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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vd of alcohol is equal to about ?
.5-.7 L/kg
men have a higher concentration of ?
alcohol dehydrogenase
Alcohol enhances the action of GABA on ? receptors

Inhibits the function of ? and ? receptors causing blackout

Enhances conductivity of ? and ? channels
GABAa

NMDA and KA

Calcium and voltage gated K channels
True of False

An alcohol overdose can cause hypothermia?
TRUE
Chronic alcohol consumption can cause upregulation of ? receptors and voltage gated ? channels leading to seizures
NMDA and Ca+
paralysis of the eye muscles, ataxia, confused state

is associated with ? deficiency
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Thiamine
anemia can result from alcohol related ? deficiency
folic acid
with other drugs, acute alcohol toxicity ? other drugs actions

Chronic alcohol tox. ? other drugs actions
increases

decreases
? are most preferred when treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms?
long acting benzodiazepine (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, chlorazepate) and have anticonvulsant action, may accumulate in liver dysfunction
These BZ are useful in liver disease associated with alcohol
short acting ((lorazepam and oxazepam)
FDA approved, 1994
Long acting opioid receptor antagonist (m receptors)
Once a day orally, 50 mg dose, or extended release IM injection every 4 weeks (Vivitrol, 380 mg)
Attenuates the reinforcing but not the negative effects of alcohol consumption

Contraindications and interactions:
Can precipitate narcotic withdrawal in opiate dependent patients
Patients with hepatitis, liver dysfunction or failure
Also blocks opioid actions

Brand: ReVia
Naltrexone
FDA approved, 2004
MOA: possibly restores balance between glutamate and GABA systems
Dosage: 1-2 enteric coated tablets (333 mg) 3X a day
Poorly absorbed from GI, food delays absorption
Common adverse effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment
Pregnancy category C (fetal malformations in rats, rabbits)
Acamprosate (Campral)
Causes extreme discomfort in patients who drink alcohol
Inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde syndrome Flushing, throbbing headaches, nausea, vomiting, sweating, hypotension, confusion
Inhibits dopamine b-hydroxylase depletion of NE stores (flushing, palpitations, hyperventilation, headaches, weakness, hypotension, syncope)
Disulfiram (Antabuse)
Causes extreme discomfort in patients who drink alcohol
Initial dose 250-500 mg /day for 5-7 days, then reduced to 125 -250 mg/day
Rapidly absorbed from GI, full pharmacologic effect in 12 hours
Slowly eliminated, effect may last several days after last dose
Relatively safe, reported adverse effects:
Acneiform eruptions
Fatigue, tremors, restlessness, impotence, garlicky or metallic taste in the mouth
Larger doses may result in depression

Drug interactions:
CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 inhibitor
Decreases metabolism of oral anticoagulants, isoniazid, theophylline, metronidazole, or MAO inhibitors
Patients should be warned to avoid any medications containing alcohol
Disulfiram (Antabuse)