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60 Cards in this Set

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What are Characteristics for Plants

-Carry out Photosynthesis


-Contain Cellulose

Whats the difference between Vascular and Non vascular plants?


+ examples

Vascular- "tracheophytes" conductive system (xylem and phloem) help transport water and dissolved material - fern




Non-vascular- "bryophytes" don't have conductive tissue, swampy moist environment, depend on simple diffusion, osmosis, active transport to move nutrients, waste and water.- mosses, liveworts, hornworts

What is the difference between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm


+ example

Angiosperm- enclosed seeds in vessel or fruit (not exposed)- apples




Gymnosperm- unprotected seeds, found on cone like structures, cone bearing trees- pine, spruce and cedar. Thin needles used as protection and roots extend over wide areas.

What two tissue make up the vascular system of a plant? Explain the difference between the two

xylem: transports water and dissolved material from roots to stem. Composed of Tracheids and Vessel Elements that die when mature leaving non living cell walls in place




Phloem: transports nutrients to all parts of plants where needed. It's composed of sleve tissue elements (no nuclei,plates both end with holes and accompanying companion cells ( have a nuclei)

What is the Function of Leaves?

Photosynthesis


Breathing (stomata)



What is the Function of Roots

- absorb water, nutrients from soil to provide for plants


- anchor plant, acts as storage of carbohydrates produced by photosythesis

What is the Function of Stems

-supporting nutritional


-holds leaves upright to light


-transports water up, nutrients through the plant



What is a seed in a Monocot ?

- one seed leaf (onion)

- one seed leaf (onion)

What is a seed in a Dicot?

two seed leaves (crops)

two seed leaves (crops)



What are roots in a Monocot ?

fibrous roots, many branched roots, equal size

fibrous roots, many branched roots, equal size

What are Roots in Dicots?

tap roots, one main root with smaller roots 

tap roots, one main root with smaller roots

What are Stems in Monocots?

small, scattered bundles, large numbers

small, scattered bundles, large numbers

What are Stems in Dicots?

bundles circular pattern, vascular cambium separates phloem and xylem

bundles circular pattern, vascular cambium separates phloem and xylem

What are Leaves in Monocot?

Parallel 

Parallel



What are Leaves in Dicot?

 Pinnate, Palmate 

Pinnate, Palmate

What are Flowers in Monocot?

Pedals x3 (variables)

Pedals x3 (variables)

What are Leaves in Dicot

Pedals x4 or 5 (Variables)

Pedals x4 or 5 (Variables)

Describe the Cycle of Vascular Plants. Distinguish betweenthe two generations and what the plant in each generation is called.

Diploid- (sporophyte, and adult plants) 
Stages: goes through meiosis, sporophytes produce haploid spores- can develop without fertilization  

Haploid- spore grows into plant cells parts (gametophytes male and female)- gametophyte produce male...

Diploid- (sporophyte, and adult plants)


Stages: goes through meiosis, sporophytes produce haploid spores- can develop without fertilization




Haploid- spore grows into plant cells parts (gametophytes male and female)- gametophyte produce male and female gametes (sperm and egg), fuse at fertilization and develop into another sporophyte


Diagram of a Flower- try and label the parts

Cross selection of a leaf

Know the difference between male and female parts of a flower. Be able to explain double fertilization

-Female gametophyte consist of 6 cells and 2 extra nuclei, called polar nuclei or central cells.
 -2 sperm nuclei reach the female gameotophytes,1 fusing with the egg and other with two polar nuclei 
-1 sperm nucleus, after fusing  with egg p...

-Female gametophyte consist of 6 cells and 2 extra nuclei, called polar nuclei or central cells.


-2 sperm nuclei reach the female gameotophytes,1 fusing with the egg and other with two polar nuclei


-1 sperm nucleus, after fusing with egg produces Zygote


- 2nd sperm fuses with polar nuclei special tissue called endosperm (provides nutrients to develop embryo)

Internal and External Factors of Plant Growth

Internal Factors- auxin, gibberellins, ethylene, cytokinins, abscicic acid




External Factors light, nitrogen, nitrogen fixation, soil nutrients - 17 elements needed


Nitrogen- leaf growth


Potassium- water balance and protein synthesis


Phosphorus- mitosis, cell division


Calcium- cell walls, membrane permeability


Magnesium- chlorophyll component


Sulfur- Proteins

How do Auxins affect the plants

-stimulates cell division and cell elongatoion in stem and root


-regulates cell expansion and responds to light and gravity


- found in weed killers





How do Cytokinins affect the plants

- promotes cell division and cell differentiation


- increases lateral growth

How do Gibberellins affect the plants

-involved cell elongation of plant shoots


- increases lateral growth





How do abscisic acid affect the plants

synthesizedin mature leave/root caps. Inhibits the germination of seeds/growth of buds instems (a lot in the fall) blocks intake of co2 by controlling the stomata(open&close)

how do Ethylene affect the plants

Ethylene- makes aging process of plant tissue occur- (ripening)speeds up leaf abscission, production of this gas can cause other plants toripen too (have to be close)- usually ship unripe food= no bruise then at storespeed up process with ethylene gas

what is primary growth

Primary growth-upward growth of the stem and downward growth of the roots – Produced by apical meristem- tip of thestem and roots grow longer

what is secondary growth

Secondary growth –(occurs in dicots) outward growth of a plant (thicker and wider) usually occursin tall plants/ trees to help then stand up straight- without this it would belike a tall strand of grass flopping over- Produced bylateral meristems- increase thecircumference (width)a. Vascular cambium: along roots and stems,produces vascular growth b. Cork cambium: created tough wall for protection


Fiberous Roots

many branched roots, mostly equal in size (monocot)

Palisade Mesophyl

tightly packed parenchyma cells right below the epidermis, mostly of photosynthesis occurs here

How does water travel from the soil all the way up to the leaf? Know the theories!

water gets into the roots by osmosis. then from the roots the water moves up the plant using  root pressure.
Root pressure is a mechanism that pushed water up the plant. as the water enter the roots it creates a positive pressure for water that ...

water gets into the roots by osmosis. then from the roots the water moves up the plant using root pressure.


Root pressure is a mechanism that pushed water up the plant. as the water enter the roots it creates a positive pressure for water that is already there. the water has no where to go other than up.(only reaches 9 meters- small plants)


Transpiration it refers to how water is coheive (sticks together) its loss creates the pull that moves water up the plant. when one molecule is lost another is pulled up (used in big trees/plants)



How does sucrose get transported throughout the plant?

the Phloem transports sucrose and amino acids up and down the plant (translocation). In general, this happens between where these substances are made (the sources) and where they are used or stored (the sinks).

Name the requirements for seed germination.

1. Moisture- softens see coat softens so it can break through


2. Temperature- most plants germinated best between 18 - 30 C


3. Oxygen- need to supply a high respiration rate


4. Light and Carbon dioxide- some seeds wont germinated unless exposed to sunlight. ( too much carbon dioxide are bad for seed)



What benefits do plants provide?

-oxygen


-food


- clothing


-medicine


-building material

cotyledon


structure within a plants embryo that help to nourish the plant as it starts to grow (seed leaf)



endosperm

part of a seed that rots as storage for the developing plant embryo usually containing nutrients. endosperm nourishes the embryo as it grows

pollen

pollen is discharged by the male part of the plant (stamen) this is the plants reproductive cells (sperm cells)

sporophyte

the diploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces spores (meiosis)

gametophytes

haploid plant in spotic reproduction that produces gametes (mitosis)

bryophyte

a small non vascular land plant (reserved for mosses)

tracheophyte

vascular plants with system of conductive tissue known as xylem and phloem. transports water and dissolved materials throughout the plant- fern

Tap root

made up of thick roots with few smaller lateral branching roots 

made up of thick roots with few smaller lateral branching roots

root hairs

covers the surface of the root (fine hairs) they increase area for gas exchange and intake of water and nutrients

xylem

vascular tissue transports water and minerals from root to leaves

phloem

vascular tissue transport organic nutrients leave to root


(sometime root to leave-mature leave)

pteridophyte



vascular plant that reproduces via spores, 

vascular plant that reproduces via spores, don't have seeds or flowers- fern

Vascular cambium

layer of meristematic tissue found along length of roots and stems in some plants (necessary for secondary growth)

root tip

end of the root

root cap

covers tip of root (protection)

covers tip of root (protection)

spongy mesophyll

layer or irregular shaped loosely packed cells below the palisade mesophyll layer

stomata

small opening (usually in leaf) allows gas exchange

GMO

genetically modified organisms- genome has been altered

Name and describe the four tissue types.

1. merstematic tissue -area of high mitosis two types apica meritstems and lateral meristems


2. dermal tissue- outer covering of a plant, endermis, guard cell


3. ground tissue- make up most of the inside of the plant ie parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells sclerenchyma cells


4.vascular tissue- xylem, phloem



What are the different venations of leaves? Arrangement of leaves?

venation


pinnate- one main rib


palmate- two or more rib


Parallel




arrangements


alternate


opposite


whorled

What is a monoculture? What is an advantage and disadvantage?

monoculture: hundreds of plants of one type are grown in one place of the natural ecosystem



advantage- easy to take care of




disadvantage- ruin the soil and if one is affected they all are

What are the requirements for photosynthesis? What is the name of the pigment that traps light energy? Where is it found?


requirements: light energy, water, CO2, O2,, glucose




traps sunlight- chlorophyll and carotenoids located in leaves





What nutrients are required by the plant? Which is needed in the greatest abundance? What form of this nutrient is used by plants? Explain how this form becomes available to the plant.

Nutrients needed: potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur,chlorine, iron, boron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum


***NITROGEN the most 1.5%


nitrogen is found in organic matter living and dead things, dead broken down by bacteria and fungi



What is the purpose of fertilizers? What are the 3 nutrients found in synthetic fertilizers?

fertilizers- help crops grow, provides nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium)

Name 2 GMO’s and list 2 advantages and 2disadvantages for each


1.Golden Rice- advantage: improve nutrition, increase crop productivity


- disadvantage: suicide seeds (by seeds every year), health risk


2. BT Corn- - advantage: bigger, no bugs


- disadvantage: health risk (pregnant women toxins found- birth defects) harm other organisms (insects larva and monarch butterfly