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127 Cards in this Set

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What is citizen advocacy?

A movement to strengthen citizen action and motivation to participate in community and civic affairs; often focuses on bringing the marginalized back into the community

What is the Haudenosaunee Confederacy?

A union of six aboriginal nations into a central government under the leadership of the Great Council of Sachems - leaders who were elected from each nation and who were equal in rank and authority

What is the Great Law of Peace?

The constitution of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, which outlined the path to harmony and unity among the nations, divided powers between different levels of government, and established the equal participation of the people, including women, in the government

What is an ideology?

A set of principles or ideas that explains your world and your place within it, which is based on certain assumptions about human nature and society and provides an interpretation of the past, an explanation of the present, and a vision for the future

What is just war?

The idea that a country is right to go to war for certain reasons, including self-defence, defence of another country that is under attack, protection of innocents, and punishment for serious crimes

What is the Kyoto Protocol?

An agreement reached at an international convention at which world leaders met to discuss climate change and create a plan for reducing greenhouse gases

What is classical conservatism?

An ideology that says government should represent the legacy of the past as well as the well-being of the present, and that society should be structured in a hierarchical fashion, that government should be chosen by a limited electorate, that leaders should be humanitarian, and that the stability of society is all important

What are NGO's?

Non-governmental organizations which are created for the purpose of addressing a social issue such as homelessness, hunger, or economic development. NGO's serve as an example of a group structured on both individualist and collectivist values

Who is Sandra Lovelace?

An aboriginal woman who challenged the Canadian law that would have revoked her status as a registered Indian if she married a non-status man, and thus lose, among other benefits, her right to live on reserve lands. The success of her case resulted in the 1985 amendment to the Indian Act to partially address the discrimination

Who is Pierre Trudeau?

A former Canadian Prime Minister who was a firm believer in federalism and wanted a pluralist society that emphasized a sense of group cohesiveness and belonging in Canada. For him, this meant bringing aboriginals into the mainstream and issued the White Paper, which created much controversy with the aboriginals who saw it as another attempt to assimilate them into mainstream Canadian culture

Who was Robert Owen?

A Welsh social reformer who believed that the harshness of life under laissez-faire capitalism corrupted human nature. He believed that education and improved working conditions could peacefully eradicate the worst aspects of capitalism and could lead to an ideal socialist society

Who was John Locke?

An English philosopher that believed that the source of power was people themselves. He believed that the only reason governments exist is to protect life, liberty, and property and that any government action had to be justified by popular consent

What is citizenship?

Membership by birth or naturalization in a society, community, or country that entails definable rights of participation and protection, and certain responsibilities and duties to the society, community, or country

What is the Wampum Belt?

A belt meant to symbolize the relationship between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the European settlers. The belt is meant to represent the idea that each culture may coexist with each other but must not impose their laws, traditions, customs, language, or spirituality on the other

What was the French Revolution?

A revolution during the 18th century in France that supported the principles of liberalism and led to the creation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which was a foundational document for individual freedoms.

What is collectivism?

A current of thinking that values the goals of the group and the common good over the goals of any one individual

What was the apartheid?

A strict, legislated system of racial segregation and discrimination against Black and other "coloured" South Africans set in place by the National Party of South Africa from 1948 to 1994

What is disaster capitalism?

The practice of taking advantage of a major disaster to adopt liberal economic policies that the population would be less likely to accept under normal circumstances

What is laissez-faire economics/capitalism?

an economic system based on free markets, fair competition, wise consumers, and profit-motivated producers; a minimum of government involvement is favoured

What are kibbutz?

Communal settlements in Israel, organized according to socialist or collectivist principles such as collective ownership of property, social equality, and co-operation in production, consumption, and education

Who was Nelson Mandela?

An anti-apartheid revolutionary and former president of South Africa who became a symbol of the fight to end apartheid after his imprisonment and years of fighting with the National African Congress

Who is Tony Blair?

A former British prime minister who was criticized for his support of US foreign policies and Britain's involvement in the invasion of Afghanistan to remove power from the Taliban in 2001

Who was Adam Smith?

A Scottish economist who believed that if people worked first and foremost for themselves, everyone would be better off. He also believed that the government's role should be limited to maintaining the rule of law, to ensuring contracts were followed, and to providing some public works

Who was Thomas Hobbes?

An English philosopher who believed that if everyone is free, then everyone is in danger, and that we all need security more than we need freedom. His solution was a society where everyone gave up his or her freedom to one person who was responsible for everyone's security

What is political participation?

Any number of ways a citizen can be involved in the political process, such as voting, running as a candidate, supporting a candidate, attending constituency meetings, speaking out, demonstrating, protesting, writing letters to elected representatives

What is assimilation?

The act of one culture attempting to make another adopt their ideology and way of life

What were the three estates?

The different classes of citizens in France during the 18th century

What is individualism?

A current of thinking that values the freedom and worth of the individual, sometimes over the security and harmony of the group

What is election fraud?

Changing the true results of an election by various means, including voter intimidation, multiple voting, destruction of ballots, tampering with ballots, or changing electoral boundaries to change the composition of a riding

What are pandemics?

Outbreaks of disease on a global scale

What was the Wealth of Nations?

A book written by Adam Smith describing a system where individuals work for their own self-interest in a free-market system

What is cooperation?

Working together to the same end; a principle emphasized by collectivist ideologies

Who was Lyndon B. Johnson?

A former American president who was known for his strong domestic policy which included civil rights legislation, the "war on poverty", and health care for people living in poverty and the elderly. He was criticized however, for America's involvement in Vietnam and the increase of casualties during his leadership

Who is Robert Mugabe?

The current Zimbabwe president who is known for numerous human rights violations such as sanctioned killings of Ndebele tribe members and the expropriation of farms owned by white people

Who was Charles Fourier?

A French philosopher and utopian socialist who believed that education and improved working conditions could peacefully eradicate the worst aspects of capitalism and lead to an ideal socialist society

Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau?

A Swiss philosopher who believed that private property and ownership of land led to jealousy and corruption. His ideal state was one where the general will of the people was the absolute authority and believed that citizens themselves should make laws directly

What is jus soli?

the right of the soil; one of the two key legal principles of citizenship: a person's citizenship or nationality of a child is determined by place of birth

What are residential schools?

Schools that provide dormitories for their students. As part of Canada's program for the assimilation of the Aboriginal peoples under the original Indian Act of 1987, Aboriginal children were removed from their communities and housed and taught in church-run residential schools

What was the American Revolution?

A revolution in America where American colonists declared independence from the British crown and established a republic form of government where governing authority was invested in the hands of its citizens and not a ruling monarch

What is personal identity?

The idea you have of yourself as a unique individual; the collection of traits that you think of as distinguishing you from other people

What are pro-democracy movements?

Movements or campaigns in favour of democracy

What is extremism?

A term used by others to describe the beliefs and actions of those perceived to be outside of the accepted norms of political or social behaviour. Extremism may be a response adopted by those for whom ordinary political means of redressing perceived wrongs are deemed ineffective

What is Mein Kampf?

An autobiographical manifesto by Adolf Hitler outlining his ideology and plans for Germany

What are crown corporations?

A commercial company owned by the government and controlled and partially operated by civil servants

Who was Mahatma Gandhi?

An Indian leader of the Indian independence movement who was known for his non-violent protesting techniques such as civil disobedience, media campaigns, and targeted direct action

Who was Thomas Jefferson?

A former American president who was instrumental in shaping the democratic system of the new US government and put forward the concept of "the consent of the governed"

Who was Karl Marx?

A German philosopher and communist who believed that the only way to overthrow capitalism was by means of a class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoise and collaboratly wrote the Communist Manifesto outlining how the proletariat would gain the means of production

Who was Plato?

A Greek philosopher who believed that the community is best served by each citizen doing whatever it is that he or she does best. He believed that your role is determined by your natural abilities

What is jus sanguinis?

The right by blood; one of the two key legal principles of citizenship; the citizenship and nationality of a child is the same as the natural parents, wherever the child is born

What is enfranchisement?

Granting people the rights of citizens, especially the right to vote

What is classical liberalism?

An ideology based on the idea that the main function of government is to protect individuals' natural rights: the rights to life, liberty, and property. Classical liberalism also supports the idea that laws created by the government can be legitimized only by the consent of the majority of the members of society which creates a great amount of freedom for most people and ensures less control over individuals by the government

What is collective identity?

The identity that you share with other people as a member of a larger social group, such as a linguistic, faith, cultural, or ethnic group

What is "The Great Society"?

The strong domestic policy created by former American president Lyndon B. Johnson that included civil rights legislation, the "war on poverty", and health care for people living in poverty and those who were elderly

What is environmentalism?

A political and ethical ideology that focuses on protecting the natural environment and lessening the harmful effects that human activities have on the ecosystem

What is a planned economy?

An economic system in which the government controls and regulates production, distribution, and prices

What is public property?

Anything not privately owned by individuals. Generally speaking, public property is owned by the state or the community, and managed according to the best interests of the community

Who was Martin Luther King Jr.?

An American civil rights leader who was known for his non-violent protest methods such as civil disobedience, media campaigns, and targeted direct actions

Who was Mao Zedong?

A Chinese communist known for the controlled participation he enacted within his country. He instituted the Cultural Revolution to suppress those with liberal leanings, particularly academics. He recruited thousands of young people in order to carry out his revolution and spread the message of communism throughout the country

Who was Tommy Douglas?

A Canadian social democratic politician who was known for the creation of Canada's first publicly owned automobile-insurance program, his introduction of the Saskatchewan Bill of Rights that prohibited discrimination, and the creation of Saskatchewan Medicare which was Canada's first universal health-care program

Who was Montesquieu?

A French philosopher who believed in the worth of the individual, the equality of individuals, and the accountability of government. He also strongly believed in the separation of powers within government

What is philanthropy?

A concern for, and an effort to improve, the state of humankind through donations of money, time, or talents

What was the Indian Act?

An act of Parliament first passed in 1867, since amended many times, dealing with the governance of reserves and the rights and benefits of registered individuals. Included under the act are those First Nations peoples who signed treaties or were otherwise registered in the act

What was the Industrial Revolution?

A period of technological advances during the 18th and early 19th century that created great wealth due to laissez-faire economists promoting a transition from the system of mercantilism. This period also created a great disparity of wealth however, and many working class people remained very poor

What is worldview?

A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or group; the lens through which the world is viewed by an individual or group; the overall perspective from which the world is interpreted

What is the Truth and Reconciliation Commission?

An organization created in South Africa after apartheid was abolished, created to address the country's racist past, including the discriminatory policies of the government

What is consumerism?

Consumer spending; a preoccupation with consumer goods and their acquisition; a set of values focused on the acquisition and display of things in order to denote status

What is a mixed economy?

An economic system based on free-market principles but with some government intervention, usually to regulate industry, to moderate the boom-and-bust nature of the free-market business cycle, and to offer social welfare programs. In some mixed economic systems, the government owns some key industries

What is censorship?

The act of restricting freedom of expression or freedom of access to ideas or works, usually by governments, and usually to protect the perceived common good; may be related to speech, writings, works of art, religious practices, or military matters

What is pacifism?

A comittment to peace and opposition to war

What is the White Paper?

An official government document that outlines that government's policies. In 1969, the government of Prime Minister Trudeau issued a controversial White Paper that proposed to abolish treaties, the Department of Indian Affairs, and everything else that had kept the First Nations and Inuit people distinct from the people of Canada

What is chartism?

A working-class movement in Britain that focused on political and social reform from 1838 to 1848

What are beliefs and values?

Important aspects of identity that influence behaviour and choices, and that guide people in their interactions with others and how they view the world

What is non-violence?

A philosophy and strategy used to bring about political change. It may include civil disobedience, media campaigns, and targeted direct action

What is postmodernism?

A movement of thought, art, and criticism that raises questions about the faith that moderns have in reason and in progress, and tries to get people to rethink their assumptions about the meaning of modern life

What is collectivization?

An economic policy where all land is taken away from private owners and combined in large, collectively worked farms

What is adherence to collective norms?

Faithful observance of the norms or standards imposed on members of a group as a condition of membership in the group. These norms can relate to conduct, values, or appearance

What is civility?

Thoughtfulness about how our actions may affect others, based on the recognition that human beings live together

What is the no-fly list?

A list of people whom the Canadian government has identified as potentially posing an immediate threat to aviation security. People on the list are barred from flying on domestic flights in Canada

What is a referendum?

A general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision

What is collective responsibility?

Holding a whole group or collective responsible for the actions of individuals within the group or collective

What is conscription?

The compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of nation service, most often military service

What is the Red Paper?

The name given to the National Indian Brotherhood's "Citizens Plus" which outlined their objections to the policy changes recommended in the Trudeau government's White Paper

What is industrialization?

The stage of economic development during which the application of technology results in mass production and mass consumption within a country. This is accompanied by urbanization and changes in national living standards

What is totalitarianism?

A government system that seeks complete control over the public and private lives of its citizens

Who is Ovide Mercredi?

An aboriginal Canadian politician who is known for his advocation for non-violent methods for change

Who was Milton Friedman?

An American economist who believed that inflation was primarily the result of an excess supply of money produced by central banks. He also believed that the price system, or the free market, was the only way to balance supply and demand in the economy while maintaining individual liberty

Who is Maher Arar?

A Syrian-Canadian man who has been affected by the American no-fly list by American officials detaining him and claiming he had links to al Qaeda. He was questioned, held, and deported to Syria where he was held and tortured until 2003

What is conscientious objection?

The refusal to perform military service on moral or religious grounds

What was the Nisga'a Final Agreement?

A land claims settlement signed in 2000 between the Canadian and British Columbian governments and the Nisga'a First Nation. Their agreement gives the Nisga'a control over their land, including the forestry and fishery resources contained in it

What is standard of living?

The level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class

What is hegemony?

The political control exerted by one group over others

What was the Orange Revolution?

A revolution in Ukraine where individuals protested against the results of the 2004 Ukraine presidential election where the declared winner was hand-picked by the outgoing president who was an anti-democratic and pro-Russian politician

What is Homeland Security?

An American federal agency designed to protect the United States against threats

What was the Reichstag Fire Decree?

A decree that allowed the Nazi government to restrict personal freedom, freedom of opinion, freedom of the press, and freedom of organization and assembly, eliminate the privacy of mail, telegrams, and telephone conversations, eliminate the need for warrants, and ban all political parties except the Nazi party

What is socialism?

Any ideology that contains the belief that resources should be controlled by the public for the benefit of everyone in society, and not by private interests for the benefit of private owners and investors

What is the Aboriginal Healing Fund?

An Aboriginal-managed, Ottawa-based, not-for-profit private corporation with the mission to help Aboriginal people build healing processes that address the legacy of abuses such as the residential school system

What is cost of living?

The level of prices relating to a range of everyday items

What is pluralism?

A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious, or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society

What are internment camps?

Detention facilities used to confine political prisoners and people of specific national or minority groups

What is martial law?

Military government involving the suspension of ordinary law

What is a labour movement?

The effort by organized labour to improve conditions for workers. Collective interest is the basis for the organized labour movement, which began during, and as a result of, the Industrial Revolution

What is self-interest?

One's personal interest or advantage

What are the Factory Acts?

Acts passed by Britain that gradually improved the working conditions in factories, decreased working hours, regulated the age at while children could be employed, and regulated the number of hours women and children could be required to work

What is progressivism?

a 1920s movement in the United States, usually associated with President Theodore Roosevelt, that reacted to the perceived abuses of laissez-faire capitalism by large corporations. Progressives favoured a "square deal for average citizens and used legislation and some regulation of the marketplace to achieve this

What is terrorism?

The policy of various ideological groups to disrupt the affairs of an enemy state or culture by the use of violent acts against non-combatants, in order to create debilitating terror and confusion

What are utopian socialists?

Humanitarians who advocated an end to the appalling conditions of the average worker in the industrial capitalist countries of the 19th century; people who believe it is possible to work to bring about a better world and that obvious evils can be eradicated

What is collective interest?

The set of interests that members of a group have in common. The principle of collective interest states that while individual members nay have individual interests, these interests are often better addressed by making them a common set of interests that the group can address together.

What is humanitarianism?

Trying to improve the lives of others and to reduce their suffering through various means, including social reform and aid

What is luddism?

A protest movement of the early 1800s against industrialization and mechanization. Protesters broke into factories and destroyed machines

What is autonomy?

A state of individual freedom from outside authority

What are the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms?

A statutory bill of rights and human rights code that was passed by the National Assembly of Quebec in 1975

What is progressive taxation?

The act of taxing people who earn more money at a higher rate

What was the Great Depression?

An economic crisis that began in late 1929 with the stock market crash and continues through the 1930s. During this period, banks failed, factories closed, many people became unemployed, and international trade declined

What is the "war on terror"?

A military, political, and ideological conflict headed by the United States, which was a direct result of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the the country

What is language legislation?

Laws regarding the official language of a state. In the Canadian context, such legislation is related either to Canada's official languages or to Quebec's Charter of the French Language

What is the New Deal?

Economic policies put in place by US president Franklin. D. Roosevelt in 1933. The policies gave government a more significant role in the regulation of the economy and in providing social "safety net" programs

What is propaganda?

Exaggeration and misrepresentation of information to rally support for a cause or an issue

What is self-reliance?

The quality of being solely responsible for one's own well-being

What is competition?

The act or an instance of competing or contending with others. Competition is seen as an incentive for individuals and groups to work harder and more efficiently

What is authoritarianism?

A form of government with authority vested in an elite group that may or may not rule in the interests of the people. Authoritarian political systems take many forms, including oligarchies, military dictatorships, ideological one-party states, and monarchies

What is illiberal?

Ideologies opposed to the values, beliefs, and principles of liberalism; usually refers to undemocratic actions but may be found in democratic countries during times of crisis

What are labour unions?

Associations of workers engaged in a similar function who unite to speak with management about their concerns. Their purpose is to provide a united voice that speaks for the rights of its members

What is radical?

Extreme; revolutionary. A radical change in a political regime often rejects the political and economic traditions of the past

What is feminism?

The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes.

What is rule of law?

A key principle in liberal democracies that states that every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law

What is mercantilism?

An economic theory that says the aim of all economic pursuits should be to strengthen the power and wealth of the state

What is egalitarianism?

asserting, resulting from, or characterized by belief in the equality of all people, especially in political, economic, or social life.