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123 Cards in this Set

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Who do producers consult with most beef cattle nutrition questions?
consult themselves or family members for nutritional information
When do beef cattle need forage supplementation?
late fall to mid-spring
What type of things make an "improved pasture"
* Managed grass
* Fertilized
* Changed species of grass
* Herbicide
* Mowing
What is stockpiled hay?
Hay that is grown on pasture and not harvested

* Grass is frozen then animals allowed to graze, animals are not allowed on pasture while hay is still growing

* Good drainage is important
What is the price of a 500lb steer per CWT according to The East Texas Livestock market report in Crockett, Texas?
$110/CWT
How much does is cost to keep a cow in the Brazos Valley for 1 year?
approximately $400
What 3 things do cattle with low BCS have with regards to pregnancy/calves?
1. lower calf survival
2. lower weaning weights
3. lower pregnancy rates.
What is the ideal BCS for a 1st calf heifer?
BCS 6

* Heifers are still growing, especially teeth and bone (calcium).
What is the ideal BCS for a mature cow?
BCS 5
When should BCS be done on breeding cows?
BCS cows at onset calving, onset breeding, mid-summer, and pregnancy exams.
What is Fecal NIRS? What does it establish?
* Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

* Establishes TDN, % crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus
In regards to beef cattle, what are most and least important nutrients?
1. Protein is the most important nutrient*****
2. Water
3. Energy
4. Fats
5. Vitamins and minerals are the least important
What are the common major mineral deficiencies seen in beef cattle?
1. Phosphorus: cows chew on bones

2. Copper: hair coat is red, broken bones


* Also: Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc
Over time, trace mineral deficiencies will lead to what 4 things?
1. decreased immunity
2. decreased fertility
3. decreased growth
4. clinical signs
When does Vitamin A deficiency occur? What can it result in?
* When there is no green grass

* Results in retained placentas
What amount of vitamins/minerals does a cow need per day? Per year?
* A cow needs about 2 oz/day

* 45.6 pounds per year.
What are the 2 ways to estimate dry matter intake?
1. Actual consumption (weighing feedstuffs or
observation of consumption)


2. Estimates of daily DMI (based on %body weight)
When are nutrient requirements the highest and lowest for breeding cows?
1: parturition and breeding – highest nutrition requirements

2: pregnancy and lactation – 2nd highest

3: mid-gestation – lowest, recondition now to regain BCS

4: pre-calving – increasing requirements
What are the two supplement levels for breeding cows?
Late gestation

Early lactation
Time of day to feed supplement?
* Feed supplement after 6PM

* Cow will eat supplement, spend 6-8 hrs grazing and 4-8 hrs ruminating
What is the curent state of the diary cattle industry?
* Decrease in both cattle numbers and number of cattle operations

* Increase in milk production and milk produced per cow
Which state is #1 in the dairy cow industry?
California
Where does Texas rank in regards to the dairy cow industry?
Texas ranked 8th
How much of the GI is comprised by the rumen of dairy catte?
Rumen is 68% of GI
2/3 of GI is comprised of what in dairy cattle?
stomach region
Do plant carbohydrates have more nonstructural (soluble) or structural CHO’s?
Plant carbohydrates have MORE nonstructural (soluble) CHO’s than structural CHO’s
Carbohydrate digestion in rumen generates what?
VFA (Primary energy substrate)
4 types of energy
1. Gross
2. Digestible
3. Metabolizable
4. Net energy
What type of energy is the most accurate?
Net energy is the most accurate
Where does protein digestion occur in dairy cattle?
rumen and small intestine
What does protein processed in the rumen provide for microbes?
ammonia
What are the 3 fates of lipids in dairy cattle?
1. Bypass fat -->SFA and UFA in SI

2. Glycerol -> VFA’s -> Acetate, proprionate, butyrate (leave GI by passive diffusion)

3. SFA and UFA --> SFAs
What Fat soluble Vitamins are essential in dairy cattle?
Vitamins A and E are essential in dairy cattle
What fat soluble vitamin is usually supplemented essential in dairy cattle?
Vitamin D is typically supplemented in dairy cows
What fat soluble vitamin is synthesized by ruminal bacteria?
Vitamin K is synthesized by ruminal bacteria
What water soluble vitamins are utilized by ruminants?
Ruminants use thiamine, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, choline, vitamin B12, riboflavin, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, vitamin c

**Most synthesized by ruminal bacteria, deficiencies rare
What water soluble vitamins are occasionally supplemented?
Niacin and biotin occasionally supplemented
What does increased water intake mean for dairy cattle?
increased production
What are the 2 main things done to meet the demands of high producing dairy cattle?:
* Increase dry matter intake
* Increase nutrient density (fat)
5 Dairy Cow Production Phases
1. Early Lactation
2. Mid Lactation
3. Late Lactation
4. Dry period
5. Transition period
Length of the 5 Dairy Cow Production Phases
1. Early Lactation: 0-10 weeks

2. Mid Lactation: 10-24 weeks

3. Late Lactation: > 24 weeks

4. Dry period: 5-8 weeks

5. Transition period: 2-3 weeks
Events occuring during the early lactation phase?
Peak milk production occurs w/in 3-6 weeks
Events occuring during the mid lactation phase?
Milk yield begins to decrease. Peak DMI occurs w/in 11-13 weeks
Events occuring during the late lactation phase?
Milk yield continues to fall. Cows regain body fat.
Events occuring during the dry phase?
Dry period; late pregnancy
Events occuring during the transition phase?
Dry period; late pregnancy. Prepare for lactation
Physiological Priorities during the early lactation phase of dairy cattle?
Lactation>repro>growth>maintenance
Physiological Priorities during the mid lactation phase of dairy cattle?
Repro>lactation>growth>maintenance
Physiological Priorities during the late lactation phase of dairy cattle?
Repro>growth>maintenance>lactation
What is the pro of feeding High Energy Diets to dairy cattle?
increased milk production
What are the cons of feeding High Energy Diets to dairy cattle?
1. Risk rumen burnout (long term)

2. Decrease milk fat (short term) due to inadequate dietary fiber intake
What can feeding low roughage/high grain diets to dairy cattle cause?
can cause papillae to shrink
Why is the rumen healthier on a roughage diet? (4 reasons)
1. Increases saliva production

2. Increases rumen pH

3. Increases acetate

4. Increases fiber-loving microbes
Under what conditions is propionate at the highest amount?
Propionate is present in the highest amount when rumen pH is low
What effect does feeding a high grain diet to a dairy cow have on starch-loving microbes?
Increase starch-loving microbes
What effect does feeding a high grain diet to a dairy cow have on rumen pH?
cause lactic action production (decrease rumen pH)
What effect does feeding a high grain diet to a dairy cow have on rumination time?
decreases rumination time
What effect does feeding a high grain diet to a dairy cow have on dietary fiber digestion?
decreases dietary fiber digestion
What effect does feeding a high grain diet to a dairy cow have on acetic acid production and milk fat synthesis?
decreases acetic acid production and thus milk fat synthesis.
Rules of Thumb for Adequate Fiber in Diet-Minimum of forage:concentrate
Minimum of 40:60 forage:concentrate
Rules of Thumb for Adequate Fiber in Diet-Minimum of % crude fiber or % acid detergent fiber
Minimum of 17% crude fiber or 21% acid detergent fiber
Rules of Thumb for Adequate Fiber in Diet-Based on body weight as forage
Feed minimum of 1 to 1.5% body weight as forage
The higher the effective fiber, the more the cow will do what?
Chew
3 properties of effective fiber
1. Particle size (course better)
2. Amount of fiber
3. Type of fiber (proportion of lignin)
Roughage Value Index (RVI)
a method to measure effective fiber, determined by measuring the time a cow spends chewing, expressed as minutes chewing per unit of feed DM
Penn State Particle Size Separator
sorts feed into large, medium, small particles
3 things that Particle sizeof effective fiber impacts?
1. Rumen pH

2. Acetate:propionate

3. Milk fat %
Short term benefit of feeding effective fiber to dairy cattle
increase milk fat
Long term benefit of feeding effective fiber to dairy cattle
prevent rumen burnout (maintains epithelial tissues, prevents parakeratosis)
Feeding what type of diet causes faster starch formation in dairy cattle?
*** Faster starch formation with highly processed diets


* Steam flaking > cracked/dry rolled > whole
The type of grain affects rate of starch formation
wheat > barley > corn/milo (more rapid = depressed milk fat)
What effect do dietary buffers
have on rumen pH and milk fat depression?
Increase rumen pH and help minimize milk fat depression
What effect does dietary fat
have on milk production?
Dietary fat: may decrease milk production

* Used to increase energy density of feed
Most dairy cattle diets contain what percent of dietary fat?
Most diets are about 3%,
What side efftects can occur when feeding dairy cows diets with more than 8% dietary fat?
* DMI to decrease
* Fiber digestion to decrease
* Incidence of digestive upsets to increase
Which dairy cows benefit the most from fat-added diets?
High-producing cows from 2-5 months of lactation
Cows with fat-added diets produce how much more milk daily?
4-6 lbs more milk daily
Desired BCS for dairy cows at Calving
3.5/5
Desired BCS for dairy cows at Peak Milk
2.0/5
Desired BCS for dairy cows at Mid-lactation
2.5/5
Desired BCS for dairy cows during dry period
3.5/5
What is main goal during phase 1: early lactation for dairy cows?
To maximize intake by 1lb ↑ to increase production of milk by 2-2.5 lb milk

* Dairy cow will be in negative energy balance in this phase
What is main goal during phase 2: mid lactation for dairy cows?
maintain high milk production and regain body condition
What is main goal during phase 3: late lactation for dairy cows?
restore body condition (limit overconditioning of cows)
What are the main goals during phase 4: dry phase for dairy cows?
1. Optimize fetal growth
2. Prepare cow for lactation
3. Minimize length of dry period (60d), feed cows to achieve target BCS of 3.5
What is main goal during phase 5: transition phase for dairy cows?
acclimate rumen to microbes for early lactation diet
When are dairy cows most susceptible to metabolic disorders?
during first 8-10 weeks of lactation
What metabolic disorders have highest economic impact in the dairy industry?
1. Milk fever
2. Displaced abomasums,
When do 80% of milk fever cases occur?
within 48hrs of calving
Symptoms of milk fever
* Hypocalcemia (<5.5)
* Lack of appetite
* Inactive GI
* Downer
* Susceptible to other diseases
What happens with cows that are fed too much Ca during the dry period?
They have downregulated their Ca retrieval mechanisms and become hypocalcemic at calving
Traditional method of treatment for milk fever?
feed low Ca (< .4%) during the dry period, causes negative Ca balance to activate intestinal absorption and bone resorption mechanisms

** Newer method: feed negative dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB) diets during dry period
Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB)
DCAB: sum of positively (Na, K, Ca) and negatively charged ions (Cl, S)

* Recommended target DCAB is -10 to -15 meq/100g diet DM
What percent of cows exhibit borderline ketosis during early lactation
50%

* Most cases occur within 60 days of calving, peak incidence is 3 weeks postcalving, more prevalent in older cows
Symptoms of ketosis
↑ ketone bodies, ↓ glucose levels, acetone odor (breath/milk), DMI/milk production decrease
5 ways to prevent ketosis in dairy cows
1. Avoid excess BCS at calving
2. Use good transition diet
3. Maximize DMI during early lactation
4. Feed oral glucose precursors like propylene glycol or sodium propionate
5. Feed niacin.
When do displaced abomasums occur in dairy cows?
Occurs within first month of calving, older cows more prone
5 Minerals Impact on Repro Performance of Dairy Cows
Cu, Mn, Zn, Se, Vit
bSt increases milk production and DMI
bSt increases milk production and DMI
How many round bales are needed per beef cow per 120 day feeding?
Need 2 round bales per cow per 120 day feeding (Approx 25 bales in one round bale)
How much supplement protein to should be given to beef cattle?
Supplement protein to 8% diet
What are the benefits of supplementing protein to 8% of a beef cows diet?
* Increases digestibility of forage

* Increases ruminal microbe function

* DMI increases 20-40%
Do not feed corn to cows in winter-why?
It decreases their ability to digest.
Rule of thumb for supplementing energy in beef catte
Don’t over-supplement energy past 0.4% body weight (5 lbs per cow) –feed protein!
Why dont you want to over supplement energy in beef cattle?
* It will lower rumen pH and impair rumen microbes

* Forage digestibility and DMI decreases
When can beef calves utilize urea properly?
Calves have to be 4 months and 400 pounds to utilize urea properly
Calculate target weight of beef cattle
Mature body weight x 0.65 = Target weight
Calculate lbs to gain for beef cattle
Target weight – weaning weight = Lbs to gain
Calculate average daily gain for beef cattle
Lbs to gain / days until breeding = Average Daily Gain
Rule of thumb for average daily gain
Never get above 1.5lbs/day because they’ll become ‘fat layers’ rather than ‘protein builders’
How many pounds of feed do beef calves need per pound of gain?
Calves need 6 pounds of feed per pound of gain
5 stocker calf comm diseases
* Pneumonia
* Hypomagnesium tetany
* Polioencephalomalacia
* Bloat
* Urinary Calculi
3 risks associated with Polioencephalomalacia
* lush pasture
* Mexican fireweed
* high concentrate diet
3 ways to prevent Polioencephalomalacia
* Avoid drastic change
* Thiamine injection
* Thiamine supplementation
3 feedlot diseases discussed
* Pneumonia
* Lactic acidosis
* Urolithiasis
Common causes of lactic acidosis in feedlots
* Pneumonia
* Liver abscess
* Laminitis
* Polioencephalomalacia (lush pastures, mexican fireweed, high concentrate diet)
* Entertoxemia
* Abomasal ulcer
How can you prevent lactic acidosis in feedlots?
* Gradually adapt calves to high grain diet

* Avoid mistakes in ration formulation

* Drop grain percentage if skipping meal or feeding late

* Feed buffers

* Ionophores
Benefits of using implants in beef cattle
* Increase daily weight gaints 10-15% and increase feed efficiency 2-10%

* There is no withdrawal and insignificant increase of estrogen in beef
Ionophores cause what percentage of weight gain: in feedlot calves? stocker calves?
* Increase weight gain 5-10% in feedlot calves

* Up to 15% in stocker calves

o Inhibit lactic acidosis, inhibit bloat, and coccidiostatic properties
How much do ionophores * Increase feed efficiency?
* Increase feed efficiency 5-10%
What 3 things do ionophores inhibit/prevent?
* Inhibit lactic acidosis
* Inhibit bloat
* Coccidiostatic properties
What is the primary component of the equine diet?
***Forage should be primary component***
the primary component of the equine diet?
Provides daily nutrient requirements
Maintains integrity of GI tract
Minimizes vices