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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Branch of psychology that deals with the biological bases and mental processes
Messengers cells that are backbone of the nervous system.
short fibers that branch out from the neuron and pick up incoming messages
Single long Fiber extending from a neuron - carries outgoing messages
Groups of axons bundled together
Nerve tract
white fatty covering found on some axons. Protects messages and helps transfer messages faster
neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain
Sensory neurons
Neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to muscles or glands.
Motor Neurons
Neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another
Cells that form the myelin sheath; insulate and support neurons by holding them togethe, removing waste, and protecting them from harmful substances
Glial cells
Electrically charged particles found both inside and outside the neuron. Usually negatively charged
electrical charge across a neuron membrane due to excess positive ions concentrated on the outside and excess negative ions on the inside
resting potential-
The condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside
The firing of a nerve cell
Neural impulse
principle that action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength. The neuron either fires at full strength or does not fire at all
All or nothing law
A period after firing when a neuron will not fire again in any circumstance
absolute refractory period
a period after firing when a neuron is returning to its normal polarized state and will fire again only if the incoming messages is stronger than usual
Relative refractory period
tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next
Synaptic space (or cleft)
Structure at the end of an axon terminal branch
Terminal Button
Area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic space and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
The ability of the brain to change in response to experience
Neural plasticity
neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in aorusal attention memory and motivation. Associated with Alzimhers
Neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement learning memory and emotions. Loss of this substance is associated with Parkison's
neurotransmitter involved with the regulation of sleep dreaming mood eating, pain, and Aggressive behavior. Implicated with depression
Neurotransmitter involved in the inhibition of pain
Division of the Nervous System that consists of the brain and spinal Cord
Central Nervous System
Division of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Peripheral nervous system
the process of production of new brain cells/ neurons
Area containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
Structure in the hindbrain that controls certain reflexes and coordinates the body's movements
region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight, and it is one of several places in the brain where pain is registered
Forebrain reigion that relays and translates incoming messages from sense receptors except for sense of smell.
Forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses
located below the thalamus
Network of neurons in thehindbrain the mid brain and part of the forebrain whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higher parts of the brain
Reticular formation
Ring of structures that play a role in learning and emotional behavior. specific parts govern memory formation and self preservation emotions
Limbic system
Outer surface of two cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behavior
Cerebral cortex
Areas of the Cerebral cortex where incoming messages from the separate senses are combined into meaningful impressions and outgoing messages from the motor areas are integrated
association areas
part of cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium and certain emotions and motivations
temporal lobe
area of the parietal lobe where messages from sense receptors are registered
primary somatosensory cortex
part of the cerbral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention goal-directed behavior and appropriate emotional experiences
frontal lobe
section of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement
primary motor complex
Part of the cerebral hemisphere that receive and interprets visual information
occipital lobe
Thick band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right cerebral cortex.
Corpus Callosum
Composed of all afferent or sensory neurons that carry information to the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles of the body All senses have origins in this and are guided by it
Somatic nervous system
Comprises all of the neurons that carry messages between the central nervous system and internal organs of the body. Crucial to body functions such as breathing digestion and circulation. Also has strong affects on the experience of different emotions.
Autonomic nervous system.
branch of the autonomic system; prepares the body for quick action in an emergency
Sympathetic division
Branch of the autonomic nervous system it calms and relaxes the body
Parasympathetic Division
Glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the blood stream
endocrine glands
Chemical substances released by the endocrine glands; they help regulate bodily activities
Endocrine Gland located below the voice box; produces the hormone thyroxin (which in turn regulates metabolism)
thyroid gland
four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid; secrete parathormone
Gland located roughly in the center of the brain that appears to regulate activity over the course of a day
Pineal gland
Organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; secrets insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar levels
gland located on the underside of the brain; produces the largest number of body hormones
Pituitary gland
2 endocrine glands located above the kidneys
Adrenal glands
study of the relationship between heredity and behavior
Behavior genetics
Subfield of psychology concerned with the origins of b thier adaptive avlue and the purposes they serve ehaviors and mental processes
Evolutionary psychlogy
Study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
Elements that control the transmission of traits; found on chromosomes and composed of DNA
Pairs of threadlike bodies within the cell nucleus that contain genes
Complex molecule in a double helix configuration that is the main ingredient of chromosomes and genes and forms the code for all genetic information
Full complement of genes within a human cell
Human Genome
Member of a gene pair that controls the appearance of a certain trait
Dominant gene
Member of a gene pair that can control the appearance of a certain trait only if it is paired with another of its kind and not in the presence of a dominant gene
Recessive gene
Studies of the heritabiity of behaviorial traits using animals that have been inbred to produce strains that are genetically similar to one another
Strain studies
studies that estimate the heritability of a trait by breeding animals with other animals that have the same trait
Selection studies
Studies of heritabiity in human based on the assumption that if gene influence a certain trait close relatives should be more similar on that trait than distant relatives
family studies
Studies of identical and fraternal twins to determine the relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior
twin studies
Twins developed from a single fertilized ovum and therefore identical genetically
Identical twins
Twins developed from 2 separate fertilized ova and therefore different in genetic makeup
Fraternal twins
Research carried out on children adopted at birth by parents not related to them to determine the relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior
Adoption studies
Mechanism produced by Darwin in his theory of evolution hwich states that organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive, transmitting their genetic characteristics to succeeding generations
natural selection
Fight or flight response
Measures Activity levels in the brain
PET scan
The sympathetic and parasympathetic are both parts of what?
Autonomic system (in the peripheral nervous system)
Hormones do what 2 things?-
Organize Bodily activities, Activate and organize behaviors and development
Scan that shows structure-
Broca's region of communication is associated with what?
Wernickes region of communication is associated with what?
Tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse
Synaptic Vesicles
chemicals released by the synaptic Vesicles that travel across the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons
A location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
Receptor site
Wraps around the axon on some neurons. Protects and speeds the action time of the neuron-
Myelin sheath.
The moving impulse that is fired
Action potential
allows scientists to create 3 dimensional images of a human brain without performing surgery using x-ray photography
Computerized Axial tomography (CAT)
attaches electrodes to the scalp which are linked by wires to a device that translates electrical activity into lines on a moving paper. These brain waves provide an index of both the strength and rhythm of mental activity.
surrounds the head with a magnetic field and exposes the brain to radio waves. Causes hydrogen atoms In the brain to release energy,
Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) –
uses radioactive energy to map brain activity. Person is injected with radioactive substance and then scanning afterward during mental activity. This helps scientists analyze where the neurons are firing to.
Position emission tomography (PET)