Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mild does not mean...
Not Serious!
Provide some examples of appropriate language use when referring to individuals with disabilities.
Person first language should ALWAYS be used.
What is the prevalence of MR? What percentage of students with MR has mild, moderate, and severe and profound retardation?
1-3% of total population
85% mild MR, typically diagnosed in elementary
10% moderate, typicaly diagnosed in preschool
5% severe/profound
What are the principles of IDEA?
- FAPE: Free & Appropriate Public Education
- Nondiscriminatory Assessment
- IEP: Individualized Education Programs
- Due Process
- Parent & Student Participation
- LRE: Least Restrictive Environment
Name the four professional advocates.
Lloyd Dunn
Evelyn Deno
Wolf Wolfensburger
James Gallagher
What did Lloyd Dunn advocate for?
Raised issue that too many children from diverse backgrounds were placed in special education. Also, raised issue that most students could have their needs met in general education setting.
What did Evelyn Deno advocate for?
Believed that the student should drive the services.
Created the cascade or continuum of placement options.
Believed that students should have more restrictive placements only after less have been tried.
What did Wolf Wolfensburger advocate for?
Normalization
People with disabilities should have access to the same things as people without.
People should be supported in not feeling “different”.
Should try to overcome barriers and provide supports for access.
Limit stigma, societal rejection, raise self-esteem.
What did James Gallagher advocate for?
Stated that children should not have restrictive placements or specialized service without accountability.
Who coined the term learning disabilities to unite the field?
Samuel Kirk
What are the advantages of being prepared to teach students with cross-categorical disabilities (as opposed to a categorical or single certification program)?
- Includes students with LD, ED, & MR
- K-12
What percentage of all students with disabilities is represented by students with cross-categorical disabilities?
70%
What are some advantages of using labels?
- Categorizing each disability
- Funding for special education programs, based on categories
- Without them, wouldn't have interventions or teaching methods to help students.
Describe how professional advocacy and litigation influenced the principles of PL 94-142, now IDEA.
- Advocacy: Parents & Professionals (Deno, Dunn, etc.) [IEP, LRE, FAPE, Continuum]
- Litigation: Brown v. Board of Ed., PARC v. Pennsylvania, Mills v. DC BOE, Diana v. State Board of Ed., Larry P. v. Riles [FAPE, Nondiscriminiatory Assessment, & Due Process]
What is a student’s least restrictive environment?
Closest to the general education environment where a stduent's needs can be met.
What are some Cross-Categorical characteristics?
- Acting Out
- Short Attention Span
- Low Self-Esteem
- Low Motivation
- Withdrawn Behavior
- Higher Drop-Out Rate
What are some characteristics associated with MR?
- Mute
- Very Low IQ
What are some characteristics associated with LD?
- Over 2 years under achievement
- Discrepency between IQ & achievement
What was occurring in our society in the late 1960s and early 1970s that relates to classification of students with MR?
Researchers were trying to unite the field with a definition of LD, outlining what makes this group different. Because of this, the amount of MR identification decreased dramatically.
What is IDEA’s definition of MR?
Significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills; the disability originates before age 18
What are the three key components to IDEA's definition of MR?
- Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning
- Deficits in adaptive behavior
- Onset in the development period (Before 18 years old)
Why are definitions important?
- Determines who is identified & served
- Directs interventions
- Determines the context for disability
Learning disabilities have been characterized as being a disability of exclusion. Explain why.
Individuals aren't learning and it is not due to:
- Mental Retardation
- Sensory Issues
- Emotional Disturbances
- Lack of the ability to learn
What percentage of students receiving services for disabilities has a learning disability?
51%
Explain possible reasons for the increase in students identified as having learning disabilities since 1976.
- More Labeling
- Greater Awareness
- Better Testing
What is the prevalence of learning disabilities?
- 4-5% of all school aged children
- Males more than females 3:1
Why can a student have a learning disability in one state but not in another?
States can use different discrepancy formulas.
What are the seven areas in the definition of learning disabilities children can qualify for services under in IDEA?
1. Written Expression
2. Oral Expression
3. Listening Comprehension
4. Reading Decoding
5. Reading Comprehension
6. Math Calculation
7. Math Reasoning
What are the two components of the definition that the majority of states use?
- Discrepancy
- Expression
What can states now opt to use instead of the discrepancy component?
Response to Intervention
What are some challenges specifically related to identifying problem behavior?
- Range of normal & deviant behavior
- Measurement
- Transience
Whose classic work with youth with emotional and behavior disorders was used, almost verbatim, in IDEA’s definition of ED?
Bower
What are some problems related to excluding children with social maladjustment unless it is also determined that they have an emotional disturbance?
- Definition Problems
- Measurement Problems
- Different Theoretical Methods
What questions arise when trying use IDEA’s definition of ED as a tool to identify students?
- What is social maladjustment compared to ED?
What are the conservative estimates of the prevalence of ED?
4-5% of school-aged population
How many students with ED are identified and served?
1%
Why are only 25% of students with ED served (1% of the population)?
- Only the very, very severe get served
- Get identified much later than other children with cross-categorical disabilities.
Describe several child, family, and school factors that contribute to behavior problems in children.
Child - aggressive behavior
Family - Abuse, Divorce, etc.
School - Bullying
When should children receive support for challenging behavior patterns?
ASAP - Before 3rd grade
How stable is problem behavior if it is sustained into third grade?
Equal to the stability of intelligence
How many possible causes have been linked to MR?
250
In most cases (75%) one clear cause cannot be identified.
In what percentage of cases can one cause of MR be identified?
25%
What are the biomedical conditions associated with MR?
- Down Syndrome
- Fragile X Syndrome
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- Phenylketonuria (PKU)
What percentage of children with MR has Down Syndrome?
5-6%
Describe the most common causes of cross-categorical disabilities.
- Injury to brain during early development
- Early environments