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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
the systematic study of human society
sociolgoical perspective
the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterens of society in the lives of particular people
global perspective
the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
high income countries
the nations with the highests overall standard of living
low income countries
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
a way of understanding based on science, society operates to certain laws, just as the physical world operates
Auguste Comte's approach
a statement of how and why specific facts are related
theoretical approach
basic image of society that guides thinking and research
structual functional approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
auguste comte, emile durkheim and herbert spencer
social structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social functions
consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
manifest functions
recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
social dysfunction
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
social conflict approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
Karl Marx helped develop
gender conflict approach
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men
the advocacy of social equality for women and men
race conflict approach
a POV that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
macro level orientation
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
micro level orientation
a close up focus on social interaction in specific situations
symbolic interaction approach
a framework for building theory that sees scoiety as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
max weber and george herbert mead
the ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
culture shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Sapir whorf thesis
idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
specific statements that people hold to be true
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behaviors of its members
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
norms for routine or casual interaction
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surrounding
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
the use of hand tools to raise crops
the domestication of animals
large scal cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or machines
the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic obersvation
scientific sociology
the study of society based on systematic oberservation of social behavior
empirical evidence
information we can verify with our senses
a mental contruct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
a concept whose value changes from case to case
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
consistency in measurement
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
a relationship in which 2 or more variables change together
cause and effect
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
critical sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
research method
a systematic plan for doing research
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or ?s in a questionarie or an interview
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their rountine
an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
high culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a societys elite
popular culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a societys population
a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting respect and equal standing for all cultural patterns
the dominance of european cultural patterns
emphasizing and promoting african cultural patterns
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
cultural integration
close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural lag
fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cutural system
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
What triggered the development of sociology?
rise of industrial economy
growth of large cities
new political ideas
Auguste Comte
coined the term sociology to describe a new way of thinking
Herbert Spencer
compared society to the human body
Robert K. Merton
expanded our understanding of social function by pointing out that any social structure has many functions
Harriet Martineau
regarded as the first woman sociologist
Max Weber
german sociologist who emphasized understanding a particular setting from the point of view of the people in it