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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Eggs are grading by
Candaling
Color of shell is unrelated to
food value or quality
Egg yolk is a natural
emulsion of oil in water
Chalazae
yolk anchors hold yolk
custards are set by
coagulation of cooked egg yolks
Air space in egg becomes
larger with age
Good quality of egg is determined by
high proportion of thick white
Nutritive value of egg
80 calories, 6 grams of protein, 5 grams of fat
More protein is found in this part of the egg...
the yolk because it is more concentrated
Color of yolk depends upon
amount and color of pigment in hen's diet
candling
passing an egg in front of bright light to view contents
-it judges the thickness of white and condition of yolk
SIZE OF EGGS (By Dozen)
Jumbo
Extra large
Large
Medium
Small
Peewee
Jumbo - 30 oz
Extra large - 27 oz
Large - 24 oz
Medium - 21 oz
Small - 18 oz
Peewee - 15 oz
Freshness of eggs can be maintied in
cold storage for 6 months
3 weeks in refrigerator
Coagulation of egg occurs at
62 - 70 degrees
syneresis (weaping)
liquid release of a coagulated product
syneresis occurs when...
cooked at too high or too low a temperature for too long

Creates a tough, watery product
effectiveness of eggs as leavining agents depends....
upon the amount of air beaten into it.
Egg white foam stiffens by the addition of...
acids (like cream of tartar).
Tenderizes the egg protein to extend more easily.
Egg white foams compared by
specific gravity
(density vs water density)
room temperature whipping
whips quicker to larger volume due to lower surface tension
sugar will also stabilize
egg white foam
Egg yolk produces stiffer emulsion
due to high concentration of protein by weight
lecithin
compound of water emulsion
lipoprotein in egg whites
stabilize emulsion by interacting with surface of the oil droplets (forming a layer)
Mayonnaise
food emulsion stabilize by egg yolk
salt and vinegar improves shape of poached egg
by hastening coagulation
Green surface of yolks turn green when overcooked or allowed to slow quickly
due to combination of iron from the yolk and sulfur from the whole egg
(forming ferrous sulfide)
The larger % sag, the more tender gel
% sag objective measure of custard quality. MOre tender gel more sag when pushed in
egg substitutes
are lower in fat, calories, cholesterol

produce different colors and flavors

Often higher in sodium
When eggs are stored for a long time...
they will lose carbon dioxide making them more alkaline

-whites become watery
-yolks flatten
-odors absorbed
Percent casein in Milk
80%
Vitamins and Minerals in milk
calcium, phosphorous, riboflavin, vitamins A & D
Liquid that drains from the curd of clotted milk
Whey
The collective name of proteins that precipitate at a pH of 4.6
Casein
Pasteurization
destroy pathogenic bacteria
145 F for 30 minutes or 160 F for 15 seconds
Evaporated milk has ____ % water removed.
Evaporated milk has 60% water removed.
Sweetened condensed milk is _____ and has ________ added.
Sweetened condensed milk is evaporated and has 15 - 18% sucrose or glucose added.
When using buttermilk in place of regular milk you should...
increase baking soda.
Cultured buttermilk has
increased lactic acid added to skimmed or partially skimmed milk.
Sweet Acidophilus Milk
Skim milk with acidophilus bacteria added to reduce lactose
Lactaid (Low lactose milk)
treated with lactase
yogurt is fermented with ______ bacteria.
yogurt is fermented with lactic acid bacteria.
Filled milk
skim milk with the addition of vegetable fat and water
(illegal in some states)
Imitation milk
non-dairy creamer, lacks milk fat and othe rimportant dairy ingredients

Casein derived or soy protien and veg oils
When milk is heated...
whey protein precipitates out.
This causes the film on outside which can be remedied by whipping
If acid it added to milk
casein precipitates
Percent fat in butter or margarine.
80% fat in butter margarine
Oxidation of butter
increases rancidity due to O2 take up and release of hydrogen
FAT CONTENT OF MILK
-Half and Half-light or thin
-medium
-heavy or thick
-sour cream
-whipped milk
FAT CONTENT OF MILK
-Half and Half (No less 10.5%)
-light or thin (18-30%)
-medium (30-36%)
-heavy or thick (>36%)
-sour cream (>18%)
-whipped milk (35%)
Production of cheese
warmed milk adding lactic acid producing bacteria, then rennet which coagulated casein forming curd which is the separated from liquid protein
Types of Cheese
-Uncured
-Cured
-Processed
Uncured - refrigerated immediately (cottage cheese)
Cured - additional whey removed, salt added and ripened
Processed - Blend of natural cheese, emulsified (oil will not separate out)
How to cook cheese
cook for short periods of time at moderate temperatures
Quick cooking cereals have _______ _________ added to make them more alkaline.
Quick cooking cereals have disodium phosphate added to make them more alkaline and cause swell faster and cook quicker.
Pastry and cake flours are made from ______ _______.
pastry and cake flours are made from soft wheat.
Farina
inner portion of wheat kernel
Semolina Flour
Bran and Germ removed from durum wheat then ground
Noodles
contain egg yolk or egg solids
PROTEIN CONTENT of BREADS
-Bread
-All Purpose
-Pastry
-Cake
PROTEIN CONTENT of BREADS
-Bread (11.8%)
-All Purpose (10.5%)
-Pastry (7.9%)
-Cake (7.5%)
Gluten Content of Flours Most to Least
Bread, all-purpose, pastry, cake
gluten is made from ______ & ______.
Gluten is made form gliadin and glutenin
Gives elastic properties and forms framework
Adding Bran to a flour...
decreases volume of end product
(increase flour and liquid to compensate).
Flour color
due to carotenoids normally yellos if oxidized during storage flour will turn to white
Durum wheat has a _____ gluten content.
Durum has a HIGH gluten content.
Strength of flour refers to...
it's capacity to retain leavening.

Depends on the quality of gluten
Liquids due three things in a flour mixture
Starts leavening
Hydrates gluten (development)
Gelatinizes starch
Leavening is started by
1. ________
2. ________
OR
3.________
Steam
Air
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide as a leavening agent can start by...
Yeast on Sugar
Acid on Baking soda. (quicker)
Acids that can be used in baking
Sour milk , cream of tartar, molasses
Baking powder
Baking soda, and dry acid and cornstarch.
Old baking powder becomes more alkaline causing a loss of _______ in baked goods.
Old baking powder becomes more alkaline causing a loss of THIAMIN in baked goods.
Salt & Yeast
Too much salt interferes with the growth of yeast
Eggs in baked goods
Provides Stability
Retains leavening agent
Distributes shortening
Introduces Air, color and flavor
Fat in baked goods
adds tenderness by coating gluten particles

keeping gluten from become one giant mass
Sugar in Baked Goods
modifies texture
Hygroscopic (sugar)
absorb some water needed for gluten development
Too much sugar
coarse cells, thick walls, shiny crust and crumbly product
Honey is...
glucose and fructose mostly
Use of sweet and low in baking
use half as much for sugar
Quick bread
flour mixture leavened by methods EXCEPT yeast
Basic ingredients Yeast and Eggs
Muffin Method
All liquid ingredients to dry at once
Mix enough to dampen to produce smooth batter
Over mixing in Muffin Method
loss of carbon dioxide
Tunnels
Increased gluten formation
Foam Cake
dependent on air as leavening agent
Angel - egg white
Sponge - Yolk and White foam
Chiffon - Liquid yolks, egg white foam, BP, oil
SHORTENED CAKE
use comparatively large amount of fat
SHORTENED CAKE
Layer cake
Baking Powder
SHORTENED CAKE
Pound cake
Air and steam
SHORTENED CAKE
Rich cake
increased fat, egg, sugar
Alteration in amount of sugar
More sugar, more time needed to meet gluten coagulation temperature

More sugar, increased volume and weaken gluten and cake falls
Four ingredients in Pastries
Flour, fat, liquid, salt
When substituting Butter for Lard
you need to use more Butter
Butter (80%); Lard (100%)
Tenderness in pie crusts enhanced by...
Tenderness in pie crusts enhanced by using oil, soft fats, or fat cut into very small pieces
Flakiness is promoted by
leaving fat in course particles
A high fat, high sugar batters absorbs the most fat when deep fried.
A high fat, high sugar batters absorbs the most fat when deep fried.
Classification of Batters and Doughs According to Flour to Liquid
Liquid/Flour
Pour Batter 1/1
Drop Batter 1/2
Soft Dough 1/3
Stiff Dough 1/4
Yeast Doughs
Sponge Method
(Commercial Method)
Combing yeast with part of flour and allow batter to ferment for several hours in frige
Then add rest
Yeast Doughs
Straight Dough Method
All ingredients are added before dough is allowed to rise
Proofing
final rising of dough in pan

Strong flours needed for this method
Yeast Doughs
Continuous Bread-Making Method
(Commercial Method)
substitutes mechanical energy for traditional bulk fermentation
Baking at High Altitudes
Atmospheric pressure reduced
Gas expands more readily
Steams expends earlier
Cake may expand excessively at early baking period before

Decrease baking powder increase liquid
Amylose
responsible for gelation
Amylopectin
corn, rice, sorghum
-non gelling; stable to freezing and thawing
Thickening ability of Starches in order of effectiveness.
potato, waxy corn, waxy rice, waxy sorghum, tapioca, wheat
Waxy starches are ____ _____________ than their standard counterparts.
Waxy starches are more effective than their standard counterparts.
Gelatinzation
swelling that occurs when starch is heated in water close to the boiling point
Role of Sugar in Gelatinization
-Competes with starch for water (needed for gelatinization)
-Reduces viscosity and gel strength
When to add an acid when baking/cooking
At the end because acid breaks down starch and gives a runny product
Retrogradation occurs in starches with a high proportion of _______.
Retrogradation occurs in starches with a high proportion of AMYLOSE.

-recrystallization of starch paste to form a solid or rigid gel. Bonds break and reform giving a crystalline, gritty texture)
Retrogradation can be fixed by slowly heating
Retrogradation can be fixed by slowly heating
Retrogradation is greatly accelerated by ________.
Freezing
Process of Retrogradation and How to Fix
-recrystallization of starch paste to form a solid or rigid gel. Bonds break and reform giving a crystalline, gritty texture)

Fix by slowly reheating