitigation strategies

- increased reflectivity on surfaces

- painting buildings

- white membrane over building materials

- white topping pavements

- green roofs

- planting trees strategically e.g. in front of windows or on the east and west of buildings

causes of the UHI

- replacement of natural surfaces through urbanisation

- urban canyons inhibit heat escape

- production of waste heat

impacts of the UHI

- 1-2C higher in winter

- if it continues in the future the rural to urban thermal ratio may double

- increase in overall energy consumption

- heat related illness like heat stroke and exhaustion

- aggressive behaviour and murder rates increase

- increase in thunderstorms as cold rural air converges on urban areas so warm air rises and condenses

- reduced snowfall

- flowers bloom one month earlier

- worse air and water quality

case study of UHI mitigation


- installed a green roof on the city hall that includes 20,000 plants, shrubs and trees

- expected to save $3,600 annually

- designed to test effectiveness of different types of native and non-native vegetation, the success rates of different rooftop garden systems and reduction in surface runoff

- raised awareness

urban canyon
urban artefact similar to natural canyon created by streets cutting through dense blocks of structures especially skyscrapers
examples of urban canyons

Magnificent Mile in Chicago

Canyon of Heroes in Manhattan

there is a __________ within an urban canyon

aspect ratio

ratio between the average height of buildings to width of the street in an urban canyon
what does the aspect ratio affect?
wind speed

sky view factor

ranges from zero to one and calculates the amount of sky visible when viewed from ground up in an urban canyon

how does the sky view factor affect temperature?

the more sky that is visible the quicker the heat can escape and so the area cools quicker

canyons have impacts on various local conditions including...

- radio reception particularly GPS

- wind speed/venture effect

- temperature is elevated by 2-4C

- decreased air quality due to stagnant air

case study of air pollution



- photochemical smog

- 90% of journeys are made by car

- 160km driven a day

- frequent sunshine allows chemical reaction

- light winds inhibit diffusion

- basin site in the valley of the San Gabriel mountains inhibit lateral diffusion

- highest level of ozone nationwide

- more than 90% of Californians live with unhealthful air

- caused by car emissions and manufacturing plants for example

case study of air pollution


- emission control on vehicle exhausts so that the 10 million cars today produce less pollution than the 2 million in the 1950's

- use of electric vehicles planned

- public transport schemes like new rail networks and car pooling

- failing to keep up with development though

National Air Quality Strategy

UK law that sets out air quality objectives and standards for reducing levels of health threatening pollutants

case study for pollution reduction policies



- expansion of middle class means more cars on the road

- lack of strict controls on local industry

- population growth leads to construction sites

- near to other polluted cites like Tianjin

- mountains surround the city from the SW to the NE

case study for pollution reduction policies



- airports are sometimes shut down in Jan 2012 150 flights were cancelled

- premature births

- respiratory ailments

- Beijing throat where pollution irritates noses and throats of citizens

- 300,000 deaths a year

case study for pollution reduction policies



- plans are in place to shut all coal fired power stations by 2017

- invested £75.8bn to improve air quality by 2017

- plant 133,000 hectares of new forests

- vehicles labelled yellow, which fail to meet Euro emissions standards, or green which do, and yellow face fines in certain zones

precipitation is ___% more likely in urban areas because...


there is more convection from the heat and so more convectional rainfall

reasons for precipitation in urban areas

- urban heat island generates heat

- presence of high rise buildings

- large amounts of water vapour produced from industrial sources and power stations leads to hygroscopic nuclei effect

reasons for precipitation in urban areas

UHI generates heat

concrete buildings absorb heat and re-emit it causing warming of the air so it rises and condenses

reasons for precipitation in urban areas

high rise buildings

presence of skyscrapers and other sized buildings induces air turbulence and increase vertical movement of air

reasons for precipitation in urban areas

hygroscopic nuclei effect

without condensation nuclei all the particles wouldn't clump together and rainfall wouldn't occur in this way

there is a ____% greater chance of thunderstorms in urban areas because....


of the higher temperatures

why is fog more common in urban areas?

higher concentration of condensation nuclei in urban areas because of the higher levels of industrialisation that produce pollution and dust
when does fog usually form in urban areas?

at night under high pressure conditions

what condition emphasises fog formation?

anticyclonic conditions because of their stable nature
types of fog that occur in urban areas?

- advection

- radiation

- photochemical

- urban

why is wind speed generally slower in urban areas?

friction experienced from buildings
when is wind fastest in urban areas?

when not obstructed such as in urban canyons or altitude
what is created by the differing pressure in front and behind buildings, which way round is it?

turbulence is created by the high pressure behind the building and low in front of
when wind hits a building how does it split?

it splits into 4

- one goes up

- one goes down

- two go round the sides

what does the wind that goes downwards create?

a reverse eddy as it hits the ground and reverses
a building's ..... have an impact on wind





two types of particulate matter

- coarse dust particles

- PM10

- 2.5-10 micrometres in diameter

- fine dust particles

- PM2.5

- 2.5 or less micrometres in diameter

what can particulate matter cause?

- heart attacks

- lung problems

- irritation of eyes, nose and throat

how is photochemical smog formed?

- when nitric oxide (NO), a component from exhaust fumes of cars, enters the atmosphere and reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen oxide (NO2)

- VOCs also undergo a reaction

- sunlight breaks this down causing other reactions to take place that lead to the formation of low level ozone

there is a general consensus that ________ are ________ but there is disagreement over....and there is debate about...



by how much they are

the extent to which human activity is responsible

climate change can be defined as...

- the long term shift in weather conditions

- changes in average conditions

- changes in variability of extreme events

physical evidence for climate change

- radiocarbon dating

- seafloor analysis

- ice core analysis

- glacial deposits

physical evidence for climate change


- uses C-14

- carbon is taken in by plants and as C-14 decays radioactively at a set rate, its levels can be compared to C-12 which does not decay

physical evidence for climate change


- microfossils from deep sea oozes

- isotopes of carbon and oxygen give information

- O-16 is lighter than O-18 and so if more of it is found it means it was warmer as it wasn't trapped in the ice and was released when the ice was melted

physical evidence for climate change


- in colder periods less CO2 is trapped in the ice on formation and the reverse is true if warmer

physical evidence for climate change


- the work of ice and melt water over the landscape

- shows where glaciers once were but are no longer

biological evidence for climate change

- tree rings (dendrochronology)

- beetles (coleoptera)

- pollen analysis

biological evidence for climate change


- trees add one ring for each year

- warm and wet years produce thicker rings than cold dry years

- patterns of growth create timelines

biological evidence for climate change


- many species inhabit specific regions

- analysis of previous distribution can indicate earlier climate belts

biological evidence for climate change

pollen analysis

- shows where plants were dominant at different times

- pollen grains are preserved showing location and relative abundance

- changes in concentrations at increasing depth

observational evidence for climate change

- landscape

- historical observations

observational evidence for climate change


- water released from melting ice caps has created rias

- fjords were created by glaciers moving through the landscape

observational evidence for climate change

historical observations

- records show vines growing in England between 1000-1300

- frost fairs held on the frozen river Thames

- paintings in caves of animals there at specific times

natural causes of climate change

- variations in solar energy

- Milankovitch's Cycles

- plate tectonics

- volcanic activity

- change in ocean circulation

- meteorites

natural causes of climate change

variation in solar energy

sunspot activity occurs in cycles and temperatures on earth are highest when its at its maximum

natural causes of climate change

Milankovitch's Cycles

changes in the earth's tilt, orbit and wobble result in changes in the amount of solar radiation reaching the earths surface

natural causes of climate change

plate tectonics

land masses drift into different latitudes or the sea bed is pushed upwards to form fold mountains forming colder climates

natural causes of climate change

volcanic activity

world temperatures are lowered after a large eruption as the increase in dust particles abosrbs and scatters the more of the icoming radiation and the increase in condensation nuclei means more rain

natural causes of climate change

changes in ocean circulation

the currents in the oceans could be affected by hte changes in the exchange of heat between land and water causing long term effects such as the reverse of major currents and short term affects such as differences to El Nino

natural causes of climate change


can cause reduction in incoming radiation , a depletion of hte ozone layer, a lowering of global temperatures and increase in acid rain

the greenhouse effect is a _________ process that has been exacerbated by _________ actions some believe as more gases such as ____ are pumped into the atmosphere so _______ happens quicker





how does the greenhouse effect happen?

- solar radiation passes through the clear atmosphere

- some is reflected back by the atmosphere and the earth's surface

- some is absorbed by earth's surface

- some of radiation is absorbed and re-emitted by GHG molecules in all directions causing heating

- some passes through the atmosphere and back into space

without the greenhouse effect the earth would be

30 degrees C colder

anthropogenic greenhouse effect
humans are having an enhanced impact on the greenhouse effect by putting more gases into the atmosphere such as CO2 causing heat to be trapped quicker and more easily

- concentrated in lower troposphere

- released by animals during respiration, burning of fossil fuels and vegetation

- contributes to around 50% of total warming


why do levels of CO2 fluctuate?

seasonal differences in vegetation growth means lots is absorbed in summer but not in winter



- concentrated in lower atmosphere

- released as bacteria break down organic matter

- contributes around 18%


why have levels of methane increased over the last 200 years?

increase in the number of ruminating animals such as cows which produce methane



- largely concentrated 15-50km above surface

- formed naturally from 3 oxygen atoms and UV radiation


why is ozone vital to life on earth?

it filters out harmful short-wave radiation from the sun



- 15-50km upwards

- released from aerosol sprays during 60s + 70s

- account for 24%


how long can CFCs remain in the atmosphere for?

100 years


nitrous oxide

- concentrated in lower troposphere

- released through combustion of fossil fuels

- 5% of total warming


by what percentage are nitrous oxide concentrations rising each year?


views of sceptics about global warming when looking at graphs

- hockey stick graph only accounts for short period of time

- when looking further back than the hockey stick graph a rapid increase in temp was seen 10,000 years earlier

- thermometers have only been used in the last 100 years so other temps are estimates at best

- once thermometers were used temperatures rocketed...coincidence?

global impacts of climate change



- stern report suggest potential rise of 28-43cm by 2080

- IPCC say sea levels rose by average of 3.1mm per year from 1993-2003

- collapsing Antarctic ice sheets are expected to rise sea levels by 2 metres by 2100

- melting ice caps and ocean expansion cause rising levels

global impacts of climate change


- low-lying cities in rich countries such as New York and Mumbai are under threat and it will soon become a case of retreat rather than defence

- mega deltas like the Bengal delta will be under threat

- small coral islands/tolls of the Caribbean and Pacific like Kiribati will be under threat from being submerged

global impacts of climate change



- global surface temperature warming averages at 0.18C per decade which is nearly twice that of last 100 yrs

- land areas will warm more quickly

- humans are pumping out carbon 10x faster than ever before

- 10 billion tonnes of carbon is released into the atmosphere every year

global impacts of climate change


- north pole experienced a 0-30C increase in temp in Dec 2015 compared to averages

- some parts of Alaska experienced temps 10C higher than average

- France had warmest winter ever in 2015

- southern Argentina experienced temps below average

- Arctic sea ice lost 1.7million km2 since 1980

- Siberian land frozen for 45,000 years is now thawing

global impacts of climate change


- California experienced most intense drought in a millennium due to ridiculously resistant ridge caused in part by GHG which deflects storm systems away

- Ethiopia experience one of worst in history with 10 million people needing emergency assistance as cattle died and crops failed

- Yangtze river basin experienced record drought in 2011

- Africa, Middle East and India likely to see reduction in cereal yields due to lack of rainfall

- North Africa, Middle East and India likely to experience increased water stress

global impacts of climate change


- regions influenced by water-based ecosystems are likely to see an increase in water-borne diseases like cholera

- expected that 7.2million more people will be at risk from malaria in Africa

- China and central Asia see an additional 290 million at risk from malaria by 2080

- 70-80% of the additional people at risk from hunger will be in Africa

global impacts of climate change


- poverty eradication impeded

- in Africa, people's health, ability to fight illness, ability to feed themselves and girls enrolment in school will all be undermined by climate change impeding economic development

monsoon impacts of climate change


- increase variability and intensity of monsoon

- monsoon rains are getting heavier

- monsoons are 10% more frequent than they were in 1950s

- frequency of severe rains has doubled since 1950s

monsoon impacts of climate change

changes due to water/heat changes

- some have linked a warmed sea-surface with increased hurricane frequency

- likely to increase intensity of tropical storms

- alterations to water cycle could result in increase in waterborne disease

- increased flooding will lead to crop damage

monsoon impacts of climate change


- by the end of the century India will experience a 3-5C increase in temp and 20% increase in monsoon rainfall

- people of Bengal delta could be environmental refugees by 2050

- as Asian monsoon intensifies knock on impacts will be felt around the world such as severe droughts in southern Australia

UK impacts of climate change


- coastal erosion and flooding

- increased storm occurrences

- zone of mixing impacted affecting water supplies

- low lying areas especially the southeast are at risk

- loss of coastal habitats

- increased damage on human resources at coast

- increased storm surge probability

UK impacts of climate change


- increased potential for tourism

- increase in infectious diseases

- average temperatures will rise from 9C to 10.6C

- could disrupt Gulf Stream and therefore weather

- wetlands dry out more frequently

- heaths subject to wild fires

- species composition altered

- 90% less snow

UK impacts of climate change


- movement of farming zones northwards around 200-300km per centigrade increase

- 200km shift of climate along a south-east north-west gradient

- wet/dry divide exaggerated as flooding/drought become more common

- increase in timber yields by 25% in north

- decrease in crop yields in south east

international responses to climate change


key elements: adaptation

- provide continued and enhanced adaptation assistance to developing countries

- strengthen the ability of society to cope with impacts

international responses to climate change


key elements: transparency

- track progress to long term goals

- report to other countries and public about progress

- come together every five years to set more ambitious goals

international responses to climate change


key elements: mitigation

- need for global emissions to peak as soon as possible and undertake rapid reductions thereafter

- aim to limit increase to 1.5C

- long term goal of keeping increase in temp way below 2C

international responses to climate change


how many countries?


international responses to climate change


when is it set to come into force and what has to happen for this to be accomplished?

- 2020

- 55 countries that account for 55% of total global emissions have to ratify the agreement

what stops countries form ratifying agreements?

some more developed countries like Japan require parliaments approval
international responses to climate change


which countries promised to sign this time and what could this mean?

China, US and Canada

the target date of 2020 forward as they account for a lot of global emissions which would help to attain 1.5C goal and shows serious commitment

international responses to climate change


before the countries came together they...

submitted comprehensive national climate plans but they aren't enough to keep temps below 2C yet

international responses to climate change


global economies

- transform from one fuelled by dirty energy to sustainable economic growth

- rich countries promised to raise $100billion/yr by 2020 to help poor countries transform economies

international responses to climate change



- the agreement itself is legally binding but some elements like pledges aren't

- depends on political will

- agreement still condemns hundreds of millions of people living in low-lying areas and small islands

- already been warming by 1C

international responses to climate change


long term goal

to reach net zero emissions in second half of century

international responses to climate change



industrialised countries agreed to reduce GHG emissions by 2012

international responses to climate change


good points

- includes all countries, poor, developing and developed

- sets ambitious targets

- keeps people's mind on issue

international responses to climate change



- 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012

- EU countries reduce by 8%

- Japan by 5%

- some countries can increase emissions such as Greece which can increase by 25%

international responses to climate change


how were targets achieved?

- joint implementation

- emissions trading

- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

international responses to climate change


joint implementation

any industrialised country can invest in a emission reduction policy in any other Annex 1 country as an alternative to reducing domestic emissions

international responses to climate change


emissions trading

international transfer of emissions allocations between industrialised counties

international responses to climate change


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

developed countries can go and set up or implement green/clean technology projects in developing countries and then emit more as emissions are reduced in the developing country and therefore worldwide

international responses to climate change


example of CDM

India's National Solar Mission is reducing emissions, creating jobs and bringing clean energy to rural areas

international responses to climate change


as part of the agreement each country must....

credibly measure its contribution and meet its commitment

international responses to climate change


how are countries quotas allocated?

- carbon credits are given to each country that allocates caps on emissions for countries that can be increased by buying or exchanging

- sinks and sources are included in deciding caps

international responses to climate change



- some countries are disproportionately responsible for emissions like the US (25%)

- developing countries like China were exempt but emit loads

- too many industrialised countries moved polluting industries to countries not covered by protocol

international responses to climate change



- no current global policy as Paris hasn't started yet

- expired in 2012

international responses to climate change

how many meetings have happened since 1992?


international responses to climate change

timeline of meetings

1992: Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro

1997: Climate Change Protocol, Kyoto

2005: G8 meeting, Gleneagles

2007: UN Climate Change Convention, Bali

2008: G8 meeting, Japan

2009: Summit, Copenhagen

2015: UN Climate Change Conference, Paris

international responses to climate change


- said 28% of all investments would be directly on climate change projects and all future spending would take climate change into account

- $16bn a year

- move to help countries change to renewables, develop green transport and build sustainable cities

international responses to climate change



- help fund construction of renewable energy to power 150 million homes in developing nations

- build early warning systems for climate-related disasters for 100 million people

UK national responses to climate change


climate change act of 2008

- made UK first country to have a legally-binding long-term framework to cut CO2

- part of EUs ETS

- created a framework for building UKs ability to adapt to climate change

- UK wide climate change risk assessment

every 5 years

- national adaptation program reviewed

every 5 years

- mandate giving government power to

require water and energy utilities to

report on what they are doing to prevent

risk in their sector

UK national responses to climate change


climate change programme 2006

- address issue of GHG emissions in all sectors of UK economy

- promise to increase renewable use

UK national responses to climate change


2006: how did the gov make it easier for individuals to live more sustainable lives?

- lower tax on eco-friendly cars

- insulation grants

- Code for Sustainable Homes sets out voluntary standards beyond those required and contribute to reducing the environmental impact of housing growth

- Energy Performance of Buildings Directive includes key provisions such as regular inspection of boilers/AC, requirement to consider renewables in buildings of certain size and minimum energy performance requirements

UK national responses to climate change

what is the UK committed to doing?

reducing CO2 levels to 80% of what they were in 1990 by 2050

UK national responses to climate change

EU emissions trading system (ETS)

- limit on overall emissions that gets smaller each year

- companies get an allowance that they can sell/use to others as well as buy from others


UK national responses to climate change

ETS: what does it cover? where?

- covers 11,000 power stations and manufacturing plants

- 27 member states and Iceland, Croatia, Norway and Lichtenstein

- limits 45% of total EU emissions

UK national responses to climate change

ETS: cap and trade

allows companies the flexibility to cut emissions in most cost-effective way for them

UK national responses to climate change

ETS: international

- main market for credits generated by emission-saving projects in the world

- major source of investment in environmentally sustainable development in developing nations

- accountable for 3/4s of international carbon trading

- inspiring development of national/regional trading schemes around the world

- linking with others such as Australia

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - CCS

- relatively new

- process of collecting CO2 as it emerges from point sources such as chimneys

- then is stored in either deep geological formations or deep ocean basins

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - CCS


- application to power stations could reduce CO2 emissions by 80-90%

- geological storage alone could hold up to 70 years of emissions at current rates

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - CCS


- additional energy costs between 20-90%

- unsure nature of geological capacities

- unknown risk of carbon leakage

- ocean acidification if sea water used as storage media

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - CCS

White Rose CCS

- in line to win £250 million grant

- gas will be siphoned off from new power station and stored in undersea rock formations

- major political commitment

- new power station built next to existing Drax one

- gas transported through National Grid's proposed pipeline

- stored under North Sea

- oxy-fuel technology used to create gases high in CO2 concentration so further separation will not be necessary

- capture 90% of gas from plant

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - CCS

White Rose CCS


- improve energy security

- low-carbon electricity

- reduces CO2 so legislation can be met

- anchor project for further development in UK

UK national responses to climate change

mitigation: geo-engineering - carbon sequestration

remove carbon directly from atmosphere

UK national responses to climate change

reducing sources of CO2

alternative sources of energy - renewables

- Walney Offshore Wind Farm

- Irish Sea

- set to becomes largest in the world

- 200 turbines

- Danish energy giant Dong proposed it in 2013

- power up to 559,000 homes

- 75 locals already employed

- 1million a month contributed to local economy

UK national responses to climate change

reducing sources of CO2

developing more carbon sinks

planting forests

UK national responses to climate change

reducing sources of CO2

improving energy efficiency - Green Deal

- gov backed initiative to help homeowners understand and implement energy saving schemes

- Green Deal Assessment first step where assessment done and schemes discussed

- Green Deal Home Improvement Fund gives cashback where possible if certain insulation/ boilers are installed

- Green Deal Finance companies give loans to pay for some or all of installation which is repaid through electricity bill

UK national responses to climate change

reducing sources of CO2

improving energy efficiency - Feed-In Tariff

- if renewable electricity generating technology is installed this gov scheme means you could get money from energy supplier

- paid for energy used and that which goes back into Grid

UK national responses to climate change

reducing sources of CO2

improving energy efficiency - Energy Company Obligation (ECO)

- big six energy suppliers are required to help customers save on energy bills and carbon emissions

- affordable warmth obligation means they have to provide heat and insulation improvements for low-income and vulnerable households