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104 Cards in this Set

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nature approach
aka maturational approach- developmental proceeds in an orderly fashion, is result of genetics
nurture approach
aka experience approach- emphasizes importance of environment for development
middle ground
relative contribution of each
continuity view
development is a gradual, additive process without sudden change
discontinuity
development is discontinuous qualitative transformations
cross-sectional study
studying people all at one time
longitudinal research
studying same group of people for a period of time
germinal period
1st two weeks after coneption creation of zygote, cell division and attachment of zygot to uterine wall
embryonic period
2-8 week after conception. cell division increases supports system for cells form, and organs appear.
endoderm
digestive and respiratory systems
ectoderm
nervous system and sensory receptors
mesoderm
bones, muscles, excretory, reproductive and circulatory system s
fetal period
2-9 months after conception. fetus is rapidly gaining weight, fine detailing of body organs and systems
teratogens
an agent that produces a malformation or raises population incidence of malformation
fetal alcohol sundrome
a group of abnormalities in babes born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy
Cephalocaudal pattern
greatest development takes place at top of body, and physical development moves gradually downwards
Proximodistal pattern
growth starts at center of bdy and moves towards extremities. you can control your chest muscles before you can control your should or arm
Babinski
stroking the sole of the foot for brain damage
Moro's relflex
aka startle reflex- when baby senses that they are falling
Attatchment
strong affectionate bond with special others that endures over time
Evolutionary Psychology
infants are motivated to seek out attention/proximity of adults
Psychoanalytic orientation
early experiences with caregivers lead to formation of "working models"
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
major attachment types
Bowlby
significant risk of psychopathology later in life should attachment become inconsistent or less than satisfactory
Affectionless characters
their relationships are for their use not for bonding
Reactive attachment disorder
not a lot of affection in first two years. they hurt other kids and animals
Demandingness
degree to which parents set down rules/expectations for behavior and require children to comply (how strick)
Responsiveness
degree to which parents are sensitive to children needs and express love, warmth. and concern for children
Authoritative
high in demandingness and high in responsiveness most positive outcomes for kids
Authoritarian
high in demandingness but low in responsiveness
-rebellion or dependency, violence in and out of home, less creative, less socially competent
Indulgent
low in demandingness and igh in responsiveness
-kids not prepared to accept frustrations or responsibilities
Indifferent
low in demandingess and responsiveness
-impulsive and delinquent
most common parenting style
Piagets Cognitive Development Theory
Piaget saw cognitive development as a series of stages
Schemas
cognitive structures-organized ideas that grow/differentiate with experience
Adaptation
including/adjusting new info
Assimilation
absorbing new information into existing schemas
Accommodation
adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information
Sensorimotor (birth-2)
learning to coordinate their motor reactions with sensory input
Preoperational (2-7)
symbolic representational ability- objects can be represented with symbols
Object permanence
just because something is out of sight doesn't mean it no longer exists
Egocentric
they don't understand that other people have a different point of view
Animistic
giving human or life-like qualities to inanimate objects
Syncretism
trying to link two things that are not related
Concrete operational (7-11)
reason becomes more flexible, logical, organized
Formal Operational (11+)
abstract, logical, idealistic
Personal Fable
you are unique and special- no one understands what it is like to be you
Imaginary audience
everyone is looking at me and judging me
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral developmental
study included 72 boys aged 10, 13, and 16. they were presented with ten moral dilemmas. boys asked to select one of two acts, then questions about their choice. no right or wrong answers
Ethic of Autonomy
individual as primary moral authority. do what you want as long as you don't hurt other people
Ethic of Community
individuals are members of social groups to which they have commitments/responsibilites
Ethic of Divinity
individual is a spiritual entity subject to rules of a divine authority
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
first ture life span theorist
Basic trust vs mistrust
1st year. most important- consistency, predictability, and reliability in caretaker's action
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
(1-3) trying to exercise sense of autonomy
Initiative vs. Guilt
(preschool) child makes plans, sets goals, and perseveres in attaining them
Industry vs. Inferiority
(elementary school) learing the useful skills and tools of the wider culture
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
(adolescence) establishing an ego identity- who one is, one's place in the larger social order
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(early adulthood) Intimacy- ability to bond emotionally with another person
Generativity vs Stagnation
(adulthood)-Generativity-creation of children/production of things and ideas through work- chance to make an impression on the world
Integrity vs. Despair
(old age)-life review- accomplishments, regrets
Five Stages of Dying
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Five stages of Grieving
1. numbness
2. yearning and searching
3. disorganization, anger, and despair
4. reorganization/resolution
Money & Erhardt's Biosocial Theory
interplay of biology and social experiences
Social Learning theory
Bandura and Mischel. Gender role instruction in no different from any other kind of social learning
Direct tuition
aka differential reinforcement- we are rewarded when we behave in gener appropriate way
Cognitive-Developmental theory
children have to reach a level where they form a gender identity, actively socialize themselves
Gender Schema theory
networks of gender information that color perceptions/ shape behaviors
Evolutionary Approach
natural selection and adaptation as major determinants of social behavior
Masculinity
taking charge, standing up for themselves, etc
Femininity
expressive roles-taking care of others, being kind and nurturing
Androgyny
combination of masculine/feminine traits in one person
Gender role transcendence
when an individual's competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized on a person basis
Verbal ability
advantage for females
Visual/spatial ability
males
Math ability
females are better at math computation, males are better at higher math theory
Aggression-boys vs girls
males are more physically and overtly aggressive, females are more convertly aggressive. Relational aggression- spreading rumors
Activity level-boys vs girls
males are more active
Fear, timidity and risk-taking-boys vs girls
females
Emotional expressiveness/sensitivity-boys vs girls
females are more likey to talk about emotional subjects. Males are just as sensitive, but don't talk about it
Compliance-boys vs girls
females are more likely to go along with others. males issue order to gain compliance, females use suggestions , more diplomatic
Restrictive
place strong prohibitions on sex before marriage
Ines Beag
island off the coast of Ireland, most repressive culture, mo one is aloud to be naked sex is only for procreation
Double standard
some impose the death penalty on females for sexual indiscretions, no culture punishes males as much
Semirestrictive
prohibitions are ot as strictly enforced, and there are easy ways around them
Permissive
encourage and expect sexuality
Mangaian culture of the South Pacific
sexuality begins in childhood, women teach boys how to have sex
Types of female circumcision
sunna circumcision, clitoridectomy, infibulation, unsanitary conditions.
Homophobia
irrational fear and hatred of homosexuals
Modeling theory
kids raised by gay couples are not more likely to be gay
Poor parenting theory
dominant mother does not make males gay
Role models
choosing male role models not make girls lesbians
Seduction theory
children who are molested are not more likey to be gay
Motivation
factors that activate, direct, maintain behavior toward a goal
Emotion
subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and expressions
Instincts
specific, inborn behavior patterns characteristic of an entire species
Drive reduction theory
behavior aimed at reducing a sate of bodily tension/arousal and returning organism to homeostasis (balance)
Drive
state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior
Primary drives
unlearned, found in all animals; motivate behavior vital to survival of individual/species
Secondary drives
learned drives not based on a physiological state
Arousal theory
each individual has an optimum level of arousal; varies from one situation to next and over course of the day
Zuckerman
sensation seeking is a basic motivation that varies greatly from person to person
Critque
Naive- not everybody is trying to be the best person they can be. it is difficult to research
Intrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior that stems from behavior performed
Extrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment