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43 Cards in this Set
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archival measures

Records or past documents that contain information about some type of behavior


case study

An indepth analysis of an individual, group or event


confounding of variables

a situation in which the independent variable is intertwiend with another uncontrolled variable; thus we cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of interest


control group

In an experiment, the group that is either not exposed to the treatment or receives a zero level of the independent variable


correlational research

Research that measures two or more naturally occurring variables and examines whether they are statistically related.


counterbalancing

In experiments, a procedure in which each participant engages in all of the conditions. The order of the conditions is altered for different participants so that, over all, no condition has an order advantage relative to the other conditions


dependent variable

In an experiment, the factor measured by the research that presumably is influenced by the independent variable.


descriptive research

Research in which the main goal is to carefully describe how organisms behave, particularly in natural settings.


descriptive statistics

Statistics that summarize and describe the characteristics of a set of scores


doubleblind procedure

A procedure in which both the participant and the experimenter are kept unaware of the research condition to which the participant has been assigned.


experiment

A research method in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable under controlled conditions and measures whether this produces changes in a dependent variable


experimental group

In an experiment, the group that receives a treatment or is exposed to an active level of the independent variable.


experimenter expectancy effects

Sublte and untinential ways in which an experimenter influences participants to behave in a way that will confirm the experimenter's hypothesis.


external validity

The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to the other people, settings and conditions.


hypothesis

A tentative explanation or predictions about some phenomenon


independent variable

In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the researcher


inferential statistics

Statistics that tell us how confident we can be in drawing conclusions or inferences about a population based on findings obtained from a sample.


informed consent

The principle that prior to agreeing to participate in research a person should be fully informed about the procedures, the benefits and the risks involved, the right to with draw at any time without penalty and matters of confidentially and privacy.


internal validity

The degree to which an experiment produces clear causal conclusions; internal validity is high when there is no confounding of variables.


mean

A statistic that represents the arithmetic average of a set of scores.


median

In a set of data, the point that divides the distribution in half when the individual scores are arranged in order from lowest to highest.


metaanalysis

A statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic.


mode

A statistic that represents the most frequently occurring score in a data distribution.


naturalistic observation

A method in which the researcher observes behavior in a natural setting and tries to avoid influencing the participants being observed.


negative correlation

A relation between two variables in which higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on the other variable.


operational definition

Defining a concept or variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it.


placebo

An inactive or inert substance.


placebo effect

A change in behavior that occurs because of the expectation or belief that one is receiving treatment.


population

In a survey, the entire set of individuals about whom we wish to draw conclusions.


positive correlation

A relation between two variables in which higher scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on the other variable.


random assignment

A procedure in which each participant ahas an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group within an experiment


random sampling

In a survey, a method of choosing a sample in which each member of the population has a equal probability of being included in the sample.


range

A statistic that represents the difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.


replication

The process of repeating a study to determine whether the original results can be duplicated


representative sample

A sample that accurately reflects the important characteristics of a population.


scatterplot

A graph commonly used to examine correlational data; each pair of scores on variable X and variable Y is plotted as a single point.


social desirability bias

A tendency to selfreport or behave in a way that presents oneself in a favorable light,rather than respond as one truly feels.


standard deviation

A measure of variabliity that takes into account how much each socre in a distribution deviates from the average score. Statistically, the square root of the variance of a set of scores,


statistical significance

In, research, a term that means it is unlikely that a pariticular finding occured by chance alone. Psycholgisits typically consider a result to be statistically significant only if it could have occurred by chance less than 5 times out of 100.


survey research

A method of using questionnaires or interviews to obtain information about many people.


theory

A set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events or phenomena are related to one another.


unobtrusive measures

Techniques for measuring behavior in which participants are kept unaware that their behavior is being observed


variable

Any characteristic of an organism or situation that can vary.
