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86 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

The average gestation for a full-term infant is 40 weeks with a range from ____-_____weeks weighing in at 5.5-8.5 lbs and 47-54 centimeters in length. 88% of babies in the US are born full-term.

-37-42 weeks

____________ is a key risk factor of infant death (less than 37 weeks). Other top 2 risk factors of death are congenital _______________ and ____________________. LBW= _____lbs. VLBW =_________lbs. ELBW= ________lbs.

-Preterm births


-Sudden infant death syndrome

-LBW- 5.0lbs

-VLBW- 3 lbs (5oz)

-ELBW- 2 lbs (3oz)

Infants born between 37-42 weeks?

Full-term infants

Infants born before 37 weeks of gestation?

Preterm infants

Death that occurs within the first year of life?

Infant Mortality

Infant ____________ is affected by:

-social and economic status of families and women

-access to healthcare

-medical interventions

-teenage pregnancy rates

-availability of abortion services

-failure to prevent preterm and low-birth-weight births


part of Medicaid and provides routine checkups for low-income families?

EPSDT (early periodic screening detection and treatment program)

Fetal under-growth from any cause, resulting in a disproportionality in weight, length, or weight-for-length percentiles for gestational age?

IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation (or restriction)) (SGA)

An automatic (unlearned) response that is triggered by a specific stimulus?


Action that occurs if one cheek is touched, resulting in the infant's head turning toward that cheek and the infant opening his mouth?

Rooting Reflex

A reflexive movement of the tongue moving forward and backward; earliest feeding skill?


IUGR: infant falls below the ________ percentile of weight for gestational age. Infants above the _____ percentile are considered large for gestational age (LGA). Those between are appropriate for gestational age (AGA)



Infant feeding is directed by ___________ and the central nervous system. The development of muscle control is _______-______ of the infants body.



Muscle development along with muscle control are ___________-___________, meaning the infant learns to control the shoulder and arm muscles before muscles in the hands. ___________ development influences both the ability of the infant to feed and the amount of energy expended in the activity.



An early learning system in which the infant's senses and motor skills provide input to the central nervous system?


These skills influence feeding in important ways. For example, the stage during which infants are very sensitive to food texture is also when their speech skills are emerging?


The baby's interactions with the ______________ stimulates its developing brain, which is now seen as structuring the nervous system in the long term. Access to adequate energy and protein may not be sufficient enough for maximizing brain maturation if the social and emotional growth of the infant are not stimulated simultaneously.


It takes up to __________ months for the infant gastrointestinal tract to mature, but the time required varies for all.

6 months

Movement of the stomach contents backward into the esophagus due to stomach muscle contractions. The condition may require treatment depending on its duration and degree?

GER (gastroesophageal Reflux) (GERD)

Colic, GER, unexplained diarrhea, and constipation are all possible signs of an immature __________.


Factors that influence rate of food passage through the colon and the gastrointestinal discomfort seen in infants: ___________ of foods or liquids (which affects how much water is in the intestine), _________ bacteria flora, and water and fluid balance in the body.



When refluxes become coordinated. Sucking a nipple?

0-1 month

Immediately after birth; score is a simple assessment of how a baby is doing at birth, which helps determine whether your newborn is ready to meet the world without additional medical assistance?


1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar: APGAR score: given immediately after birth at specific timed intervals, ____ and ____ minutes; factor 0-2, scaled 1-10. Stands for::: __________: skin coloration. __________: heart rate. _________________: reflex response. _____________ and muscle tone. ______________: breathing rate & effort.




-Grimace response



Standard Newborn Growth Assessment considers __________, __________, and __________. Newborns grow faster than any other time of life.



-Head circumference

Include a wide range of interpretation = normal or typical. Accuracy in measuring tools and methods?

Physical Growth Assessment

Carbon molecules that provide fatty acids with 12 or more carbons, which ARE commonly found in foods?

Long-Chain Fats

Energy needs of typical infants are higher per pound of body weight than at any other time of life. Ranges from 80-120 kcal/kg (2.2lb) body weight daily. The average energy need of infants in the first 6 months of life is _______cal per kg of body weight, based on growth in breastfed infants. From 6-12 months of age, the average energy need is _____cal/kg.

108 kcal/kg

-98 kcal/kg

Weight, growth rate, sleep/wake cycle, temperature and climate, physical activity, metabolic responses to food, and health status from illness are all factors that account of the range of _________ needs of infants.


PROTEIN: 6 months= _____g/kg. 6-12 month= _____g/kg. Protein needs are similar to that of energy but are also influenced by body composition.



No specific recommendations for intake of fat level for infants. 55% of infant energy (calories) comes from fats from breastmilk. Infants need ______________ for gonad and brain development. Short and medium chain fats such as those found in ____________ are more readily utilized than long chain fats, such as in some infant ____________.

-Breast milk



The metabolic rate of infants is the highest of any period after birth. The higher rate is primarily related to infants' rapid __________ rate and high proportion of infant weight that is made up of muscle. Low carbohydrate and/or energy intake results in protein ____________ impacting growth. Process of breaking down body protein to generate energy is known as ____________; if this goes on too long, it will slow or stop growth in infants.




DRI FLUORIDE: Low in breast milk. <6 months= 0.1mg daily. 7-12 months= ____ mg daily. Not enough may lead to _____________. Too much may cause _______________.


-Dental Caries

-Tooth discoloration

VITAMIN D (bone mineralization and calcium): recommended shortly after birth at _______IU per day. 1 ________ of vitamin-D fortified infant formula- no need for supplementation. NOT supplied in sufficient amounts in breast milk, that's why supplements are typically recommended for exclusively or partially breastfed infants. Deficiency leads to ___________.

-400 IU

-1 quart


SODIUM: major component of extracellular fluid and fluid balance. 0-5 months= ______mg. 6-12 months= _________mg. Infants don't sweat very much, so not major loss for infants. Major losses are more so from _________ or __________.





IRON: ____mg daily. 7-12 month= ____mg daily. Supplemental iron for exclusively breastfeeding infants starts at ___ months of age.



-4 months

LEAD: May be contaminated in water from lead pipes. Lead based paints taste sweet to infants. Screening for lead poisoning is recommended starting at _9-12 months of age. If siblings have been found to have lead poisoning, screening for lead may be started at 6 months. No recommendations. **


Slight variations in ________ rate can result from illness, teething, inappropriate feeding positions, or family disruptions.


CDC and WHO charts both show: ________ and _______ for age, weight for length, and head circumference for age.



CDC: US selected sites with 5,000 measurements. Descriptive reference reflecting past "_____________". 66% formula fed and 33% breastfed for 3 months. From birth to _____ months. Low weight for age in 12 months and High weight for length up to 12 months is higher prevalence.

-How infants have grown

-36 months

Descriptive reference reflecting past "how infants have grown"?

CDC chart

WHO: worldwide 6 selected sites with 19,000 measurements. Prescriptive optimal standard: "____________". All infants are ___________ for at least 4 months. From birth to _______ months. Low weight for age in 12 months and High weight for length up to 12 months is ________ prevalence.

-How infants should grow




Prescriptive optimal standard, "how infants should grow"?

WHO chart

Physical growth warning signs: Lack of Weight or Length gain, Plateau (little/no change) in Weight, Length, or head circumference for > __ month, Drop in weight without regain in a few weeks.


Newborns: Hear and move in response to familiar voice. ____________ dictate feeding at birth. _____ is immature resulting in inconsistent cues for hunger and satiety. Strong reflexes, especially ______ and _____ (reflexes are protective for newborns).




Ability to control voluntary muscles. Top down—head first, lower legs last. Muscle development from central to peripheral. Influences ability to feed self & the amount of energy expended?

Motor Development

Sensorimotor skills are related to ______________ development.


Recommended that infants are exclusively breastfed for first _______ months of life and continuation of it for second ____ months as optimum nutrition in infancy. Less than ____ months old- NO other liquids recommended or foods in addition to breast milk and formula. Infant formula for full-term newborns are typically ____cal/fl oz when prepared as directed; for premature it is ____-____cal/fl oz.




-20cal/fl oz

-22-24 cal/fl oz

________________ has been linked to early introduction of whole cow's milk. Soy formula isn't recommended for managing infantile colic. ____________ and ____________ formulas are good alternatives to soy protein-based formulas who are not breastfed and cannot be fed cow's milk protein.

-Cow's milk



Linked to: GI blood loss, Low absorption of calcium & phosphorus, and displacement of iron-rich foods.

Iron deficiency anemia

Infants born with reflexes & food intake regulatory mechanism. Inherent preference for sweet taste. At __-___ wks, reflexes fade; infant begins to purposely signal wants & needs.

-4-6 weeks

Reflexes include rooting, mouthing, head turning, gagging, swallowing, and coordinating breathing and swallowing. In early infancy, self regulation of feeding is mediated by the pleasure of the sensation of ___________. Food intake, child speaking, and appetite are regulated by both ___________ and _________ factors interacting with one another.




The developmental model is based on looking of signs of readiness, such as being able to move the tongue from side to side without moving the head. The infant must be able to keep her head upright and sit with little support before ________ feeding is initiated.


Cues infants may give for feeding readiness: Watching the food being opened in anticipation of eating, Tight ______ or reaching for spoon, Irritation if feeding too slow or stops temporarily, Playing with food or spoon, slowing intake or turning away when full, Stop eating or spit out food when full.


Food offered from spoon stimulates mouth ____________ development. At _____ months, offer small portions of semisoft food on a spoon once or twice each day. Offer a small spoon with a ___________ bowl. If baby cannot extend the tongue farther out than the _____________, baby isn't ready for spoon feeding. Place spoon on the tongue with a slight __________ pressure toward the front of the mouth. The spoon should be almost level.




-Lower lip


Unsafe feeding positions: ___________ a bottle or placing the baby on a pillow. Recommended sleeping position for a young infant is lying on the ________ WITHOUT elevating the head on a pillow. The infant can better control his mouth and head in a seated position with good support for the back and feet.



Recommendations for introducing solid foods: Infant should not be overly tired or hungry, Use small spoon with shallow bowl, Allow infant to open mouth & extend tongue, Place spoon on front of tongue with gentle pressure, Avoid scraping spoon on infant’s gums, Pace feeding to allow infant to swallow, First meals may be ___-____ spoons over 10 minutes.

5-6 spoons

Introducing solid foods: should be single foods, pureed, wait __-__ days before adding new food, only 1-2 Tbsp per meal. Sequence of food:Iron fortified rice and other _________; wheat is last, Single fruits orSingle vegetables, Eggs, wheat (avoid first ___-___ months), Table foods (___ months to ___ year).

-3-5 days


-6-9 months

-9 months-1 year

Improper positioning may cause choking, discomfort, and _______ infections. Position young bottle-fed infants in a semi-upright position. Spoon-feeding should be with infant seated with back and feet supported. Adults feeding infants should be directly in front of infant making _________ contact.



Preparing for drinking from cup: Offer water or juice from cup after ____ months. Wean to a cup at ___ to ____ monthsFirst portion from cup is ___-___ oz. Changing from a bottle to a covered “sippy” cup with a small spout is NOT the same developmental step as weaning to an open cup. Open cup drinking skills also encourage __________ development.

-6 months

-12-24 months



Starts in infancy and usually completed in toddlerhood. Discontinuation of breastfeeding or bottle-feeding and substitution of food for breast milk or infant formula?

Weaning (not complete until the energy intake from breast milk is provided from foods and liquids)

Food textures and development: Can swallow __________ foods at 6 months. Early introduction of lumpy foods may cause choking. Can swallow very soft, lumpy foods at ___-___ months. By 8-10 months, can eat ____________ foods


-6-8 months

-Soft, mashed

Foods or products that have low risk of promoting food or other allergies?

Hypoallergenic (RICE CEREAL IS)

Hot dogs, Popcorn, potato chips, Peanuts, chunks of peanut butter, Raisins, whole grapes, Stringy meats, Gum & gummy-textured candy, hard candy or jelly beans, Hard fruits or vegetables are all foods that __________ infants.


Commercial baby foods are commonly selected because of their ____________ and ____________. A lot have added tapioca. Jars and plastic tub serving sizes of baby foods are based on ____________ standards, not necessarily recommended portion sizes. Portion sizes for infants should be based on ____________. 9-12 months of age foods eaten by family members are appropriate (soft cooked green beans, mashed potatoes, cooked hot cereal, and cheerios)





Breast milk or formula provide adequate water for healthy infants up to ____ months. All forms of fluids contribute to water intake. Additional plain water in hot, humid climates. Dehydration is common in infants. Pedialyte or sports drinks provide electrolytes but lower in calories than formula or breast milk. Limit juice-AAP recommends juice is not needed to meet the fluid needs before the age of 6 months. Avoid colas and tea.

6 months

In first few months, the oral need to suck is easily confused with ___________ by new parents. Infants vary in temperament. Crying or fussiness may be interpreted as hunger resulting in overfeeding. First foods may appear to be rejected due to immature ___________ movement.



Infants learn food _____________ based on experiences with foods. Flavor of breast milk influenced by mother’s diet. Genetic predisposition to sweet taste. Food preference from infancy sets stage for lifelong food habits.


Supplements for infants

=Fluoride—for breastfed infants after 6 months or if in any area with no fluoridated water

=Iron after ___ months if breastfed

=Vitamin ____ for vegans

= Vitamin ____needed if exclusively breastfed

-4 months



Infants who were born early at low birthweight may need Vitamins ___ and ____ and __________ due to low stores of these nutrients usually accumulated late in pregnancy.




Condition of inadequate weight or height gain thought to result from an energy deficit, whether or not the cause can be identified as a health problem?

FTT (Failure to thrive)

General term used to group specific diagnoses that limit daily living and functioning and occur before age 21?

Developmental Disabilities

Failure to thrive (FTT): Can be organic (_________) or non-organic (____________) such as maternal depression, mental illness, alcohol or drug abuse in the home, feeding delegated to siblings or others unable to respond to the infant, and overdilution of formula. Inadequate weight or height gain. Energy deficit is suspected.



Intervention for ______: May be complex and involve a team approach including the registered dietitian, social worker.


A condition marked by a sudden onset of irritability, fussiness, or crying in a young infant between 2 weeks and 3 months of age who is otherwise growing healthy?


Response to Colic is usually to change ________________ if the infant is not breastfeeding, although this usually doesn't change the pattern of colic. Other recommendations include rocking, swaddling, bathing, or other ways of calming the infant positioning the baby well for eating, or burping to relieve gas.

Infant formulas

Severe iron deficiency anemia suggest to inadequate iron contributes to long term ________ delays from its role in the central nervous system development. Level of iron in fortified formulas is 15mg per liter (11.5 mg per quart)


The number of stools varies widely from ___-___ per day, decreasing as the infant matures. Infants fed __________ based infant formulas may have more constipation than those fed a cow's milk-based formula. Excessive intake of __________ is a common cause of diarrhea in older infants.

-2-6 stools


-Fruit juice

Limit the use of a bottle as part of a __________ ritual, offer juices in a _________, put only water in a __________ if offered for sleep, examine and clean emerging baby teeth to prevent dental caries from developing.




Cow based and soy based formulas are very similar in that they have __________ proteins. Hydrolyzed formulas DO NOT have this and are recommended. The most common allergic reaction is respiratory and skin symptoms such as wheezing or skin rashes.


Formula that contains enzymatically digested protein, or single amino acids, rather than protein as it naturally occurs in foods?

Hydrolyzed Protein Formula

A form of sugar or carbohydrate composed of galactose and glucose?


______________ is often confused with colic and symptoms occur after a variety of minor illnesses such as gastrointestinal infections because of the irritated area of the intestine interferes with lactose breakdown. ___________ is present in dairy products and cow's milk-based formulas.

-Lactose intolerance


Infants receiving well-planned vegetarian diets grow normally. Breastfed vegan infants need supplementsVitamin ___, Vitamin ____, Possibly _________ and __________.





Program focused on preventing and reducing risks to infant development . Work with drug abuse, infants with disabilities, or teenage mothers?

Early Head Start program

Condition in which thyroid hormone is not produced in sufficient quantities, interfering with growth and mental development if untreated in infants?