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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name three causes of Detente?

Vietnam was disaster for USA

Arms race expensive

Mutually Assured Destruction

What and when was the Outer Space Treaty?

Nations not allowed to place any nuclear weapons in space - 1967

What and when was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty?

Neither superpower would supply nuclear weapons to other states or help other states to develop nuclear weapons - 1968

Name three limitations of Detente?

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty didn't stop other countries developing nuclear weapons i.e. China

Neither sides kept to SALT1 agreement

In Arab-Israeli war America supported Israel and Russia supported Egypt and Syria

What and when was SALT1?

Limited nuclear capability, agreed to:

Not produce more strategic ballistic missiles

ABM treaty - limited to two Anti BM systems each

Submarines carrying NW to only be introduced when ICBMs obsolete

What and when was SALT2?


Vladivostok Agreement (1974) - Both agreed to reduce stocks of nuclear warheads to 2250

Construction of land based ICBM launchers banned

Signed by Carter and Brezhnev in 1979

What were the difficulties with SALT2?

West Germany worried it would become undefended

Right-wing politicians in the US thought it made them look weak

US Senate refused to ratify it

What and when was the Apollo-Soyuz mission?


American Apollo spacecraft and a Russian Soyuz spacecraft docked high above Earth

What was significant about the Apollo-Soyuz mission?

Marked beginning of superpower co-operation in space

What and when were the Helsinki Agreements?


Representatives from 35 countries. All European nations except Albania as well as US, Canada and USSR

Attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and West.

Three key features of proposed Co-Operation agreements

Economic - USA buy oil from USSR, USSR buy wheat from USA

Educational - Student exchanges, languages learnt

Scientific - Research & information shared

Three key features of proposed security agreements

Countries would inform each other about any big military manoeuvres

Country boundaries accepted, E&W Germany accepted each others existence

All disputes to be settled peacefully

Three key features of proposed human rights agreements

Freedom of speech

Freedom of religion

Freedom of movement

When and what was the Kabul Revolution?

April 1978 - Afghanistan became communist, Taraki became president

What were some of the problems with the new communist government in Afghanistan?

- Suffered personal rivalries and disagreements

- Many Muslim leaders across country angered by socialist reforms

- By Spring 1979 Civil War had broken out between government and Islamic figures

Three key features of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan?

- Invaded to help keep Afghanistan communist, helped them fight off the Mujahadeen

- Assassinated Amin, as they believed he was an American spy. Amin replaced with Kamal.

- The Soviet Invasion lasted ten years

Why was the Soviet Invasion important?

Broke Detente, showed USSR still brutal despite death of Stalin, sparked second Cold War

What was the Carter Doctrine?

Carter made a statement arguing that the USA wouldn't allow the USSR to gain control of territory in oil-rich middle east

What did the USA do in response to the Soviet Invasion?

- Withdrew from SALT II

- Boycotted Moscow Olympics, along with 60 other countries

How did the Soviets react to the American reaction of their invasion of Afghanistan?

- LA Olympics boycotted by USSR and 14 Communist countries

- USSR organised friendship games

Three key features about President Reagan before his term as President?

- Born 6th February 191, Illinois

- Was a life guard, politician, actor, and actors union leader

- Radio Announcer in 1930s

What were President Reagan's attitudes towards the Cold War?

- Thought nothing was wrong that couldn't be fixed

- Wanted to save America from communism

- Hated communism

What were people's attitudes towards Reagan?

Adored by many US citizens

Considered one of the most successful presidents of the 20th century

Many things named after him, at least one "big" thing in every single state and county

Three key features of Reagan's 'Evil Empire' speech

- USA had to invest in nuclear weapons to defend liberty

- Spoke about how people need to stand up against communism

- Said that the cold war was a fight between good and evil

What was the SDI or 'Star Wars'?

- Strategic Defence Initiative

- Satellites designed to intercept and destroy nuclear weapons

- Aimed to end Cold War, and win the arms race

Why was Star Wars problematic for the USSR?

- Soviet economy didn't produce enough wealth to fund a response

- No longer able to compete in the arms race, as all missiles that would be fired at USA would be nullified

What were some problems facing Russia when Gorbachev became leader?

- Economy stagnated

- Standard of goods poor

- Alcoholism

How did Gorbachev deal with these problems?

- Tried to free up giant armament spending

- Said the USSR had two roads:

- Tighten belts, reduce consumption

- Try and diffuse international tensions

What was Perestroika?

- Economic reforms designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient

- Elections for local government allowed

What was Glasnost?

- Censorship of press relaxed

- Books published that had previously been banned

- Russians wanted more freedoms, began criticising Gorbachev

Key features of the gang of eight coup?

- A group of eight soviet officials who tried to overthrow Gorbachev

- Gorbachev away, so Gennady Yanayev acted as USSR president

- New government ended changes that perestroika and glasnost introduced

How were the gang of eight coup defeated?

- Russian president Boris Yeltsin declared that an anti-constitutional coup had taken place, called for a general strike

- When Gorbachev returned, he made all decisions made by gang of eight devoid and removed them from their state officed