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181 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Approximately when did the world reach 1 billion people, 2 billion, 7 billion?
1830, 1930, 2011
Name 1 country in the top 10 with highest natural increase rate.
Name 1 country in the bottom 10 with lowest natural increase rate.
Why do scientists talk of a demographically divided world?
different growth rates
Approximately how much is the U.S. population growing each year?
3 million
Define the crude birth rate, crude death rate, crude rate of natural increase
CBR = The number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 ppl

CDR = The # deaths occurring during the year, per 1000 ppl.
The sum of cause-specific death rates in a pop.
= 1000*D/P

What is the bookkeeping equation of population growth?
Pt = Po + B - D + I - O

(B = birth, D = death, I = immigrants, O = out migrants)
How can the absolute number of births increase if the crude birth rate is
the denominator is increasing
What is the only sustainable population growth rate in the long term?
Describe the stages of the demographic transition and draw a graph of same.
1. High birth and death rates
zero/low growth
2. Death rates declining, birth rates still high
high growth rate
3. Death rates and birth rates declining
declining growth rate
4. Birth and death rates low
low growth rate
What does the ‘baby boom’ in the U.S. refer to?
Post–World War II baby boom between the years 1946 and 1964. Live births surged
Describe what information that is used to derive the wealth index.
Assets owned, source of drinking water, how many rooms in house, refridgerator
What is the shape of the age specific death rate?
Define the expectation of life at birth.
Expected yrs a newborn will live if s/he survives according to survival rates given by current lvls of mortality by age in the pop
Define the maternal mortality rate.
the number of maternal deaths over the total number of live births x 100,000
Name one public health intervention that led to declines in mortality in 19 th
century Europe.
cleaner water
Describe the epidemiological transition
Shift in age structure of the mortality

Change in patterns of mortality/morbidity; from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases
In what region is maternal mortality the highest?
Sub-Saharan Africa
Is malaria transmitted by female mosquitos, male mosquitos or both?
What is the definition of fecundity?
Physiological capacity to conceive
What is the definition of fecundability?
Probability a women will conceive during a menstrual cycle
What is the definition of parity?
# children born alive to a woman
What is the definition of gravidity?
# pregnancies a woman has had
Sketch a typical pattern of age specific fertility
Why is replacement level fertility (for TFR) about 2.1 births per woman
instead of 2.0?
To account for infant mortality
Name 3 of the intermediate fertility variables.
Married/in union
Induced abortion
Why/how does age at marriage affect TFR in a population?
As age increases tfr decreased
What are the two types of unintended births?
What background or distal variable is most closely associated with fertility levels?
Female education
What intermediate or proximate variable is most closely associated with fertility levels?
Approximately how many sperm are there per ejaculate?
150-300 million
During which part of the menstrual cycle is progesterone high?
Name 2 side effects of oral contraceptives.
nausea, weight gain
Briefly describe one of the fertility awareness methods.
calendar-based; fertile days, infertile days measured by menstruation
Give one reason why the withdrawal method is not very effective.
pre-cum can still contain sperm; relies on perfect use
What is LAM
Lactational Amenorrhea Method

the temporary postnatal infertility that occurs when a woman is amenorrheic (not menstruating) and fully breastfeeding
Is contraceptive use typically lower in rural or urban areas? Why?
lower in rural areas; less access
In which region do most persons above age 65 live?
Which region has the population with the highest percentage of persons above
age 65?
What is the definition of the old age dependency ratio?
Aged dependency ratio (ADR) = (Pop 65+/Pop 15‐64)*100
What are the causes of population aging?
increase in median age of a population, caused by fewer births and longer lives
What one key item in a safe delivery kit helps prevent neonatal tetanus?
sterile razor blade for cutting umbilical cord
In what region are infant and child mortality the highest?
Sub-Saharan Africa
Name 2 of the top 5 causes of under 5 deaths in the world.
In which region is low birth weight the highest proportion of births?
Asia (India)
Why is initiation of breastfeeding within an hour of birth important?
Your baby starts to receive the immunological effects of colostrum (has antibodies and nutrients)

i.e. Diarrhoea incidence dramatically less
What is exclusive breastfeeding?
the infant only receives breast milk without any additional food or drink, not even water
Is neonatal or postneonatal mortality usually higher in developing countries?
Name 2 interventions to prevent neonatal deaths
clean delivery practices; breastfeeding
Name 3 vaccines recommended for children 0-6 years of age by WHO/UNICEF
Hepatitis B, polio, measles
What is a treatment for bacterial pneumonia?
What therapy saves children with diarrhea from dying?
Oral rehydration therapy
What are treated bednets for?
Name 2 advantages of male sterilization over female sterilization
outpatient procedure, reversible
What is the definition of unmet need for contraception?
Women have an unmet need if they
-are sexually active
-do not want to have a child soon or at all
-are not using any contraceptive method
-are able to conceive
About how many abortions occur in the world each year?
~45 million (43.8 million in 2008)
What country is the largest donor of international population assistance?
United States
Name 4 contraceptive methods.
Female Sterilization (cauterize fallopian tubes)
Male Sterilization (cauterize vas deferens)
What is “dual protection”?
using two contraception methods concurrently
Why might “abstinence only” programs in high schools be problematic?
It doesn't work, and they don't teach contraception
Name 2 species that have gone extinct
dodo bird, java tiger
Approximately what result does the ecological footprint exercise give for the
number of earths needed to support the current population of the world at the
average standard of living?
Name 2-3 common air pollutants.
nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide
Where is the ozone hole?
Name the country with the largest share of deforestation overall.
How many other species do we share the planet with?
6-12 million
What is a ‘biological diversity hotspot’?
where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat.

As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth.

i.e. Phillippines, Madagascar, Polynesia, Caribbean
Name two areas that are biological diversity hotspots’
Phillipines, Madagascar
Name 2 endangered primate species.
Complete the sentence “When a species is gone....”
it is gone forever
Name the region and subregion of the world with the highest HIV prevalence
Africa, Southern Africa
What is the main mode of HIV transmission in Africa?
sexual intercourse
How do we estimate the prevalence of HIV in a population?
Women attending antenatal clinics, Testing as part of general population surveys, Counseling and testing, Military (men get tested)
How protective (what percent reduction in transmission to males) is male
circumcision against HIV?
60% lower transmission
Why is breastfeeding a dilemma for HIV-positive women who give birth?
all breastmilk is contaminated and 1/4 of children will become infected through breastmilk. Presents a dliema because breast feeding provides essential nutrients and strengthens the immune system but puts child at risk for becoming infected with the virus
Should more money go for HIV primary prevention or for HIV treatment? State
several reasons for each side.
prevention- to stop an epidemic, treatment- majority of those infected are not receiving treatment
Is cohabitation in the U.S. greater among college educated or among those with
only high school education?
high school education
Is the percent single among those 20-24 increasing or decreasing in the U.S.?
Define the crude marriage rate, the crude divorce rate.
CMR = Number of marriages per 1000 population = 1000*M/P. CDR = Number of divorces per 1000 population = 1000*D/P
Why are so few women over age 90 years married?
women have higher life expectancies than men, so by age 90 many women have been widowed beause men do not live as long
State one good reason why premarital counseling would be good to make
mandatory and one good reason why it would be bad to make it mandatory.
good- cost of counseling is signficantly less expensive than the cost of a divorce, divorce rates are high and are a burden for the economy and society so would be beneficial to lower the amount. bad- infringement on freedom and liberty for a couple to get married
Define a mover, a migrant, an emigrant, an immigrant
mover- a person who changes residence, migrant- a person who moves from one political residence to another, migrant-another, immigrant- person enters from an outside country, emigrant- departing to another country by crossing international boundaries
What is the relationship between the propensity to migrate between two places
and the distance between them?
The propensity of migration between two areas, all else being equal, is inversely proportional to the distance between the areas.
Define the crude migration rate
(inmigrants-out migrants)/midyear population x 1000
How can you estimate net migration with data from 2 censuses and vital registration data in-between the census dates?
Bookkeeping equation
(I-O) = (Pt-Po)-(B-D)

(just derive it from Pt = Po + (I-O)-(B-D))
How have the major countries of origin of immigrants to the US shifted from
the 19th to the 20th centuries
19th Century was primarily European, 20th was Mexico/LAC
What is the population of the world projected to be for 2050?
~9.3 billion
What were Malthus’ two postula and what proposition did he deduce from these?
1. Food is necessary for man, 2. Passion between the sexes is necessary. He then deduced that the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the Earth to produce
What are the Malthusian positive checks on population
war, famine, pestilence
Name two things in the commons that are regulated today but were not regulated
200 years ago.
Water, Air
Why are demographers worried by the projections of population to 2050 for
Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali?
They can't feed the population now
Describe in 2-3 sentences what happened on Easter Island that is relevant to
Malthusian arguments?
When humans initially arrived, was hugely covered in forests. Population peaked, but then declined, and the island was now barren. 21 tree species and 24 burd species extinct.
What is the relationship, if any, between ethanol and world hunger?
More corn being used on ethanol, less available for use in food
What 3 demographic/ecological factors that are associated with conflict?
Youth Bulge, Rate of urbanization, Cropland and/or water scarcity
Name one instance when Malthusians have been proved wrong.
Industrial revolution, agricultural revolution
Name 2 infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitos.
Malaria and West Nile Virus
What did Julian Simon and Paul Ehrlich bet on?
Ehrlich in 1980 bet that with increased population, the prices of metals would rise; Simon bet the opposite. (Elrich Lost)
What are David Lam and Stan Becker betting on?
Average (inflation-adjusted) index price of five foods monitored by the Food and Agriculture Organization–cereals, dairy, meat, oils and fats, and sugar.
What is the cornucopian response to the problem of increasing water scarcity?
- low weight for age
- low height for age
- low weight for height
Relative Risk (RR) of Death by Cause Due to Underweight Estimated From Random Effects Models
Micronutrient Deficiencys that contribute to Child Mortality
Vitamin A, Zinc
Potential Child Mortality Reduction from Preventive Interventions
Potential Child Mortality Reduction from Therapeutic Interventions
Why would you expect out-migration rates to be higher for Rhode Island than for Texas?
Because the size of rhode island is substantially smaller than Texas so there are more people per square mile in R.I. than in Texas
What 10-year age group typically has the highest migration rates?
How could you estimate net migration using data from two censuses in a country? What other information would you need?
(I-O) = (Pt-Po)-(B-D) Estimates net migration as difference in popuation counts at 2 time points and net vital events in-between.
Mover—A person who changes residence
Migrant—A person who moves from one political area to another
In-migrant—A person who moves in a political area within the same country
Immigrant—An international migrant who enters the area from a place outside the country
Net Migration
Net Immigration
Gross Migration
Net Migration—In-migrants - Out-migrants
Net Immigration—Immigrants - Emigrants
Note: Net migration for an area often includes both international and internal migration
Gross Migration—In-migrants + Out-migrants = Migration turnover
The Migration Transition Graph (emigration and immigration)
The Migration Transition Graph II
Migration transition follows a characteristic trajectory, moving from low to high to low rates of out-migration, yielding an inverted U-shaped curve (the “migration hump”); 

Traditionally this transition took 8 - 9 decades but Asian example...
Migration transition follows a characteristic trajectory, moving from low to high to low rates of out-migration, yielding an inverted U-shaped curve (the “migration hump”);

Traditionally this transition took 8 - 9 decades but Asian examples (South Korea) suggest this is now 3 – 4 decades. (Massey, 2003)
Basic Rule of Migration
The propensity of migration between two areas, all else being equal, is inversely proportional to the distance between the areas.
In-migration rate
Out-migration rate
Crude net migration rate
1000* I/P
Age-Specific Migration Rate
Number of migrants of age group “a” per 1,000 population of age group “a”
= 1000*Ma/Pa
Number of migrants of age group “a” per 1,000 population of age group “a”
= 1000*Ma/Pa
Sex-Specific Migration Rate
Rates—Number of migrants of sex “s” per 1,000 population of sex “s”
Age-Sex-Specific Migration Rates
—Number of migrants of age “a” and sex “s” per 1,000 population of age “a” and sex “s”
Net Migration Equation aka balancing equation
(I-O) = (Pt-Po) - (B-D)

Estimates net migration as difference in population counts at two time points and net vital events in-between
The “Healthy Migrant Effect”
The phenomenon that immigrants are often in superior health relative to the resident population when they first arrive, despite lower socio-economic status (SES), and poorer health in place of origin
Urban and Rural Population Graph Trend
Internally Displaced Person
Typical age pattern of migration Graph
% of US population foreign-born
3 countries with high proportion foreign-born
United Arab Emirates
migration transition
when developing countries have higher levels of emigration, and developed countries tend to have higher levels of immigration
What are the best ways to preserve species AND have a sustainable development for a country?
Ecotourism, Special preservation areas wehre you can't have development
Explain the IPAT formula
Impact=population x affluence x technology

i.e. T: Miles/Gallon x CO2/Gall burned
A: Miles/Year x Persons/Vehicle
Why is methane especially a problem
20x more damaging than CO2
What is a major source of lead poisoning in Baltimore?
lead paint, lead in water pipes
What living organisms in water pollution pose threats to public health?
Cholera, Amoeba, E.Coli
Why is an increase in livestock production a problem for the environment?
methane emissions, waste build up
Name two primate species that are endangered
mountain gorilla, bonobos
Name one bird or mammal species that has gone extinct since 1900
Java Tiger
What is the basic premise of Malthus?
population growth is exponential/geometrical while resource supply is arithmetical
Why the 1-child family if 2 child family is replacement?
Population Momentum
Why is more famine likely in the near future?
population grows geometrically while food grows arithmatically so with population growth we will not be able to support the increasing amoutn of people. also amount of arable land is little. almost all possible land for food is already in use so cannot increase
Name two potential “emerging infections”.
SARS, E. Coli
What is the ecological concept of ‘overshoot’ vis a vis population and resources?
a population exceeds the long term carrying capacity of its environment
State one argument of the cornucopians vis a vis population.
with population growth there will be more people so more brains to find solutions to the problems
What is the projected world population in 2050?
~9.3 billion
Why is rapid spread of infectious diseases around the globe more likely now than it was 30 years ago?
The world globaization has dramatically increased, including amount of travel world-wide by planes and boats
What is the maximum proportion of all HIV transmissions that can occur within married couples (in a stable situation)?
50%, at least one person must be infected in order to transmit the infection to the partner. Thus it'd be impossible for transmission to exceed 50% at the population level
Is age at marriage rising or falling in the USA?
Is the (crude) marriage rate rising or falling in the USA?
Do persons in the USA tend to marry more or less than West and North Europeans?
Marry More
Are those who cohabit before marriage more or less likely to get divorced than those who do not?
Less likely
Global Temp and CO2 Graph
Who emits the most CO2?
United States
What are primary air pollutants?
Sulfur Oxides (from coal/oil burning)
Nitrogen Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
What is a secondary air pollutant?
Course of HIV-I Disease Graph
Are women or men more affected by HIV?
Distirbution of Reported AIDS cases by age and gender
Demographic impact of HIV/AIDS
Women hardest hit
Distorted population growth pyramid
Shorter life expectancy
Economic impact
What were the Malthus preventive checks?
late marriage
abstinence within marriage
vice [frequenting prostitutes;
“unnatural acts” (non-procreative sex)
Birth control]
What does it mean if a community is demographically trapped? (King)
a) At practicable levels of technology it exceeds the carrying capacity of its local ecosystem (too many people for the land to support)
b) It has no new land to migrate to
c) It has too few exports to exchange for food and other essentials”
Newly emerging infections
net migration
in migrants - out migrants
Net immigration
immigrants - emigrants
gross migration
in-migrants + out-migrants = migration turnover
In-migration rate
in-migrants/population * 1000
Out-migration rate
out-migrants/population * 1000
Crude net migration
I - O/population * 1000
Age-specific Migration Rate
# migrants of age group a/population of age group a * 1000
Sex-Specific Migration Rate
# migrants of sex x/ population of sex x * 1000
Net migration as difference in population counts at 2 points and net vital events in between
(I - O) = (Pt - P0) - (B - D)
Ol-Age Dependecy Ratio
pop 65+/pop 15-64 * 1000
Ol-Age Dependecy Ratio
pop 65+/pop 15-64 * 1000
Crude Marriage Rate
# marriages/population * 1000
General Marriage Rate
# marriages/population 15+ * 1000
General Marriage Rate (female)
General Marriage Rate (male)
# marriages/population(female) 15+ * 1000
# marriages/population(male) 15+ * 1000
Total Marriage Rate
total # marriages person will have at the end of his/her marriageable age if he/she follows the given schedule of marriage
Total First Marriage Rate (TFMR)
sum(65+) Ma/Pa
Total Remarriage Rate
Crude Divorce Rate
# divorces/population * 1000
General Divorce Rate
# divorces/population 15+ * 1000
Divorce Rate Among Married
# divorces/married persons * 1000
What is the major source of water pollution on the Eastern shore of Maryland
What's the world population?
7.2 billion
What % of US population is foreign born?
What % of the population lives in urban areas?
3 reproductive health components
breastfeeding, contraception, infertility, abortion