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39 Cards in this Set

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Developmental Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
( literally, "monster maker" ) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportiones.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Sensorimotor Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Object Permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another’s point of view
Preoperational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage ( from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age ) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
the principle (which Piaget believed to be apart of conrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Theory of Mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Concrete operational Stage
in Piaget's theory , the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain to think logically about concrete events.
Formal operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Stranger Anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display
beginning by about 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person ; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation
Critical Period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson , a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
our understanding and evaluation of who we are.
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
the period of sexual maturation , during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary Sex Characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
[meh-NAR-key] the first menstrual period.
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
Social Identity
the "we " aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to " who am I ? "" that comes from our group memberships .
in Erickson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
Emerging Adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
the time of natural cessation of menstruation
also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Cross-Sectional Study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal Study
a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
Social Clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage,parenthood,retirement.