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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Classical conditioning

concerned with stimulus that comes BEFORE behavior elicits behavior

Unconditioned Stimulus

a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.


ex.) visual, sound, anything from the environment

Conditioned Stimulus

after pairing with US, comes a trigger to a conditioned response (CR)

Stimulus generalization

the tendency once a response has been conditioned, stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus elicit similar responses.

ex.) dog who was conditioned to salivate when rubbed, will do even when scratched.

Stimulus Discrimination

the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that does NOT signal an unconditioned stimulus.

ex.) dog salivates only to one tone of bell.


diminishing responding that occurs when the CS (tone) no longer signals US (food)

ex.) presenting CS with no US (food)

-shut off reinforcement

Spontaneous Recovery

the reappearance after a pause an extinguished CR (salivation)

-hasn't been wiped from memory

ex.) bike riding

Operant Conditioning

concern with a stimulus that comes AFTER the behavior is emitted

Positive Reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcer-any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response

ex.) pet a dog when you call it, pay a person who paints your house

-ADD a desirable stimulus

Negative Reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer- any stimulus that when REMOVED after a response, strengthens response

ex.) take painkillers to end pain, fasten seat belt to stop beeping noise

Positive Punishment

presenting (adding) an undesired consequence after bad/undesired behavior

ex.) getting a ticket for speeding, spray water on barking dog

Negative Punishment

taking AWAY a rewarding stimulus for undesired behavior

ex.) take away teen's phone privileges, revoking library card for not paying fine

Partial (Intermittent) Reinforement

reinforcing a response only part of the time. Learning is slower to appear, but resistance to extinction is better

Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement

reinforced only after a specific number of responses

Variable-Ratio Reinforcement

reinforced after unpredictable number of responses

Fixed- Interval Reinforcement

reinforced a response only after a specific time has elapsed

Variable-Interval Reinforcement

reinforces a response only after a unpredictable time intervals

ex.) getting a text response, Facebook message


conditioning an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by association of positive actions with stimulus

Bandura's Theory

By watching grown up hit, kick, punch the Bobo doll, children, by watching a model, we learn by observation and imitation


(operant) reinforcers guide behavior to closer desired behavior

Sensory Memory

immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system

Short-Term Memory

hold a few items briefly.

ex.) 7 digit phone number before dialing

encode: rehearsal (repetition)

Long-Term Memory

relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory

ex.) knowledge, skills, experience

-for later retrieval

-Store: on basis of importance

Explicit (Declarative) Memory

memory of facts, personal experiences

Implicit Memory

-procedural memory

-skills: motor and cognitive

-you can just do it ex.) bike riding


processing info into memory system

extracting meaning


the retention of encoded info over time


the process of getting info out of the memory system


organizing items into familiar manageable units

-often automatic


composed of few broad concepts divided & subdivided into narrower concepts & facts

-help retrieve info efficiently


processes explicit memories for storage

-Temporary stores some memories & sends them to other places for more permanent storage

-if removed--cant store recent memories


remembering without any external cues

ex.) essay questions test recall of knowledge because nothing on a blank sheet of paper will jog the memory


identifying learned information using external cues

ex.) true or false questions and multiple-choice questions test recognition because the previously learned information is there on the page, along with other options.


subject first learns some material and, after various lengths of time, relearns that same material to the same criterion level

ex.) memorizing grocery lists and being tested on what was on it and how long to retrieve most of the items on the list

Ebbinghaus' Curve of Forgetting

-course of forgetting is initially rapid then levels off with time.

-memory of novel info fades quickly then levels out

Non sense Syllables

non-word letter combinations

ex.) YOX, JIH

Serial Position Effect

our tendency to be better a recalling the last item (recency effect) and first items (primacy effect) in a list

ex.) names of co-workers; spent more time rehearsing earlier names than later ones

Retroactive Interference

occurs when NEW learning disrupts recall of OLD info

Proactive Interference

occurs when PRIOR learning disrupts recall of NEW info


cannot recall traumatic experiences


on the tip of the tongue-less anxiety- then recall

Elizabeth Loftus

eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories after crime or accident

Problems evaluating memories of child abuse

-cannot reliably recall happenings at young age

- can't tell if true or false

Improving Memory

1. Rehearsal repeatedly

2. Make material meaningful

3. Activate retrieval cups

4. Use Mnemonic devices

5. Minimize interference

6. Sleep

7. Test yourself

Positive Transfer

rapid learning in a new situation because stimuli or response required are similar to those learned in an earlier situation