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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two ways thyroid hormones influence metabolic rate?
1) stimulating protein synthesis in almost every tissue in the body
2) increasing the amount of oxygen that cells use
What does thyroid hormone control?
body metabolic rate (metabolism)
Where does conversion of T4 to T3 take place?
liver and other tissues
What other hormone produced by the thyroid is involved in calcium metabolism?
calcitonin
What enzyme converts iodide into iodine
peroxidase
Which drugs inhibit the incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin?
iodides
thioamides
Which drugs inhibit proteolysis of thyroid hormones bound to thyroglobulin before release into the bloodstream?
iodides
Which drugs block conversion of T4 into T3 in the peripheral tissues?
ipodate
beta blockers
corticosteroids
What inhibits TRH release from the hypothalamus?
T3, T4
stress
What stimulates TRH release from the hypothalamus?
cold
acute psychosis
circadian and pulsatile rhythms
What two hormones are released by the hypothalamus onto the anterior pituitary in the thyroid axis?
TRH
somatostatin
What acts on the anterior pituitary to inhibit release of TSH?
T3, T4
somatostatin
corticoids, dopamine
Which thyroid hormone comprises levothyroxine?
T4
Which thyroid hormone comprises liothyronin?
T3
Which thyroid hormone comprises liotrix?
4:1 ratio of T4:T3
What are the two thiaomides?
methimazole
propylthiouracil
What is the primary indication for the thioamides?
Grave's disease
What is the major mechanism of thioamides?
prevent thyroid hormone synthesis
Which class of drugs (and specific drugs) block uptake of iodide by competitive inhibition of the iodide transporters?
anion inhibitors:
perchlorate
pertechnetate
thiocyanate
What are the two mechanisms for iodides? (sodium iodide, potassium iodide)
inhibit incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin
inhibit hormone release (inhibit proteolysis of thyroxine from thyroglobulin)
What is the mechanism of action for beta blockers in the thyroid axis?
inhibit conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues (liver?)
What are complications of hypothyroidism in children?
dwarfism
mental retardation
What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US?
How does it happen?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
caused by autoimmune destruction of the thyroid
What is the most common disease caused by hyperthyroidism?
Grave's disease
The antibody produced in Grave's disease is directed against what?
directed against the TSH receptor
can stimulate thyroid cells through it
What is the treatment plan for young patients with Grave's disease?
methimazole or PTU
What is the preferred therapy for patients older than 21 with Grave's disease?
radioactive iodine
What is the best treatment for single toxic adenomas?
surgical excision or radioiodine therapy
What is the best treatment for multinodular goiters?
methimazole or PTU followed by partial thyroidectomy
What is the term for hyperthyroidism caused by a viral infection of the thyroid gland?
subacute thyroiditis
What drugs are given to treat thyroid storm?
propranolol for cardiovascular problems
potassium iodide to retard release of thyroid hormones
supportive therapy for fever and heart failure
How do you treat dermopathy associated with thyroid disease?
corticosteroids
How is neonatal Grave's disease contracted?
genetic transmission of trait
TSH-receptor antibodies passing through the placenta