Graves Disease Analysis

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Understanding the Pathophysiology, Laboratory, Diagnostic testing and Nursing Interventions for Graves’ Disease
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) (2012), “Graves’ disease, also known as toxic goiter, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States”. Hyperthyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland makes more thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) than the body needs. The thyroid gland helps control how the body uses energy. When there is a problem with the thyroid becoming hyperactive in producing hormones, then it can affect several of the bodies systems. The thyroid gland makes hormones that affect metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart rate, the
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According to the NIDDK (2012), with Graves’ disease, the immune system makes an antibody called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) that attaches to thyroid cells. TSI mimics TSH and stimulates the thyroid to make thyroid hormone. People with immune disorders are found to be at a greater risk of developing Graves’ disease. Conditions associated with Graves’ disease include type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo. According to the NIDDK (2012), Graves’s disease usually occurs in people younger than age 40 and is seven to eight more times common in women than in men. Pregnancy, having a baby, and smoking may all raise the risk of developing Graves’s disease as well. Emotional or physical stress can also start the Graves’ disease process. The main symptoms of Graves’ disease are feeling nervous or irritable, having trouble sleeping or feeling tired, abnormal heartbeat, shaking hands, warm or sweaty skin, weight loss, enlarged thyroid (goiter), changes in bowl patterns, or thick or red shins or tops of the feet. People with Graves’ disease may also have bulging eyes, a condition called Graves’ …show more content…
In general, when surgery is used, the entire thyroid is removed. If the thyroid is removed, lifelong thyroid hormone medication is indicated. Many surgical approaches for thyroidectomies continue to be researched, and these procedures have evolved over the years. Noureldine, Yao, Wavekar, Mohamed & Kandil (2014) recently conducted research looking at the difference between conventional surgery for thyroid removal and a robotic approach, called “Robotic Transaxillary Approach”. Noureldine et al., (2014) found that while “…the conventional cervical approach is still considered one of the safest and most effective procedures…technical advances in endoscopic surgery has paved the way for the development of several minimally invasive alternatives to the conventional cervical thyroidectomy, such as robotic

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