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76 Cards in this Set

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From Greek roots meaning "the love of wisdom"


Basic image that represents our conception of the essence of a certain type of person: According to psychologist C.G. Jung, some of the images have been shared by the whole human race from the earliest times

archetype (Philosophical)

a philosopher who represents an original or influential point of view in a way that significantly affects philosophers and nonphilosophers: Cynic, saint, pessimist, optimist, atheist, rationalist, idealist, and so on.


Belif that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer, including age, ethnicity, gender, cultural conditioning


True belief

Knowledge theoretical


Knowledge practical

The accurate compilation and assessment of factual and systematic relationships


the skills needed to do things like play piano, use a saw, remove a tumor, or bake a cake



Belief (mere)

convistion or trust that a claim is true: an individuals subjective mental state; distinct from knowledge


a conviction that something is true for which only the evidence is the sincerity of the believer


knowledge - asks questions about knowledge - is it possible -involved standards of evidence, truth, belief, sources of knowledge, gradations of knowledge, memory, perception


study of untimate reality - reality beyond sence experience or science

-questions involve - free will, the mind body relationship, supernatural existence, personal immorality, and the nature of being


study of moral problems, practical reasoning, right and wrong, good and bad, virtues and vices, character, moral duty, good life, and ethical issues.


the study of perceptions, feelings, judgements, and ideas associated with the apprehension of beauty, art, and objects in general: and ontology, the study of being and what it means to exist

social and political philosophy

-concerned with nature and the origins of the state (gov), sovereignty the exercise of power, the effects of social institutions on individuals, ethnicity, gender, social status, and the strengths and weaknesses of different types of societies

Archetypal figure who combines religious inspiration and extraordinary insight into the human condition: the english word sage is latin sapiens meaning wise
Way or path - the souce of all existence - the principle of things, the way or path of the universe, or the moral law, key consept on Confucian and Taoist philosophy
In ancient Chinese mataphysics, weak, negitive, dark, and destructive natual force or principle - earth; thinked with yang
In ancient chinese metaphyscs, strong, positive, light, and constructive natual force or principle - heaven - linked with yin
Wu Wei
"not to act" - in the Tao te Ching - refers to unnatual or demanding action
traditionally - morally neutral virtue - potency, the power to affect others without using physical force - expanded by Confucius to mean the capacity to act according to Tao and to bring others tao
"ceremony" - encompasses rites, customs, and conventions ranging from ritual sacrifices honoring onoes ancestors to everyday etiquette and good manners
"the lords son" - originally the sovereign himself or a "cultivated gentleman" - confucian morally superior man: a great or noble soul
general human virtue - translated as human, humanity, and benevolence - can mean both mankind and kindness - also a man or woman who is truly himself or herself a "real person"
individual who turns away from pleasure and severely limits all sensual appetites in order to acheve salation or pease of mind
an enlightened being who voluntarily postpones his own nirvana in order to help all other conscious life forms find "supreme release" not a savior
annihilation of the ago - a state or emptiness or "no-thing-ness" - state of bliss - pure consciousness - that leads to release from suffeing whie remaining conscious
According to Buddhist tradition, the aw of moral causation (moral cause and effect) - it includes past and present actons and is not to be confused with fate or redestination; good or bad karma results from our own actions
Four Noble Truths

Foundation of Buddha's teachings

1- to exist if to suffer

2-self-centeredness is the cheif cause of human suffering

3- the cause of suffering can be understood and rooted out

4- suffering can be alleviated by following the 8 fold path

Eightfold Path

Buddha's prescription for rooting out suffering

1 - Right understanding (views)

2 - right purpose

3 - right speech

4 - right conduct

5 - right livelihood

6 - right effort

7 - right mindfulness (awareness)

8 - right meditation

Socratic dialectic or Socratic method
would ask an individual questions and let their answers reveal the plot holes in their explanation -(question and answer technique used by Socrates to draw truth out of his pupils, often by means of achieving a clearer more precise definition of a key term or concept.)
Greek for soul – in today’s terms, combination of mind and soul. Including capacity for reflective thinking. - essence of human being
The Academy
was a philosophic retreat – made as a safe haven - and to teach people to be fit to run a just state - Plato's school
Platonic Forms
- independently existing, non-spatial, non-temporal “somethings” – known only through thought and cannot be known through senses, independently existing objects of thought – that which makes a particular thing uniquely and essentially what it is.
realm of being
is independent of becoming - being is not physical, and not effected by space and time It can only be accessed by the mind – but exists outside of the mind. – can have knowledge -- consists of timeless entities called Forms
realm of becoming
Sensibles (sensed or perceived as a part of the physical world) – changing – but change in orderly fashion (seasons, birth to same kind, etc.) (Heraclitus) – but in an unchanging world, there is no truth or knowledge – world of appearance only – opinion –
Instrumental theory of morality
– moral position that right and wrong must be determined by the consequences of acts – right and wrong viewed as means (instruments) for getting something else ( be good, get x, be bad, get y) -
Functionalist theory of morality
– moral position that right and wrong can be understood only in terms of their effect on anything’s natural function – each kind of thing has a natural purpose (function) --- Plato supports— - everything (including people) has a natural function
(excellence of function for the whole) in a just society, each individual performs his or her natural function according to class; in a just individual, reason rules the spirit and the appetites. (is the result of the other 3 cardinals)
Virtue (platonic)
– excellence of function – reflects form
Tao Te Ching
a 5,000 word book - most influential book in chinese history - 2nd to the bible - isnt very clear - its poetic
period of warring states

period of political and social turmoil - time of Lao-Tzu and Confucius

-started in 453 BCE or 771BCE - lasted 550 years

-struggle for power

– 5h century BCE, teacher of rhetoric (who were paid), relativists, truth is a matter of appearance, moral realists, proper is the ultimate value. (teachers to hire) (no longer about ethnicity or last name – as long as you had money you could get educated.
– believe that knowledge and truth are matters of perspective/ subjectivity (there’s no truth)
Moral realism
– “might makes right” – if you are more powerful (stronger, weather) – it means you are right – weaker, poorer= wrong (continuous fight to the top) (no truth or justice)
– belief that reality consists of the natural world – denial of the existence of a separate supernatural order of reality - belief that nature follows orderly, discoverable laws
-form (Aristotle)
– from the Greek word for essence, that which is in matter and makes a thing what it is; can be abstracted from matter but cannot exist independently of matter -just knowing a things form (essence) doesn’t mean you know its individuality
-matter (Aristotle)
-from the Greek hyle, the common material stuff found in a variety of things: it has no distinct characteristics until some from is imparted to it or until the form inherent in a thing becomes actualized ----individual things are “formed matter”
The Four Causes

Complete understanding is through understanding this

1. Mterial cause (material a thing is made of)

2.(formal cause) form a thing takes

3. (efficient cause) Triggered the existence

4. (final cause) Purpose of existence

Teleological thinking
– way of explaining things in terms of their ultimate goals; understanding things functionally in terms of the relationship of the parts to the whole
– often translated as happiness; term Aristotle used to refer to fully realized existence; state of being fully aware, vital, alert – the answer to the question “what is your goal in life?” – closest translation – happiness
The Lyceum

- his school – named after god Apollo lyceus

-students known as the peripatetic philosophers -taught philosophy, technical, and popula lectures

-students more middle class

rivals for a while with the Academy (Plato's school), but took different paths

-Plato’s – pure understanding

---- Aristotle – concerned with earth

The primciple of the mean

-concept of mederation - Sophrosyne - Wisdom as moderation: hitting the mark: quality of finding the mean between exess and deficiency

(too much and not enough)

means "having its end within itself" - according to aristotle - an inner urge that drives all things to blossom into their own unique elves: inner order or design that governs all natural processes
– philosophy that counsels self-control, detachment, and acceptance of ones fate as identified by the objective use off reason
-from the Greek root of pleasure – the general term of any philosophy that says pleasure=good and pain=evil
– philosophy based on the belief that the very essence of civilization is corrupt and that civilization destroys individuals by making them soft and subject to the whims of fortune
Cyrenaic Hedonism
Philosophy that advocates the unreflective pursuit of intence, immediate pleasure, makes no qualitative distinctions among pleasures

fond of pleasure (Any kind)

– became Socrates follower

-started a school in Cyrene – taught hedonism -pleasure is the principle motivation for living – it is always good no matter where from -all people seek it

-sensory pleasure is better than mental pleasure – more intencee -only physical pleasure makes life worth living


says he was self-taught

-his school is the garden -retreat from turmoil’s of Athens -known for good living and philosophy

-welcomed everyone – no classes or hierarchy -would rather have a good life than a long one (quality over quantity) -anything can be desired – does not mean t is desirable

-highest pleasure_________


School of cynicism founded by him

– schools most famous proponent was Diogenes -cynics loved Socrates

-Antisthenes built cynicism after him

– based his life on rule of reason – like Socrates -by extension – Socrates was the model for Stoics

-Founded a school called cynosarges (the silver dog)


lived like a dog

-didn’t follow conventional order

– scavenged for food – dirty

-believed civilization is corrupt and phony Material things make people soft

-death of Socrates made it clear – “not even the wisest person can control other people or external events” -the less you need to make you happy – the less vulnerable you are -happiness came from self-discipline – control of desires – and minimal contact with conventional society


-was a slave

mother was a slave living in Hierapoolis

was brought to Rome as a slave to a former slave named Epaphroditus

- saw something in Epictetus - sent him to study with a stoic called Musonius Rufus (most powerful stoic since Zeno)

-once tortured for another slave’s actions – –freed in 68c.e. -became a teacher

band from Rome –he fled to Nicopolic in northern Greece – where he taught until old age -

very modest and simple -he liked children

-didn’t publish anything


Stoicism was founded in Greece by Zeno - but flourished in Rome

-School was Stoa poikile (painted porch)

-followers "men of the porch"

Marcus Aurelius

-roman emperor – was a philosopher king -ruled alongside his step bother - he did little – -never acted rashly -he did everything for the benefit or Rome

-last years were spent military campaigning

-he would write at night in his tent

The Stoic Logos

– force that governs the universe

The logos keep the world in balance -everything that happens is connected to logos

center aspect of stoicism -everything happens for a reason

– everything that happens cannot be wrong or bad

-logos are objective, calm, view with disinterest – no personal attachment

James Bond Stockdale

in was in the Navy

survived 7 1/2 years as prisoner of war in Vietnam - 4 years solitary confinment

-credited the Enchiridion to keeping him alive

-gave him comfort and courage

Christian philosophy dominating medieval Europe from about 1000-1300CE that stressed logical and linguistic analysis of texts and arguments in order to produce a systematic statement and defense of Christian beliefs --- analyzing texts
-an epistemological position in which reason is said to be the ordinary source of all knowledge, superior to sense evidence. Rationalists argue that only reason can distinguish reality from illusion and give meaning to experience
A priori ideas (innate ideas)
– truths that are not derived from observation or experiment, characterized as being certain, deductive, universally true, and independent of all experiences -reason - not empirical observation - is the test of truth
Coherence theory of truth
– truth test in which new or unclear ideas are evaluated in terms of rational or logical consistency and in relation to already established truths
Methodic doubt
– Cartesian strategy of deliberately doubting everything it is possible to doubt in the least degree so that what remains will be known with absolute certainty
A priori knowledge
– Derived from reason without reference to sense experience – examples include all triangles contain 180 degrees and every event has a cause Priori idea – as being certain, deductive, universally true, innate, or independent of all experience
A posteriori knowledge
-Empirical knowledge derived from sense experience and not regarded as universal because the conditions under which it is acquired change perceivers vary, and factual relationships change -not regarded as certain or necessary because conditions change
Cogito, Ergo Sum “I think, therefore I am”

“[the deceiver] can never cause me to be nothing so long as I think that I am something”

– the statement I Am is true as long as I am able to mentally conceive it “No rational person can doubt his or her own existence as a conscious thinking entity – while being aware of thinking about anything

– all knowledge is mental – awareness -everything is built on not reasoning, but self-awareness.

Materialism (behaviorism, mechanism, reductionism)
– belief that everything is composed of matter (and energy) and can be explained by physical laws, that all human’s activity be understood as the natural behavior of matter according to mechanical laws, and that thinking is merely a complex form of behaving; the body is a fleshy machine
– any philosophical position that divides existence into two completely distinct, independent, unique substances (mind/body natural/supernatural etc.)
Stoic peace of mind

Self control - (control how you react)

Detachment (dont get attached to externals- be disinterested)

reason (determine what you can and cant control)

What you can and can't control

everything that is not your own actions - you cannot control - must accept what is out of your hands - you will not be happy if you dont accept

the only thing you can control is your own actions - your attitude

-must use reason to know which is which