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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

performance appraisals

the formalized means of assessing worker performance in comparison to certain established organizational standards

performance criteria

measures used to determine successful and unsuccessful job performance

objective performance criteria

measures of job performance that are easily quantified

subjective performance criteria

measures of job performance that typically consist of ratings or judgements of performance

criterion relevance

the extent to which the means of appraising performance is pertinent to job success

criterion contamination

the extent to which performance appraisals contain elements that detract from the accurate assessment of job effectiveness

criterion deficiency

the degree to which a criterion falls short of measuring job performance

criterion usefulness

the extent to which a performance criterion is usable in appraising a particular job

360-degree feedback

a method of gathering performance appraisals from a worker's supervisors, subordinates, peers, customers, and other relevant parties.

comparative methods

performance appraisal methods involving comparisons of one worker's performance against that of other workers


performance appraisal methods involving the ranking of supervises from best to worst

paired comparison

performance appraisal method in which the rater compares each worker with each other worker in the group

forced distributions

assigning workers to established categories of poor to good performance with fixed limitations on how many employees can be assigned to each category

individual method

performance appraisal methods that evaluate an employee by himself or herself, without explicit reference to other workers

graphic rating scales

performance appraisal methods using a predetermined scale to rate the worker on important job dimensions

behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

performance appraisal technique using rating scales with labels reflecting examples of poor, average, and good behavioral incidents.

behavioral observation scales (BOS)

performance appraisal methods that require appraisers to recall how often a worker has been observed performing key work behaviors


performance appraisal methods using a series of statements about job performance


open-ended written accounts of a worker's performance used in performance appraisals

leniency error

the tendency to give all workers very positive performance appraisals

severity error

the tendency to give all workers very negative performance appraisals

central tendency error

the tendency to give all workers the midpoint rating in performance appraisals

halo effect

an overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action

recency effect

the tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance

causal attribution

the process by which people assign cause to events or behaviors

actor-observer bias

the tendency for observers to over-attribute cause to characteristics of the actor and the tendency for the actor to over-attribute cause to situational characteristics

performance feedback

the process of giving information to a worker about performance level with suggestions for future improvement