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106 Cards in this Set

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abreaction
the reliving or recovery of painful, repressed emotional experiences in psychotherapy, accompanied by a discharge of affect or intense feelings.
anal phase
Freud's 2nd phase of psychosexual development, extending roughly from 18 months to 3 years of age, in which most libidinal pleasure is derived from retaining and expelling feces.
autoeroticism
obtaining gratification from self-stimulating a sensual area of the body.
cathexis
investment of mental or emotional (libidinal) energy into a person, object, or idea.
Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method (CCRT)
A supportive-expressive psychotherapy method used to examine the inner workings of a patient's relationship patterns; an operational version of transference. Each CCRT pattern has 3 elements: wish, response of others, and response of self.
countertransference
the activation of unconscious wishes and fantasies on the part of the therapist toward the patient. It can either be elicited by and indicative of the patient's projections or come from the therapist's tendency to respond to patients as though they were significant others in the life, history, or fantasy of the therapist.
defense mechanism
method mobilized by the ego, in response to its danger signal of anxiety, as protection from inner and outer threat.
denial
a basic defense through which aspects of experienced reality are treated as though they did not exist
dual-instinct theory
the notion that humans operate primarily in terms of pervasive and innate drives toward both love and aggression
dynamics
interactions, usually conflicted, between one's basic drives, or id, and the ego's defenses
Ego
the central controlling core of the personality mediating between the id (primitive, instinctive needs) and the superego (civilized, moralistic elements of the mind).
Electra complex
erotic attraction of the female child to her father, with accompanying hostility toward her mother.
Emotional cognition
the means by which, both consciously and unconsciously, we perceive and process emotionally charged info and meaning in the service of adaptation.
Eros
The life instinct, fueled by libidinal energy and opposed by Thanatos, the death instinct.
free association
a basic technique of psychoanalysis in which those being analyzed are asked to report, without structure or censure, whatever thoughts come to mind.
genital stage
the final stage in psychosexual development in which heterosexual relations are achieved. Its roots are formed at age 5 to 6, and its said to be the basis for mature personality.
id
the reservoir of the biological, instinctual drives with innate and developmental components.
identification
a mental mechanism, used unconsciously in normal interactions and as a psychic defense, through which one person absorbs and takes on the traits, values, and defenses of another person
introjection
an unconscious process of identifying with other persons, real or imagined, by incorporating attributes of these others into oneself.
latency period
a relatively inactive period of psychosexual development said to begin around age 6 and to end around age 11.
libido
the basic driving force of personality in freud's system. It includes, but is not limited to, sexual energy.
narcissism
self-absorption, self-concern, and self-love arising from psychic energy directed at the self-; the term currently is used to include tension regulation, self-image, and self-esteem.
neurosis
a term first used by Freud to include all but the most severe psychological syndromes
Object Relations Theory
the view that the basic human motive is the search for satisfying object (person) relationships.
Oedipus complex
erotic attraction of the male child to his mother, accompanied by hostility toward his father.
Oral phase
the earliest phase of psychosexual development, extending from birth to approximately 18 months, in which most libidinal gratification occurs through biting, sucking, and oral contact.
phallic phase
a psychosexual phase in boys of ages 3 to 5 in which penile experiences and fantasies of thrusting and exhibiting are predominant.
Phases of Dynamic Psychotherapy
opening, working through, and termination
pleasure principle
the basic human tendency to avoid pain and seek pleasure, especially salient in the first years of life.
primary process thinking
nonlogical thinking such as is found in dreams, creativity, and the operation of the unconscious. Characterized the operations of the id.
projection
attributing to others unacceptable personal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
projective identification
an interactional form of projection, used both normally and as a defense, through which one person ascribes to another person his or her own inner state and defenses.
psychodynamics
a term similar to dynamics which refers to mental interactions and conflict, usually formulated in terms of ego, id, and superego.
psychodynamic psychotherapy
a general term for a variety of therapies that evolved from psychoanalysis. These therapists usually see their clients once or twice a week and the client is sitting up.
reality principle
the guiding principle of the ego, which permits postponement of gratification to meet the demands of the environment or to secure greater pleasure at a later time.
regression
variously defined as an active or passive slipping back to more immature levels of defense or functioning, or as seeking gratification from earlier phases of development.
repression
a major defense mechanism in which distressing thoughts are barred from conscious expression.
resistance
any obstacle, pathological or nonpathological, to the progress of analysis or therapy, usually involving a modification of a ground rule of treatment and based on unconscious sources within both patient and analyst
secondary process thinking
linear, logical, and verbal thinking, associated with the operations of the ego.
self psychology
a psychoanalytic approach that stresses empathy, mirroring, and support for positive esteem.
splitting
a primitive defense through which people are classified as all-good or all-bad individuals, making it impossible to have a full balanced picture of other people.
structural theory or hypothesis
Freud's second model of the mind. Postulates 3 agencies of the mind: ego, superego, and id (each with conscious and unconscious components)
superego
a structure of the mind, developed from innate tendencies and early parental interactions and identifications, that embraces moral and other standards and regulates psychic tensions, self-image, self-esteem, and drive-discharge.
symptom-context model
a way to decode the meanings of symptoms, used in supportive-expressive psychotherapy for both research and therapy purposes.
thanatos
an instinct toward death and self-destruction; balances Eros
Topographic theory
Freud's 1st model of the mind, in which access to awareness of contents and functions was the defining criterion. The model had interactional elements but was eventually replaced by Freud's structural model.
transference
the therapy situation in which the patient responds to the therapist as though he or she were a significant figure in the patient's past, usually a parent.
unconscious
a division of the psyche; the repository of psychological material of which the individual is unaware.
vaginal phase
a psychosexual phase in girls of ages 3 to 5 in which vaginal sensations and incorporative imagery predominate.
awfulizing
seeing something inconvenient or obnoxious as awful, horrible, or terrible.
behavioral experiment
testing distorted beliefs or fears scientifically in a real-life situation (having a shy person initiate a conversation to see what happens).
catastrophizing
exaggerating the consequences of an unfortunate event
cognitive restructuring
an active attempt to alter maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with more adaptive cognitions.
decatastrophizing
a "what if" technique designed to explore actual, rather than feared, events and consequences
demandingness
the belief of some clients that they must get what they want in life and that it is a terrible tragedy if this does not occur
dichotomous thinking
categorizing experiences or people in black-and-white or extreme terms only, with no middle ground.
elegant solution
a solution that helps clients make a profound philosophical change that goes beyond mere symptom removal.
emotive techniques
therapy techniques that are vigorous, vivid, and dramatic
homework
specific activities to be done between therapy sessions
irrational belief
unreasonable conviction that produces emotional upset (for example, insisting that the world should be or must be different from what it actually is).
musturbation
a term coined by Ellis to characterize the behavior of clients who are absolutistic and inflexible in their thinking, maintaining that they must not fail, must be exceptional, must be successful, and so on.
overgeneralization
constructing a general rule from isolated incidents and applying it too broadly.
activity scheduling
setting up routine activity in order to offset inertia.
assertion training
a treatment procedure designed to teach clients to openly and effectively express both positive and negative feelings.
behavioral medicine
applying learning theory techniques to prevent or treat physical problems (such as pain reduction or weight loss).
behavioral rehearsal
practicing an emotionally charged event and one's response to it prior to its actual occurrence.
belonging
an innate need, drive, and source of human behavior. It leads people to seek relationship and involvement with other human beings (behavioral therapy).
classical conditioning
a form learning which existing responses are attached to new stimuli that naturally elicit the response.
cognitive behavioral modification
an extension of behavior therapy that treats thoughts and cognition as behaviors amenable to behavioral procedures.
cognitive restructuring
an active attempt to alter maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with more adaptive cognitions.
counterconditioning
replacing a particular behavior by conditioning a new response incompatible with the maladaptive behavior. one of the explanations for the effectiveness of systematic desensitization.
discriminative stimulus
a stimulus signifying that reinforcement will (or will not) occur.
extinction
in classical conditioning, the gradual diminuition of a conditioned response resulting from repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning, extinction (no response) occurs when reinforcement is withheld following performance of a previously reinforced response.
generalization
the occurrence of behavior in situations that resemble, but are different from, the stimulus environment in which the behavior was learned.
Graded-Task assignment
starting with a simple activity and increasing the level of complexity or difficulty in a step-by-step fashion.
negative reinforcement
any behavior that increases the probability of a response by terminating or withdrawing an unpleasant stimulus. Negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior it follows.
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which responses are modified by their consequences. Reinforcement increases the likelihood of future occurrences of the reinforced response; punishment and extinction decrease the likelihood of future occurrences of the responses they follow.
positive reinforcement
any stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior that it follows.
punishment
an aversive event likely to terminate any behavior that it follows.
reinforcement
the presentation of a reward or the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Always increases the future probability of the reinforced response.
replay
a psychodramatic technique, often used in behavior therapy and other approaches, in which the client repeats a previous scene. It is often applied in the mastery of interpersonal skills.
sensate focus
a series of exercises used in sex therapy that are designed to reintroduce clients to receiving and giving sensual pleasure
social learning theory
a system that combines operant and classical conditioning with cognitive mediational processes (such as vicarious learning and symbolic activity) to account for the development, maintenance, and modification of behavior.
stimulus control
arranging the environment in such a way that a given response is either more likely or less likely to occur (for example, buying only one pack of cigarettes per day in order to decrease the likelihood of smoking).
systematic desensitization
a step-by-step procedure for replacing anxiety with relaxation, while gradually increasing exposure to an anxiety-producing situation of object.
token economy
a program that provides people with short-term reinforcement for specific behaviors by allotting tokens (poker chips or points) that are accumulated and later exchanged for privileges or desired objects.
vicarious learning
learning through observation and imitation; synonym for modeling.
arbitrary inference
drawing conclusions without supporting evidence or despite evidence to the contrary.
automatic thought
a personal notion or idea triggered by particular stimuli that lead to an emotional response.
cognitive distortion
pervasive and systematic errors in reasoning.
cognitive shift
a systematic and biased interpretation of life experiences
cognitive triad
negative views of the self, the world and the future that characterize depression.
cognitive vulnerability
individual ways of thinking that predispose one to particular psychological distress
collaborative empiricism
a strategy of seeing the patient as a scientist capable of objective interpretation.
conditional assessment
an erroneous "if then" interpretation of events that leads to an erroneous conclusion (e.g., "If one person dislikes me, then I am not likable").
decentering
moving the supposed focus of attention away from oneself (Cognitive theory).
hot cognition
a powerful and highly meaningful idea that produces strong emotional reactions.
magnification
exaggerating the significance of something.
minimization
making an event far less important that it actually is.
mode
network os cognitive, affective, motivational, and behavioral schema that composes personality and interprets ongoing situations.
personalization
taking personal responsibility for negative events without supporting evidence of personal involvement.
reattribution
assigning alternative causes to events; reinterpreting one's symptoms.
schema
a strategy or way of thinking that consists of core beliefs and basic assumptions about how the world operates.
selection abstraction
basing a conclusion on a detail taken out of context and ignoring other information.
sociotrophy
a personality dimension characterized by dependence on interpersonal relationships and needs for closeness and nurturance.
subjective reasoning
believing that feelings are the same as, or equivalent to, facts.