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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Neuromaturationist theory

Cortex is command center

Dynamic Systems theory

command center changes from cortex to other levels, depending on task. immature postures involve cocontraction.

neuronal group selection theory

genetic code of species outlines neural network formation. if unexercised, synaptic connections die.

1 mo

physiological flexion

2 mo

45 degrees of head elevation, Atasia abasia (disappearance of LE support when weightbearing)

3 mo


4 mo

rolls side-side, no head lag in PTS

5 mo

rolls prone-supine, has head control

6 mo

prone on hands, I sitting, pull to stand

7 mo

quadruped, prone pivot

8-9 mo

crawls, PTS along furniture, cruising

10 mo

walking, creeping, floor to stand

20 mo

step to ascending stairs

gestation age

age of fetus in weeks, from day of last menstruation

Fetal development 7.5 weeks

bends neck and trunk

Apgar test

given to newborns - at 1 min, 5 min, 10 min to assess HR, RR, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color. >7 is a good score

Apgar test score of 4

poor score

Talipes equinovarus


Babinski reflex

stroke lateral foot and get extension and fanning of toes

How long does Babinski last?

0-12 months

Define Flexor withdrawal

sharp, quick pressure to foot or palm causes withdrawal

When does flexor withdrawal reflex disappear?

0-2 months

Define crossed-extension reflex

sharp quick pressure to sole of foot causes withdrawal of LE and extension of opposite LE

When does crossed-extension reflex disappear?

0-2 months

Define Galant reflex

stroke lateral trunk, causes lateral trunk flexion

How long does Galant reflex last?

0-2 months

Define Moro Reflex

neck extension results in flexion, shldr abduction and extension of elbows

How long does Moro reflex last?

0-4 months

Define primary standing reaction

with supported standing, infant will extend LE. This interferes with walking by not allowing dissociation between joints

Define primary walking

with supported standing and slight forward trunk, reciprocal stepping occurs. This typically disappears 0-2 months

Define neonatal neck righting

turn the head of the infant in supine, will body log roll to I/L side.

How long does neonatal neck righting last?

0-6 months

Define rooting reflex

stroking around mouth will turn head and open mouth

How long does rooting reflex last?

0-3 months

Define sucking reflex. How long does it last?

touch to lips, tongue, palate results in automatic sucking. 0-6 months

Define startle reflex. How long does it last?

Loud noise, causes sudden jerking of the whole body with extension and abduction of whole body. 0-6 months.

Define Tonic Labryinthine reflex. How long does it last?

prone position is max flexor tone, supine is max extensor tone. 0-6 months

What happens is tonic labryinthine reflex is strong?

May block rolling from supine due to increased extensor tone

Define ATNR. How long does it last?

head rotation causes extension of face side extremities and flexion of skull side extremities. 0-5 months

If ATNR persists, what kind of problems may arise?

scoliosis, hip dislocation, interfere with grasping and hand-mouth activities.

Define palmar grasp. How long does it last?

pressure against palm results in grasping object with slow release. 0-4 months

Define plantar grasp. How long does it last?

pressure to stimulus of foot or feet lowering to floor results in curling of toes. 0-9 months.

What reflex must be integrated prior to walking?

plantar grasp reflex may interfere with this task.

Define placing reactions. How long does it last?

If you drag dorsum of foot or back of hand against edge of table, placing of foot or hand on table top. 0-6 months.

Define pull to sit or traction. How long does head lag occur?

pull infant to sitting from supine. head lag occurs until 4-5 months.

Define optical and labryinthine righting

Head orients to vertical position when body is tilted. (showing vestibular input)

Define protective extension. When does it begin?

Quick displacement of trunk in downward direction in multi-directions results in extension of legs and arms to catch weight. Starts at 4 months.

Define body righting reaction on the head

When body contacts surface, head will right with respect to gravity. Begins 4-6months

Define Body right reaction on body

when head or thorax rotates, rolling over will occur. Begins at 6-8 months.

Define STNR. How long does it last?

Cervical extension produces UE extension and LE flexion. Cervical flexion produces UE flexion and LE extension. 6-8 months.

What does STNR interfere with if present?

Interferes with stable quadruped position and creeping.

Define Landau reaction. How long does it last?

when suspended, neck trunk and hips extend. Lasts from 4-18 months

Define tilting reactions.

shifting of body will result in lateral spinal flexion.