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743 Cards in this Set

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Nonviolent hostility between the U.S. & Soviet Union that arose during the 1950s.
Cold War
Emerged from World War II as superpowers.
U.S. & Soviet Union
Resulted in competing Communist & Western alliances.
Cold War
The competition that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world.
Cold War
Political conflict and military tension that characterized the relations between the United States and the Soviet Union for nearly 50 years after World War II.
Cold War
At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill clashed with Stalin over his refusal to allow free elections in ______.
Poland
One contributing factor to the Cold War was the fact that Stalin broke a promise he had made at Yalta for ___________.
free elections in Eastern Europe
After World War II the United States objected to the Soviet domination of ________.
Poland in particular (Eastern Europe in general)
At this conference, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin decided to divide defeated Germany into four sectors.
Yalta
The occupation zones resulted in a democratic and a communist _________.
Germany
Democratic Germany
West Germany
Communist Germany
East Germany
In addition to dividing Germany after WWII ________ was also divided.
Berlin
West Berlin was completely surrounded by ________.
East Germany
He was determined that Germany would never threaten his nation again.
Joseph Stalin
Took control of several Eastern European countries after World War II.
Soviet Union
He defied Stalin and ruled Yugoslavia relatively free of Soviet interference.
Tito
In Eastern Europe they were nations controlled politically and economically by the Soviet Union
satellite nations
Division of Europe into Communist and Democratic regions.
Iron Curtain
Was created so people could not escape to West Berlin.
Berlin wall
In East Germany, Poland, Hungary, & Czechoslovakia there were revolts against____.
Soviet domination
The imaginary line that divided Europe between capitalist West and Communist East
iron curtain
Philosophical "wall" of Soviet domination and oppression.
iron curtain
In 1946, HE proclaimed that an Iron curtain separated Communist Eastern Europe from capitalist Western Europe.
Winston Churchill
U.S. policy of resistance to Soviet attempts at expanding communism.
containment
Policy developed by American leaders after WWII, to resist and stop the spread of communism.
containment
A promise to support nations trying to resist Soviet control.
Truman Doctrine
Pressure by Communists on Turkey and Greece led to the ______.
Truman Doctrine
As a result of the Truman Doctrine congress approved $400 million to help what two countries resist Soviet influence?
Turkey & Greece
Doctrine giving military and economic aid to help countries block communist takeovers.
Truman Doctrine
The Truman doctrine was in effect the policy of _____.
containment
U.S. leaders attempted to keep communism from spreading to other nations in a policy of ______.
containment
As Secretary of State HE drafted a plan to help European nations rebuild after World War II.
George Marshall
Pledged American financial aid to all European nations following World War II.
Marshall Plan
The U.S. gave massive economic aid which revived Western European economies after WWII.
Marshall Plan
One goal of the Marshall Plan was to create stable democracies that could ______.
resist communism
In response to the Marshall Plan the Soviet Union ________.
refused to participate
After World War II the Soviet Union attempted to rebuild in ways that would protect its ____.
own interest
Because West Berlin had become an escape route to the West the Soviet Union attempted to force the Allies to _________.
abandon it
Provided vital supplies to a region blockaded by the Soviet Union.
Berlin airlift
Means for of transporting supplies around the Soviet blockade.
Berlin airlift
When the Soviet's blockaded West Berlin President Truman responded with the _____.
Berlin airlift
Both the U.S. & the Soviet Union formed them with the countries they protected or occupied.
military alliances.
It was formed in 1949 by a number of nations to protect themselves from possible Soviet aggression.
NATO
NATO was based on the principal of ______.
collective security
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Principal of mutual military assistance.
collective security
Consisted of the U.S. and its Western European allies.
NATO
Part of the reason for the development of NATO was the Veto power of the Soviet Union in the _________.
United Nations Security Council
A military alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations.
Warsaw Pact
Two events in 1949 that heightened American's concern about the Cold War.
Successful Soviet test of an Atomic bomb and Communist taking control of China.
In response to the Soviet Union's deployment of an atomic bomb Truman approved the development of the _________.
Hydrogen Bomb
After Japan's defeat civil war resumed in China between the ____________.
Communists & Nationalists
Leader of the Communists in China after WWII.
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Leader of the Nationalists in China after WWII.
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)
Communists won control of mainland China in _____. (year)
1949
The communists won in China in large part because they won the support of the _____.
peasants
Leader of the Communist forces that took control of China in 1949.
Mao Zedong
After China fell to Mao Zedong some members of congress called for the protection of the ____.
rest of Asia
The success of communists in other parts of the world produced a fear that communists were living in ________.
the United States
Truman's Federal Employee Loyalty Program was intended to expose _____.
Communists
Committee that probed the government for Communist infiltration.
HUAC
HUAC
House Un-American Activities Committee
In the late 1940s, IT investigated the motion picture industry for Communist influences.
HUAC
Members of the House Un-American Activities Committee charged numerous Hollywood figures with being sympathetic to _______.
Communist ideas
Invoking their constitutional rights they refused to answer questions from the HUAC.
Hollywood Ten
The Hollywood ten were cited for contempt of congress and served _____.
jail terms
Were compiled by studios in Hollywood as a result of the HUAC investigations.
blacklists
A list of the names of people whom employers agree not to hire.
blacklist
Accused of being a Communist by Whittaker Chambers. He was convicted of perjury and his conviction emboldened those searching for communist .
Alger Hiss
Their trial and execution in 1952 intensified the fear of communism as an internal threat to the United States.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Senator Joseph McCarthy's hearings were intended to expose _____.
Communists
The federal government's hunt for communist within the U.S. resulted in the violation many people's ______.
civil rights
The activities of the HUAC and McCarthyism were part of the ______.
Second Red Scare
Part of the reason for the Korean War was the communist victory in the ________.
Chinese Civil War
Country that controlled Korea for much of the first half of the twentieth century.
Japan
Asian country that was divided into two after World War II, one half with a pro-American government, the other with a pro-communist government.
Korea
After WWII the U.S. and Soviet forces agreed to divide this nation at the 38th parallel.
Korea
Communist Dictator of North Korea after WWII.
Kim Il Sung
The North Koreans attacked the South in June of _________.
1950
Americans believed that the North Korean invasion of South Korea was motivated by the ____.
Soviet Union
Because of the absence of the Soviet Union it condemned the North Korean invasion and used a force made up mostly of U.S. troops to fight the North Koreans.
United Nations
Passed a resolution that supported efforts to defend South Korea and restore peace.
United Nations
The North Koreans overran most of the South until they were stopped by the U.N. forces, the U.N. forces then counter attacked and drove back close to the ______.
Chinese border
After Mao Zedong sent hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops to help the North Koreans the U.N. forces were driven back to the _____.
38th parallel
American General who led the United Nations forces during the Korean War.
Douglas MacArthur
General MacArthur wanted to break the stalemate in Korea by attacking the ______.
Chinese mainland
When Truman opposed his strategy of attacking China during the Korean War he appealed to the Speaker of the House.
Douglas MacArthur
When General MacArthur's appeal to the speaker of the House was made public Truman _____.
fired MacArthur
The Korean War turned into a stalemate and both sides signed an armistice to end fighting in ____. (year)
1953
After the Korean War nearly two million North and South Koreans remained dug in on either side of the _____.
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
After the Korean war the boundaries between North and South Korea returned to their ____.
pre-war status
It did result in South Korea remaining free of communism.
Korean War
Individual most responsible for spreading a fear of Communism in the United states.
Joseph McCarthy
Senator Joseph McCarthy's power faded after he appeared on television in the ________.
Army-McCarthy hearings
Revolutionary leader who in 1959 overthrew the Cuban dictatorship.
Fidel Castro
Eisenhower halted exports to Cuba when Fidel Castro seized _______.
American property
One reason the U.S. became involved in the affairs of the Middle East after World War II was to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling under _______.
Soviet influence
The United States acted to oppose Soviet influence in the Middle East under _____.
President Eisenhower
Jews had been driven out of what is today Palestine in the first century, but started to return in the _______.
1800s
The Holocaust created worldwide support for a _______.
Jewish Homeland in Palestine
After WWII Jews migrated in large numbers to ______.
Palestine
The U.N. drew up a plan to divide Palestine into an ______.
Arab and a Jewish state
Rejected the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine.
Arabs
When Britain withdrew from Palestine the Jews proclaimed the independent state of ______.
Israel
After Israel declared its independence the Arabs ______.
launched the first of several wars against them
Victors in the Arab Israeli wars.
Israel
A major goal of the U.S. policy in Latin America during the Cold War was to protect American _________.
financial investments
The struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union to gain weapons superiority.
arms race
Event that did the most produce fear in Americans of an attack by the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union successfully testing an atomic bomb
Within a year of the U.S. exploding its first thermonuclear device the Soviet Union successfully tested its own _______.
Hydrogen Bomb
The policy of making the military power of the U.S. and its allies so strong that no enemy would dare attack it for fear of retaliation.
deterrence.
The ability to come to the verge of war without actually going to war.
brinkmanship
Secretary of State who made it clear that the United States would risk war to protect its national interests.
John Foster Dulles
Policy of being willing to risk war to protect national interests.
brinkmanship
Secretary of state who developed the policy of brinkmanship.
John Foster Dulles
The U.S. lagged behind the Soviet Union in missile development because of its reliance on ___________.
aircraft to carry nuclear weapons
The size of the technology gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in the area of missiles became apparent in 1957 when the Soviets used a rocket to launch the first artificial satellite ______.
Sputnik
During the years following World War II the U.S. embarked on one of its greatest periods of ___________.
economic expansion
During the postwar years, the Gross National Product of the United States more than ________.
doubled
GNP
Gross National Product
The total amount of goods and services produced by a national economy.
GNP
From 1945 to 1960 the per capita income nearly ______________.
doubled
The average income per person.
per capita income
A giant corporation that invests in a wide range of businesses that produce different kinds of goods and services.
conglomerate
A corporation made up of three or more unrelated businesses.
conglomerate
Gives a group or individual the right to market a company's goods or services.
franchise
A business that contracts to offer certain goods and services from a larger parent company.
franchise
Many unique stores, with ties to the local community, were replaced as a result of the __________
franchise system
Two business systems or strategies that contributed to a major expansion of business in the 1950s.
conglomerates and franchises
In 1955, the average American family watched television _________.
four to five hours a day
In the early days of television many programs were broadcast __________.
live
Advertisements on this new medium helped spur economic growth in the post war years.
Television
A 1950s technological innovation furthered by research during World War II.
the computer
Computer use became much more widespread in the 1950s mainly because they became _____.
smaller and faster
Term introduced by Grace Hopper, when she removed a moth that had become caught in a relay switch that caused a large computer to shut down.
debugging
Ridding a computer of program errors.
debugging
A tiny circuit that improved the transmission of electronic signals.
transistor
A tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals.
transistor
One of its major impacts was to reduce the size of electronic appliances.
transistor
Doctor who developed the vaccine against polio. (first successful field test 1954)
Jonas Salk
Penicillin and others were developed before World War II, but during the 1950s, doctors discovered more of these drugs including ones that were effective against penicillin-resistant bacteria.
antibiotics
Business expansion after World War II resulted in a shift in the work force from ____________.
blue-collar to white collar jobs
By 1956 more Americans held _________ than __________ jobs.
white-collar blue-collar
Some people believed that white-collar workers were less connected with products and services their companies provided and were more likely to ___________.
conform in their behavior
The high birth rate that started during World War II and continued after the war was over.
baby boom
It began in the mid 1940s, during World War II and peaked in 1957.
baby boom
One result of the baby boom was families moving from the _____________.
cities to the suburbs
It was passed by Congress in 1944 to give World War II veterans benefits like college tuition and low-interest mortgage loans.
GI Bill of Rights
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944.
GI Bill of Rights (or GI Bill)
Law that provided fuel for the postwar economic boom and the modern middle class lifestyle that developed in during the 1950s.
GI Bill of Rights
Developer who mass-produced new communities in the suburbs.
William J. Levitt
William J. Levitt contributed to the growth of suburbs by _____________________.
mass-producing houses
Name William Levitt gave to his new communities.
Levittown's
Following their customers many stores moved from the cities to _______.
shopping centers in the suburbs
Because many people moved beyond the reach of the public transportation systems they became more dependent upon _____.
cars
From 1948 to 1958, passenger car sales increased by more than __________.
50%
The increase in the number of cars created a need for better roads and resulted in the 1956 _______.
Interstate Highway Act
Provided $25 billion to build an interstate highway system more than 40,000 miles long.
Interstate Highway Act
Inspired the development of many new businesses, including: gas stations, repair shops, parts stores, drive in movies and restaurants.
the car culture
One long-lasting effect of the major highway-building projects of the 1950s was less reliance on the _________________.
public transportation system
Eager to cash in on the increasing number of cars on the roads gasoline companies began offering ___________.
credit cards
They became a popular means of purchasing things because of their ease and convenience.
credit cards
Just like installment plans in the 1920s, credit cards introduced in the 1950s encouraged consumers to purchase beyond their ____________.
means
After the years of depression and war, many Americans were searching for ____.
security
In the 1950s Americans placed the greatest value in ________.
comfort and security
Name given to the youth of the 1950s.
"silent generation"
In the 1950s they seemed to have little interest in the problems and crisis in the larger world.
"silent generation"
Members of the "Silent Generation" chose to pursue ________________.
entertainment and fun
The popularity of Billy Graham in the 1950s reflected a new interest in ___________.
religion
The renewed interest in religion in the 1950s was partially a response to the Cold War's struggle against ___________.
"godless communism"
In 1954 what words were added to the Pledge of Allegiance?
"under God"
In 1955 Congress required what phrase to appear on all American currency?
"In God We Trust"
Americans in the post-World War II years were keenly aware of the roles that they were expected to play as _____________.
men and women
Making important decisions, supporting their families financially, and going to school were all parts of _______________.
men's roles during the 1950s
During the 1950s most American women were expected to be ____________.
full-time homemakers
Were expected to manage the household by American society in the 1950s.
women
Pediatrician who wrote a highly influential book on child care.
Benjamin Spock
Pediatrician and child care advisor who believed women should stay at home with their children.
Benjamin Spock
Critics of Dr. Spock's child care advice believed it was too __________.
permissive
In spite of the traditional roles that were expected many of THEM had enjoyed working outside the home during WWII and were reluctant to give up their good jobs.
women
More of them held paying jobs in the 1950s than ever before.
women
The number of married women working outside of the home rose from _____________.
24% in 1950 to 31% in 1960
Author of The Feminine Mystique.
Betty Friedan
Woman's rights advocate who believed that the culture wrongfully forced women into staying at home and caring for children.
Betty Friedan
Films like "Rebel Without a Cause" and books like "The Catcher in the Rye," reflected the alienation of many of America's youth in the 1950s and their desire to resist the pressure to ______.
conform
Popular music combining elements of rhythm and blues, gospel music, and country and western music, and known for its strong beat and urgent lyrics.
rock 'n' roll
Gave young people in the 1950s a music style that they could call their own.
Rock 'n' roll
Disc jockey who first used the term rock 'n' roll to describe the new style of music emerging in the 1950s.
Alan Freed
Literary movement of the 1950s that rejected uniform middle-class culture and sought to overturn the sexual and social conservatism of the period.
beat movement
Counter-cultural group of the 1950s that promoted spontaneity over conformity.
beatniks
Counter-cultural group of the 1950s that rebelled against conformity and traditional social patterns.
beatniks
Considered the spiritual leader of the Beat Generation.
Jack Kerouac
Author of "On the Road."
Jack Kerouac
Another name for the Beat Generation.
beatniks
The resurgence of religion and the rise of rock-and-roll were examples of _____________.
disparate trends in the 1950s
The social and economic transition to peacetime after war.
reconversion
When the government lifted price controls after the war, prices rose _____________.
faster than wages
One of the greatest challenges that President Truman faced in reconverting to a peacetime economy was keeping _______________.
inflation in check
Although Truman agreed that workers deserved higher wages, he thought their demands were ______________.
inflationary
When a railroad strike disrupted the economy in 1946, President Truman attempted to _____.
draft the striking workers into the army
This law was passed by Congress in 1947 to restrict labor strikes that threatened the national interest.
Taft-Hartley Act
The Taft-Hartley Act was a piece of anti _____________________.
labor legislation
The Taft-Hartley Act was passed over Truman's ____.
veto
Truman's plan which extended Roosevelt's New Deal goals.
The Fair Deal
A higher minimum wage, national health insurance, and housing assistance were all parts of Truman's ________.
Fair Deal goals
In the 1946 mid-term elections Republicans won majorities in both ___________.
houses of congress
Area where Truman found opposition throughout his presidency.
civil rights
Truman attempted to make progress in civil rights but was consistently blocked by __________.
congress
Progress in the area of civil rights was made difficult because of the coalition between Republicans and _______.
Southern Democrats
He banned discrimination in the hiring of federal employees and ordered the armed forces to end segregation and discrimination.
Harry Truman
It did not appear that Harry Truman had much chance to win reelection in 1948 because he had lost support in his ____________.
own party
Southern segregationists split off from the Democratic party in 1948 forming the States' Rights or __________.
Dixiecrat Party
Dixiecrat Party nominee for the presidency in 1948.
Strom Thurmond
Truman also lost the support of the liberal wing of the Democratic party which supported Henry Wallace on the ticket of the ______.
Progressive Party
Truman's Republican opponent in 1948.
Thomas Dewey
Even though Truman won the election of 1948 and the Democrats won control of congress Truman had only occasional successes implementing his _____.
Fair Deal goals
Adopted in 1951, it limited the President to two terms in office.
Twenty-second Amendment
Democratic Candidate for President in 1952 & 1956.
Adlai Stevenson
President who was the former commander-in-chief of the Allied forces.
Dwight Eisenhower
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate.
Richard Nixon
His formula for victory in the Presidential election of 1952 focused on: Korea, communism, and corruption.
Dwight Eisenhower
President Eisenhower's conservative approach to government.
Modern Republicanism
"dynamic conservatism"
Modern Republicanism
Cutting spending, reducing taxes, and balancing the budget.
Modern Republicanism
Eisenhower said he intended to be "conservative when it comes to money, and liberal when it comes to ___________."
human beings
Eisenhower endorsed a military strategy of relying on nuclear weapons, rather than more costly ______________.
conventional armies
Eisenhower and his administration supported _____.
big business
Because he favored big business President Eisenhower's domestic policy reflected his Republican predecessors _____________.
Coolidge & Hoover
The 1957 event that caused Congress to increase spending on teaching science and mathematics.
launching of Sputnik
Was an act designed to improve science and mathematics in schools.
National Defense Education Act
In response to Sputnik the U.S. government created an independent agency for space exploration ____.
NASA
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
General Manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers who asked Jackie Robinson to be the first player to break the color barrier in Major League Baseball.
Branch Rickey
First black player to break the color barrier and play major league baseball.
Jackie Robinson
Year that Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play in the major leagues.
1947
African American Migration to northern cities, the New Deal, World War II, Rise of the NAACP.
reasons for the accelerating demand for civil rights.
After World War II the campaign for African American civil rights began to _______.
accelerate
In 1896 the Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson had established the _______________.
"separate but equal" doctrine
After World War II, the African American civil rights movement made few gains until _______.
the 1960s
Ordered an end to discrimination in the armed forces.
President Truman
Leader of the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund "Mr. Civil Rights"
Thurgood Marshall
Lawyer who argued on behalf of Brown against segregation in America's schools.
Thurgood Marshall
Supreme Court ruling that declared the "separate but equal" doctrine to be unconstitutional.
Brown v Board of Education
Year of Brown v. Board of Education decision.
1954
In Brown v. Board of Education the Supreme Court ruled that "separate educational facilities are _______________."
inherently unequal
Chief Justice influential in the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
Earl Warren
A year after the "Brown decision" the Court ruled that local school boards should move to desegregate "with __________."
all deliberate speed
The "Brown decision" and the court order to desegregate, resulted in many southern whites responding with fear and angry ______.
resistance
Southern congressmen claimed that there was "no legal basis" for the "Brown decision" and the court order to desegregate, that it violated states' rights and was an example of "judicial usurpation."
"Southern Manifesto"
Bringing together of races.
integration
When she refused to give up her seat to a white man, she was seized by the police and ordered to stand trial sparking the Montgomery Bus boycott.
Rosa Parks
Boycott aimed at forcing the bus company to change its policy of segregated seating on buses.
Montgomery bus boycott
Event that introduced a new generation of African American leaders including Martin Luther King, Jr.
Montgomery bus boycott
The Montgomery bus boycott lasted from December of 1955 to December of _______.
1956
Even though the Montgomery bus company refused to change its policies the boycott did result in a Supreme Court decision declaring bus segregation _____________.
unconstitutional
When nine African American students attempted to attend Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas this governor used the National Guard to prevent them from attending.
Orval Faubus
Although HE was not in favor of integration, he did believe Governor Faubus actions were a violation of the Constitution and a challenge to his authority.
President Eisenhower
President Eisenhower sent in the 101st Airborne to protect the Little Rock Nine as they desegregated the school. He also nationalized the Arkansas National Guard placing them under ______.
his Authority
When the 101st Airborne left Little Rock, and only the National Guard remained to protect the Little Rock Nine, they were constantly subjected to ____________.
verbal and physical abuse
Year Eisenhower used the 101st Airborne and the National Guard to enforce school integration, in Littlerock, Arkansas.
1957
Eisenhower said his actions in Little Rock, Arkansas were necessary to defend the authority of the ____.
Supreme Court
Mexican American reform groups such as the Community Service Organization and the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) sought change through ________.
peaceful protest
Federal government policy adopted in 1953, which sought to eliminate reservations altogether and to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream culture.
"termination"
The policy of "termination" met resistance, and was discarded, but THEIR problems of poverty, discrimination, and little real political representation remained.
Native Americans
In the 1920s and 1930s this group had success in challenging segregation laws.
NAACP
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Critics charged that IT was out of touch with the basic issues of economic survival faced by many poorer African Americans.
NAACP
This group helped African American newcomers, to large cities, find homes and jobs.
National Urban League
Civil rights organization founded by pacifists in 1942 and dedicated to effecting change through peaceful confrontation.
CORE
CORE
Congress of Racial Equality
Organized the first sit-in, in 1943, at a restaurant called the Jack Spratt Coffee House in Chicago.
CORE
Founder and President of CORE from 1942 to 1966, turned it into a national organization.
James Farmer
It was founded by pacifists and directed by James Farmer.
CORE
CORE pursued its goals through ________.
peaceful confrontation
Civil Rights organization founded by African American ministers in 1957.
SCLC
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
In 1957 Martin Luther King Jr., and other ministers founded the ___________.
SCLC
The SCLC and CORE were similar in that they both promoted _____.
nonviolent protest
Group that shifted the focus of the civil rights movement from the North to the South.
SCLC
Method used by Martin Luther King, Jr., and other members of the SCLC, to achieve victory in the struggle for Civil Rights.
nonviolent protest
Individual who influenced Martin Luther King, Jr., to believe in nonviolent protest.
Gandhi
SCLC taught its nonviolent protesters not to resist even when ________.
attacked
King followed Gandhi's teaching that those who fight for justice must peacefully refuse to obey ____.
unjust laws
SCLC's 17 rules for maintaining a nonviolent approach instructed "If another person is being molested do not rise to go to his defense, but __________."
pray for the oppressor….
Gave young African Americans a greater voice in the civil rights movement.
SNCC
SNCC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was formed to enable students to make their own decisions about ___________.
priorities and tactics
Group that entrusted decisions about priorities and tactics to young activists.
SNCC
As director of the SNCC's Mississippi Project, HE traveled to the South to try to register black voters.
Robert Moses
Fourteen-year-old boy, from Chicago, who was murdered in Mississippi, in 1955, supposedly because he whistled at a white woman.
Emmett Till
His murder was noted as one of the leading events that motivated the American Civil Rights Movement.
Emmett Till
Protest technique in which African Americans occupied a segregated establishment and demanded service.
sit-in
Were used to protest against segregation at lunch counters.
sit-ins
Technique used by civil rights activists to force segregated establishments to serve African Americans.
sit-in
The sit-in at a Woolworth's in this town in 1960, launched a wave of anti-segregation sit-ins across the South.
Greensboro, North Carolina
Participants in sit-ins were often harassed and forced to spend time in ___.
jail
In 1960 in Boynton v. Virginia the Supreme Court expanded and earlier ban on segregation, on interstate buses, to include __________.
bus terminals
Organized by CORE, with the aid of SNCC, these were designed to test whether southern states would obey the Supreme Court ruling, integrating bus terminals.
Freedom Rides
Civil Rights activists used interstate buses to protest segregation at terminals.
Freedom Rides
The Freedom Riders encountered violent resistance in the state of ______.
Alabama
This group of protestors received federal protection after being violently attacked in Alabama.
Freedom Riders
The first Freedom Ride died out in Jackson, Mississippi when the riders, and volunteers to replace them, were all ___.
arrested
Advanced the cause of civil rights by attempting to enroll at Ole Miss.
James Meredith
When a riot broke out over James Meredith's admission to the University of Mississippi HE sent army troops to restore order and protect Meredith.
President Kennedy
Martin Luther King, Jr., targeted THIS CITY, for demonstrations because he believed it to be the most segregated city in the country.
Birmingham, Alabama
When a court order directed the protestors in Birmingham to cease demonstrations, King decided to disobey the order and set an example of ___.
civil disobedience
Police commissioner of Birmingham who arrested King and other demonstrators.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Wrote the "Letter from Birmingham Jail."
Martin Luther King, Jr.
After being released from jail in Birmingham King decided to include THEM in the campaign.
young people
He arrested over 900 young people as they marched in Birmingham and used fire hoses and dogs on the protestors.
"Bull" Connor
When they watched the brutal tactics used by police against protestors in Birmingham, Alabama, on TV., even the ______________.
opponents of civil rights were appalled
Most Americans were angered by the treatment of demonstrators by the ________.
Birmingham police
The Birmingham protests led to the __________.
desegregation of the city facilities
The success at Birmingham proved the effectiveness of ____________.
nonviolent protest
He moved slowly at first on civil rights issues, to avoid offending southern Democratic senators, whose votes he needed on other issues.
President Kennedy
Civil Rights violence was an embarrassment for President Kennedy, when he met with other ______.
world leaders
Just hours after the broadcast of President Kennedy's speech for civil rights, this civil rights leader was gunned down.
Medgar Evers
Kennedy was prompted to propose a strong civil rights bill by the ____________.
brutality against African Americans in Birmingham
When civil rights leaders planned a march on Washington, to support his civil rights bill, Kennedy feared it would alienate congress and cause racial violence, but when he could not persuade organizers to call it off he ___________.
gave it his support
In August 1963, more than 200,000 people joined this demonstration to focus attention on Kennedy's civil rights bill.
March on Washington
Participants in this demonstration hoped to convince congress to pass civil rights legislation in 1963.
March on Washington
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I have a Dream" speech was given at the ____________.
March on Washington
Was the highlight of the March on Washington.
"I Have a Dream" speech
Three months after the March on Washington President Kennedy ___________.
was assassinated
Was used by members of the Senate to prevent the Civil Rights bill of 1964 from coming to a vote.
filibuster
Enlisted the help of HIS former colleague, Republican minority leader Everett Dirksen, to invoke the cloture rule and end the filibuster against the Civil Rights Bill of 1964.
President Johnson
Was used to end the filibuster that was blocking the Civil Rights Bill of 1964.
Cloture
Landmark law, that outlawed discrimination in education, employment, and all public accommodations.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Legislation that banned discrimination in all public facilities.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 the main emphasis of the Civil Rights movement became ensuring African Americans the right to _____.
vote
A campaign in the summer of 1964 to register blacks to vote in Mississippi, also set up freedom schools and freedom houses.
Freedom Summer
This project that was opposed by the NAACP and barely accepted by the SCLC, was organized by COFO and SNCC.
Freedom Summer
COFO a coalition of established civil rights organizations stands for ___.
Council of Federated Organizations
SNCC field secretary and co-director of COFO, directed Freedom Summer.
Robert Moses
During Freedom Summer James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were ____.
murdered
When the forces of white supremacy continued to block black voter registration, the Freedom Summer Project switched to building the ________.
MFDP
MFDP
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Members of the MFDP went to the Democratic National Convention in the summer of 1964, hoping to be seated in the convention instead of delegates of the regular democratic Mississippi party, which had prevented blacks from ___.
registering to vote
Lyndon B. Johnson feared losing Southern support in the coming campaign, so he prevented the MFDP from replacing the _______.
regular Mississippi democratic delegation
The goal of this demonstration was to get voting rights legislation passed.
The Selma March
Freedom Summer and the Selma March both drew attention to African Americans' lack of ____.
voting rights
Argued that Congress should support voting rights because they were guaranteed by the Constitution, and congressional members had sworn to uphold the constitution.
President Johnson
Argued that voting rights were not a "states rights" issue but a "human rights" issue.
President Johnson
Says that no person shall be kept from voting because of his race or color.
the Constitution
President Johnson argued that Congress must support voting rights because those rights are guaranteed in the ______________.
Constitution
Allowed federal official to ensure that blacks were not prevented from registering to vote, and effectively eliminated literacy tests and other barriers to blacks voting.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Legislation that enabled more African Americans to register to vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
This piece of legislation resulted in many African Americans being elected at all levels of government.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Many of the goals of the Civil Rights movement were not met, but after the Voting Rights Act of 1965, thousands of African Americans could _____.
vote for the first time
Two landmark civil rights laws passed during the Johnson presidency.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Voting Rights Act of 1965
African American group, founded by Elijah Muhammad, that preached black separation and self-help.
Nation of Islam
Group of Black Muslims who preached black separation and self-help.
Nation of Islam
Elijah Muhammad taught that white society was ___.
evil
Unlike the early civil rights leaders, HE believed strongly that the races should be separated.
Malcolm X
While in prison he was converted to the Nation of Islam and came to believe in black separatism.
Malcolm X
Came into conflict with Elijah Muhammad, and while on a pilgrimage to Mecca he changed his views, rejecting the belief in black separatism and his hatred of whites.
Malcolm X
Nine months after Malcolm X came to reject the beliefs of the Nation of Islam, and came to accept an Islam that was open to all people, he was ____________.
Assassinated
The idea that African Americans should unite, take pride in their heritage, and control their own organizations.
black power
SNCC leader who called on African Americans to support black power.
Stokely Carmichael
Idea that African Americans should take charge of their communities.
black power
This movement taught that African Americans should separate from white society and lead their own communities.
black power
Under his leadership SNCC became increasingly militant.
Stokely Carmichael
Militant Black Nationalist group, formed by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton.
Black Panthers
Black Separatism is also called ___.
Black Nationalism
Black power group, that wanted African Americans to lead their own communities.
Black Panthers
Black power gave rise to the slogan _________.
"Black is beautiful"
The black power movement led to a serious split in the ____.
Civil Rights movement
The civil rights movement was split between those who favored militant black nationalism and separatism, and those who favored ______.
peaceful desegregation
His writings warned Americans that African Americans were angry and tired of waiting.
James Baldwin
He wrote about the violent consequences of segregation.
James Baldwin
Rigid pattern of separation, dictated by law in the South, prior to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
de jure segregation
Actual, as opposed to legal, separation of whites and African Americans.
de facto segregation
Racial separation imposed by poverty and ghetto conditions.
de facto segregation
De facto segregation and poverty in black communities, in large cities, led to a series of ____.
riots from 1964 to 1968.
They were an explosion of anger that had been smoldering in the inner-city ghettos.
riots
Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert Kennedy were both assassinated in what year?
1968
His assassination eroded faith in the idea of nonviolent change.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Robert Kennedy's assassination ended many people's hopes for an inspirational leader who could heal the _____.
nation's wounds
Rose by 88% between 1970 & 1975.
elected African American officials
Making segregation illegal, opening the political process to more African Americans, & giving African Americans a new sense of pride.
accomplishments of the civil rights movement
In spite of the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement, a disparity still existed both economically and politically between _______.
blacks and whites
Prior to Kennedy's election and during the early 1960s the American economy was _____________.
sluggish, with low GNP growth
During the 1960 presidential campaign, HE promised to get the American economy moving again.
John F. Kennedy
Kennedy appeared to be more polished than Nixon when the two appeared on the first televised _____.
presidential debates
Some people questioned if Kennedy was ready to be president because of his _____.
age
John Kennedy was the first person of this faith to be elected President.
Roman Catholic
Won the 1960 presidential election by a very slim margin.
John F. Kennedy
Kennedy's victory in the 1960 presidential election was ____________.
narrow
Kennedy inspired a generation of young people by asking them to put patriotism before ___.
personal interest
Kennedy's program became known as the ______.
New Frontier
Kennedy proposed cutting taxes to end the continuing __________.
recession
In his first two years as president Kennedy, hoped to help the poor by _____.
stimulating the economy
In a book titled "The Other America" Michael Harrington revealed that one fifth of the American population lived below the _____.
poverty line
After the first two years of his presidency Kennedy became convinced that the poor needed direct ____.
federal aid
In domestic affairs, Kennedy rarely succeeded in pushing _____________.
legislation through congress
Kennedy's lack of success with his domestic policies was largely due to his lack of support in ____.
congress
Cutting taxes, providing aid to the poor, and promoting the space program were all parts of Kennedy's ______.
New Frontier
The economy, poverty, and the space program were all addressed by Kennedy's __________.
New Frontier
In 1961, President Kennedy committed NASA and the nation to the goal of _________.
landing a man on the moon within the decade
On November 22, 1963 President Kennedy was ___.
assassinated
Declared that Kennedy's assassination was the work of a lone assassin.
The Warren Commission
The Warren Commission had decided that Kennedy had been assassinated by ___________.
one man who worked alone
As a senator, this President was famed for his ability to accomplish his political goals.
Lyndon Johnson
Included major poverty relief, education aid, healthcare (especially for the elderly & the poor), voting rights, conservation and beautification projects, urban renewal, and economic development in depressed areas.
Johnson's Great Society
After the 1964 election President Johnson, unlike Kennedy after the 1960 election, had a ________.
strong mandate
Part of the reason for Johnson's landslide victory in 1964 was Goldwater's __________.
radical views
Healthcare legislation was a major part of President's Johnson's program known as the ______.
Great Society
This program of President Johnson won passage of several of Kennedy's New Frontier goals and added to them.
the Great Society
Like Kennedy, Johnson believed that budget deficits could be used to stimulate the economy, but to get support for his tax cuts he had to also agree to cut _____.
government spending
What did President Johnson get congress to pass that actually caused the GNP to rise?
tax-cuts
Some people feared that Johnson's tax-cuts would cause the deficit to rise, but because of the increased GNP, tax revenues actually went up and the deficit ______.
shrank
Increased expenditures on public welfare programs from 1965 to 1975.
Johnson's "War on Poverty"
In 1964 President Johnson launched the "War on ___."
Poverty
Provided low-cost health insurance for poor Americans of any age who could not afford their own private health insurance.
Medicaid
Provided hospital and low-cost medical insurance for most Americans age 65 and older.
Medicare
was intended to eliminate quotas restricting immigration from certain countries.
Immigration Act of 1965
Under this Chief Justice the Supreme court passed several important decisions protecting the constitutional rights of citizens accused of crimes.
Earl Warren
Required that suspects be informed of their rights.
Miranda Rule
Ruled that evidence seized illegally could not be used in trial.
Supreme Court
The way seats of a legislative body are distributed among electoral districts.
apportionment
Supreme court decisions on apportionment ruled that electoral districts had to be based on "_____."
one person one vote
Supreme court case that declared that congressional districts had to be apportioned on the basis of one person, one vote.
Baker vs.. Carr
Erupted in poor areas of major cities from 1965 to 1968.
race riots
In response to the Great Society, some Americans complained that too many of their tax dollars were being spent on ______.
poor people
Ever since the Great Society, people have argued as to whether or not antipoverty programs have helped the poor or have encouraged them to become ___.
dependent upon government
Critics of the Great Society believed it gave too much power to the ___________.
federal government
Johnson's Great Society did cut the number of people living below the poverty line in _____.
half
LBJ's inability to contain this conflict undermined and finally ended the Great Society.
Vietnam
Stopping the spread of communism was the guiding principle behind the foreign policies of both _______________.
President Kennedy & President Johnson
A failed attempt by U.S. backed Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro's communist government.
Bay of Pigs invasion
When Kennedy's advisors urged him to provide air cover to the Cuban exiles attacking at the Bay of Pigs he ______.
refused
When the Soviets sought a treaty to make the division of Berlin permanent in an attempt to stop the flow of East Germans escaping to West Germany, Kennedy feared it was part of a larger effort to take over the ________.
rest of Europe
President Kennedy asked for huge increases in military spending because he was afraid that the Soviet Union would ___________.
take over Europe
After Kennedy authorized a military buildup to show that the U.S. would not be bullied by the Soviet Union, the Soviets began ____________.
construction of the Berlin Wall
The Soviets built IT in order to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West.
Berlin Wall
Standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that could have led to nuclear war.
Cuban Missile Crisis
By positioning missiles on Cuban soil, the Soviets provoked Kennedy to ______________.
quarantine Cuba
As a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviets ________.
removed their missiles from Cuba.
When the Cuban Missile Crisis was over, Kennedy and Khrushchev established a _______ between their two nations.
"hot line"
An agreement between Kennedy, Khrushchev and Great Britain that was the first nuclear treaty since the development of the Atomic Bomb.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Banned nuclear testing above the ground.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Kennedy believed he could encourage stability in Latin America by promoting _________.
economic stability
Cooperative effort to produce economic and social reform in the Western Hemisphere.
Alliance for Progress
Was established by Kennedy to discourage the spread of communism in the Western Hemisphere.
The Alliance for Progress
Program in which volunteers served in developing nations.
Peace Corps
This group of volunteers initiated by Kennedy worked to raise the standard of living in poor areas.
Peace Corps
Johnson sent Marines to this Latin American country in 1965 in order to protect American citizens.
Dominican Republic
Like Kennedy, Johnson was determined to stop the spread of Communism in ______.
Vietnam
Movement that pushed for the absolute equality of men and women.
feminism
The feminist movement of the 1960s was the ____.
women's movement
The women's movement of the 1960s grew out of women's frustration with various forms of __.
job discrimination
Borrowed legal tools and inspiration from the civil rights movement.
women's movement
As a result of their experience in the civil rights movement, many women learned the importance of taking advantage of ________.
legal tools
Author of The Feminine Mystique.
Betty Friedan
To explore important issues, women formed consciousness-raising _____________.
support groups
A group of activists who wanted to bring women into the mainstream quickly.
National Organization of Women (NOW)
Founder of Ms. Magazine, a new magazine for women.
Gloria Steinem
The change in women's career goals was a result of the change in attitudes produced by the ____.
women's movement
The Supreme Court case that legalized abortion.
Roe vs. Wade
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Equal Rights Amendment
This Amendment passed Congress in 1972 but failed in the ratification process.
Equal Rights Amendment
Law that would make discrimination based on a person's gender illegal.
Equal Rights Amendment
The equal rights amendment did not become law because it was not __________.
ratified by the states
Many of the women who rejected the women's movement did so because they preferred _____.
traditional roles
Conservative political activist who opposed the women's movement.
Phyllis Schafly
Felt undervalued by the women's movement, disapproved of feminists' goals, and opposed the Equal Rights Amendment.
women who preferred the traditional role of homemaking
Person whose family origins are in Spanish-speaking Latin America.
Latino
Latinos in the US come from different countries but generally speak the ____________.
same language
Person who moves from farm to farm planting and harvesting crops.
migrant farm worker
Group founded by Cesar Chavez to organize Mexican farm workers.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
Co-founder of the United Farm Workers.
Cesar Chavez
A nationwide consumer boycott was a successful strategy used by _______.
Cesar Chavez
Jobs, education, and legal matters, were all areas where, in the 1960s, Mexican Americans fought ___.
discrimination
Led the political party La Raza Unida.
Jose Angel Gutierrez
La Raza Unida was an organization that represented Latino ___________.
political interests
Group that worked for compensation for Japanese Americans interned during World War II.
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
Group that spoke out against Japanese American property losses during their wartime internment.
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
During the 1960s and 1970, Asian Americans made economic gains but continued to face
discrimination
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell were active in the American _______.
Indian movement
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell focused on the problems for Native Americans living in _____.
cities
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell fought for legal rights for ______.
Native Americans
Chippewa activist and member of the American Indian Movement.
Dennis Banks
Group that fought for Native American treaty rights and self-government.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Restoration of lands illegally taken, autonomy of native Americans, and control of natural resources were all goals of the _.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Group that valued youth, spontaneity, and individuality.
counterculture or hippies
Name for members of the counterculture.
hippie
Promoted peace, love, and freedom.
hippies
By rejecting conventional customs, the counterculture (hippies) drew on the example of the ____.
Beat Generation
Many female hippies chose to wear ____.
loose-fitting dresses
Cultural changes in the 1960s led to more open discussion of ______.
sex
People who lived in communal groups rejected traditional ______________.
marriage
Many young people sought to escape from reality by ____________.
using drugs
The most serious danger posed by abuse of drugs.
overdosing
Growing long hair and wearing nontraditional clothes were both parts of the 1960s ________.
counterculture
The increase of the student population of the 1960s was largely the result of the _____.
"baby boom"
Popular 1960s rock music group.
the Beatles
In the 1960s the Beatles performed a new kind of ___.
rock music
Social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, centered in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, included psychoactive drug use, sexual freedom, and creative expression.
Summer of Love
400,000 people gathered for a peaceful concert of major rock bands in the summer of 1969.
Woodstock
What shocked most Americans about Woodstock was the amount of __________.
drugs & sex
Most hippies were children of the comfortable ____.
middle class
When the counterculture fell apart, most hippies melted right back into the _______.
mainstream
The use of harmful chemicals such as DDT was exposed by the book ________.
Silent Spring
Author of a book detailing the effects of pesticides on the environment.
Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson published a book in 1962 that started the _____________________.
environmental movement
A major theme of this book was that humans are part of nature, and all parts of nature interact.
Silent Spring
Radioactivity being released into the air was the greatest threat posed by _____.
Nuclear power plants
Worked to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Senator from Wisconsin who helped organize the first national Earth Day.
Gaylord Nelson
In response to environmental activists the government created the ________.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Combined federal agencies concerned with air and water pollution.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Enforced national pollution control standards
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Controlled pollutions caused by industry and car emissions.
Clean Air Act
Regulated wastewater discharges.
Clean Water Act
In Alaska during the 1970s, the federal government attempted to balance _____.
jobs and the environment
Man most responsible for the development of the consumer movement of the 1960s.
Ralph Nader
Wrote a government report exposing the hazards of the automobile.
Ralph Nader
The passage of automobile safety legislation was the result of a __________.
government report
Conquered Indochina in the 1800s and controlled it until it was overrun by Japan in WWII.
French
During WWII the Japanese faced stiff resistance in Indochina (especially in Vietnam) from _______.
guerrillas
Small groups of loosely organized soldiers who make surprise raids.
guerrillas
After the Japanese were defeated they set out to re-establish authority in Indochina.
French
League for the Independence of Vietnam.
Vietminh
Leader of the Vietminh.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh was both a nationalist and a ______.
communist
Vietnamese victory over the French in 1954 that convinced the French to leave Vietnam
Dien Bien Phu
After 1954 the struggle for Vietnam became part of the _______.
Cold War
After Dien Bien Phu representatives of Ho Chi Minh, Bao Dai, Cambodia, Laos, France, the U.S., the Soviet Union, China, and Britain arranged a peace settlement.
Geneva Accords
As a result of the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was _____.
divided
After Vietnam was divided, Ho Chi Minh's communists controlled North Vietnam and South Vietnam was controlled by noncommunists led by
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem and the South Vietnamese were supported by the ______.
United States
The agreement to divide Vietnam included an agreement to hold elections to reunite Vietnam, these elections were never held because _______.
Diem and the U.S. feared the communists would win
The majority of South Vietnamese actually supported ___________.
Ho Chi Minh
Catholic and pro-French Vietnamese favored ___.
South Vietnam
The U.S. supported Ngo Dinh Diem's regime because they feared the _________.
spread of communism
Ngo Dinh Diem's dictatorial regime alienated many Vietnamese because of its __________.
corruption and brutal tactics
Many Vietnamese believed South Vietnam was under the foreign domination of the ____.
U.S.
By the early 1960s many South Vietnamese communist guerrilla fighters, with the support of North Vietnam were fighting against the ____.
South Vietnamese forces
The fear that if one nation falls to communism, its neighbors will soon follow.
domino theory
Theory or principle, described by President Eisenhower, that became associated with U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia.
domino theory
The U.S. got involved in the Vietnam War out of fear that the __________.
communists would take over
President Eisenhower pledged his support to South Vietnams' Diem and by 1960 about 675 U.S. _____________.
military advisors were in Vietnam
President Kennedy supported the government of Ngo Dinh Diem because he feared
communists would take over
His policy in Vietnam was to increase the number of military advisors.
President Kennedy
Diem increased the opposition to his government by forcing Buddhist to obey ______.
Catholic laws
When monks burned themselves to death, in opposition to Diem's rule, the U.S. encouraged the South Vietnamese military to
overthrow Diem
Military leaders in South Vietnam overthrew HIM because he lost American support.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Diem's successors were not popular and were not successful in fighting the ______.
Viet Cong
National Liberation Front, the South Vietnamese communist rebels trying to overthrow the government of South Vietnam.
Viet Cong
Ho Chi Minh determined to unite Vietnam supported the _____.
Viet Cong
Communist guerrillas who fought to gain control of South Vietnam.
Viet Cong
President Johnson's objective in Vietnam.
Prevent a communist takeover
The first attack on an American destroyer by the North Vietnamese, was provoked by a South Vietnamese raid on the North, the second attack didn't actually happen, it was only a false sonar reading.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Claimed that both the first attack in the Gulf of Tonkin and the second (which didn't happen) were both unprovoked.
President Lyndon Johnson
Used the Gulf of Tonkin Incident to get congress to authorize his enormous escalation of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
President Lyndon Johnson
In August of 1964 IT was passed by Congress, giving President Johnson the authority to use whatever force he thought necessary in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Number of U.S. men sent to Vietnam from 1964 to 1973.
2.5 million
A large percentage of the men who served in Vietnam and often as high as two thirds of the men who served in combat were______.
drafted
About 80% of the soldiers who served in Vietnam came from the ______.
working and lower classes
U.S. Soldiers in Vietnam were generally not trying to take more territory, their primary objective was to increase the _______.
body count
Because they came from Vietnamese peasants, the U.S. soldiers had a great deal of difficulty finding and identifying the
Viet Cong
Because many Vietnamese villagers gave refuge to the Viet Cong, the villages themselves sometimes became
military targets
Though the Viet Cong lacked the sophisticated equipment of the U.S., they were highly effective at
guerrilla war tactics
An elaborate tunnel system was one advantage of the _________.
Viet Cong
Sniper fire and booby traps (including land mines) were techniques used by the _____.
Viet Cong
When American soldiers discovered that many South Vietnamese people did not appreciate their efforts, they were
confused
This technique used by Americans to destroy roads and bridges, hurt civilians in both North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
saturation bombing
In fighting the North Vietnamese, US. Forces used the technique of _______.
saturation bombing
Using B-52 bombers to drop thousands of tons of explosives over large areas.
saturation bombing
Many of the bombs dropped, in saturation bombing, threw pieces of their thick metal casings in all directions.
fragmentation bombs
Were used to expose Viet Cong hiding places.
herbicides
Most infamous herbicide used by the U.S. in Vietnam.
Agent Orange
Destructive chemical weapon used by Americans in Vietnam. Dropped from airplanes it splattered and burned uncontrollably.
napalm
After winning reelection in 1964, President Johnson began a gradual ______.

escalation of the Vietnam War.

When the Viet Cong attacked Pleiku, within South Vietnam, and killed 8 Americans in 1965, President Johnson responded by authorizing the _______.
bombing of North Vietnam
Commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
General William Westmorland
Relentless bombing campaign against North Vietnam from 1965 to 1968.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Those who opposed the Vietnam war in the U.S.
doves
Those who favored the Vietnam war in the U.S.
hawks
Troops and supplies poured into South Vietnam from the North, via THIS supply route that passed through Laos and Cambodia.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A coordinated attack against cities and bases in South Vietnam, by the Viet Cong & North Vietnamese in 1968.
Tet Offensive
Converted many Americans to the view that the Vietnam war could not be won.
Tet Offensive
Incident in which American troops killed from 175 to 400 Vietnamese villagers.
My Lai massacre
The brutality of American soldiers who killed Vietnamese villagers during this massacre shocked many Americans.
My Lai massacre
Officer in charge of the My Lai massacre.
William Calley
The heroics of an American helicopter crew prevented the My Lai massacre death toll from ____.
being greater
Pilot who along with his crew prevented the My Lai Massacre from being worse.
Hugh Thompson
Post World War II prosperity gave many young people of the 1960s freedom and opportunities unknown to previous _________________.
generations
In the early 1960s the generation gap ____.
widened
The student protest movement of the 1960s emerged from the ________.
civil rights movement
Organized by civil rights activists, it issued the Port Huron Statement and was influential in the formation of the "New Left."
Students for a Democratic Society
Written primarily by Tom Hayden it claimed "we would replace power rooted in possession, privilege, or circumstance by power and uniqueness rooted in love, reflectiveness, reason, and creativity."
Port Huron Statement
The SDS called for power to be rooted in love, reflectiveness, reason and creativity.
Port Huron Statement
Political movement which believed that problems of racism and poverty, called for radical changes in American society.
New Left
Sought broader and more democratic change than the old left.
New Left
When college professors gathered and expressed their opinions about the Vietnam War.
teach-ins
People who opposed fighting the war on moral or religious grounds were known as ____
conscientious objectors
Most of the people who refused to be drafted in the early 1960s were _______.
conscientious objectors
College students could postpone being drafted into military service by getting a __________.
deferment
Some American questioned the fairness of the draft because THEY could easily avoid the draft.
college students
Many young men avoided the draft by _________.
going to Canada
Due to opposition to the Vietnam war he chose not to run for reelection in 1968.
Lyndon Johnson
The success of the antiwar candidate Eugene McCarthy and the entrance of antiwar candidate Robert Kennedy into the Presidential race, contributed to Johnson not running for _____.
reelection
Republican Candidate in the 1968 Presidential election.
Richard Nixon
In 1968 the Democratic party was split by the same issues___.
dividing the nation
The split in the democratic party led to protests at THIS EVENT and the brutal suppression of those protests by Mayor Daley.
democratic convention of 1968
Democratic candidate in the 1968 Presidential election.
Hubert Humphrey
A third party candidate in 1968, he appealed to blue-collar voters in the North, who resented campus radicals and antiwar activists.
George Wallace
In an era of chaos and confrontation middle America turned to the Republican party for
stability
Winner of the 1968 Presidential election.
Richard Nixon
At the end of his presidency Johnson cut back on the bombing and called for _____.
peace negotiations
New policy in Vietnam announced by Nixon in 1969.
Vietnamization
Policy of replacing American forces with South Vietnamese soldiers.
Vietnamization
In 1970, President Nixon announced that the U.S. forces would invade _______.
Cambodia
Nixon was willing to intensify the war in order to strengthen America's position at the ___.
peace talks
Negotiations that ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Paris peace talks
Term used by Nixon to refer to the large number of American people who he believed supported his Vietnam policies.
silent majority
Nixon's invasion of Cambodia reignited ________.
student protests in the 1970s
The primary focus of the protest movement of the 1960s was to demand _____.
U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam
Tensions between students who opposed the war and National Guardsman resulted in four deaths at _____.
Kent State
Brought the brutality of the Vietnam war into people's living rooms.
Television
As Nixon withdrew troops from Vietnam he resumed ______________.
resumed bombing raids
Under increasing pressure to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam he negotiated the Paris Peace Accord in 1973.
Richard Nixon
The U.S. agreed to withdraw its troops and North Vietnam agreed not to send any more troops into the South.
Paris Peace Accord
The seventeenth parallel would continue to divide North & South Vietnam, all prisoners of war would be released, and the U.S would withdrawal from Vietnam.
Paris Peace Accord
Year that the Vietnam Peace Treaty was signed.
1973
Two years after the U.S. had withdrawn from Vietnam the _______.
North Vietnamese conquered South Vietnam
The Vietnam war ended in 1975 when North Vietnam ____.
gained control of all of Vietnam
After the last Americans fled Saigon, the North Vietnamese completed ___________.
their conquest of South Vietnam
The year the Vietnam War ended.
1975
Also fell to communism after the U.S. withdrew from Vietnam
Cambodia & Laos
Communist guerrillas who came to power in Cambodia.
Khmer Rouge
Ruler of the Khmer Rouge who oversaw work camps and the genocide of more than a million Cambodians.
Pol Pot
After Cambodia and Laos communism did not spread any farther in ______.
Southeast Asia
A flood of refugees to the U.S. from Southeast Asia was one _______________.
legacy of the Vietnam War
Was created to help heal the wounds created by the Vietnam war.
Vietnam Memorial
In 1968, the Republicans chose this former Vice President as their candidate for President.
Richard Nixon
As national security adviser and Secretary of State, HE played a major role in shaping Nixon's foreign policy.
Henry Kissinger
Group of nations that sets oil prices and production levels. (mostly Arab nations)
OPEC
Because the U.S. backed Israel in its 1973 war with Egypt and Syria, OPEC imposed and embargo on the shipping of ______.
Oil to the U.S.
In 1973 it resulted in higher inflation and a recession in the U.S.
OPEC's Oil embargo
Included easing guidelines for desegregation and an attempt by the Justice Department to prevent the extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Nixon's "southern strategy"
First two people to walk on the moon on July 20, 1969.
Neil Armstrong & "Buzz" Aldrin
Bringing about détente with the Soviet Union and China was perhaps HIS greatest accomplishment in foreign affairs.
President Nixon
Relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and the USSR in the 1970s.
détente
Nixon wanted to use America's friendship with China to help in negotiations with the _________.
Soviet Union
Proved that the superpowers could reach agreements relating to nuclear arms control.
SALT I Treaty
Froze the number of missiles the U.S. & USSR could produce.
SALT I Treaty
Documents handed over to the New York Times by Daniel Ellsberg, which revealed that Presidents from Truman to Johnson had deceived Congress and the American people about the real situation in Vietnam.
Pentagon Papers
A group formed with Nixon's approval to stop government leaks.
Plumbers
The Plumbers and the Committee to Reelect the President were formed to ensure the overwhelming victory for ______.
Nixon in 1972
Because the Committee to Reelect the President wanted to wiretap the Democratic National Committee they had people break-in to the ____.
Watergate Hotel
Were caught attempting to wiretap Democrats' phones.
Watergate burglars
The trials and sentencing of the Watergate burglars led to testimony to a Senate committee about _____.
White House involvement
As a result of the Watergate scandal Richard Nixon __________.
resigned
President Ford's most controversial act as President.
pardoning Nixon
President Ford faced an economy experiencing both rising unemployment and rising inflation.
stagflation
Law limiting when a President can get involved in foreign conflicts without a formal declaration of war.
War Powers Act
In 1975, when Ford asked for military aid to try to save South Vietnam, Congress used the _____.
War Powers Act to say no
Was chosen by the democrats as their presidential candidate in 1976.
Jimmy Carter
The basic issue of the 1976 presidential campaign was ____.
trust
He assumed the role of peacemaker to negotiate the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt.
Jimmy Carter
The hostage crisis in Iran helped Ronald Reagan to _____.
defeat Jimmy Carter in 1980
Criticized both the New Deal and the Great Society for having expanded the size of the federal government.
Conservatives
Rock music, affirmative action, and the women's movement all troubled ___.
Conservatives
Coalition of conservative groups in the 1980s.
New Right
Political organization that wanted to restore Christian values to the society.
Moral Majority
The election of 1980 was especially significant because it demonstrated that conservatives controlled the _______.
nation's agenda
According to this theory, a cut in taxes would make the economy grow faster by putting more money into the hands of businesses.
supply-side economics
Cutting taxes and cutting government regulations were two major elements of HIS economic plan.
Ronald Reagan
President Reagan's economic program was based on the theory of ______.
supply-side economics
Reagan believed government regulations needed to be reduced because they ______.
stifled competition
Under Reagan, programs created by Lyndon Johnson's Great Society were ______.
cut back
A plan by both Nixon and Reagan to redistribute power from the federal government to the states and local government.
New Federalism
Plan to build a massive satellite shield to protect the U.S. from incoming missiles.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Reagan ordered a huge military build up to defend America's interest in the ____.
Cold War
In 1981, THIS highly threatening disease of the immune system was discovered.
AIDS
First female Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
Sandra Day O'Connor
In the area of civil rights, President Reagan worked to end some __________.
affirmative action programs
Critics charged that President Reagan's conservative policies led to a larger gap between the _____.
rich and the poor
During the 1980s the gap between America's rich and poor ____.
widened considerably
Secret operation to arm rebels in Nicaragua.
Iran-Contra affair
In Nicaragua Reagan wanted to overthrow the ____.
Marxist government
Nicaraguan anti-communist guerrilla fighters.
Contras
It caused the most serious criticism that the Reagan administration ever faced.
Iran-Contra affair
1987 agreement calling for the destruction of 2,500 Soviet and U.S. missiles in Europe.
INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty)
During HIS second term, U.S. relations with the Soviet Union improved.
Ronald Reagan
Reform leader of the Soviet Union with which Reagan developed a close relationship.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Gorbachev's new policy of "political openness."
glasnost
Gorbachev's new policy to restructure the Soviet economy and allow limited free enterprise.
Perestroika
Soviet policies that helped end the Cold War by helping cause the fall of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe.
perestroika and glasnost
Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost resulted in better relations with the _____.
United States
Improved relations with the Soviet Union resulting from Gorbachev's policies led to arms _______.
reduction talks
During the campaign for President in 1988, George Bush promised that he would not ______.
raise taxes
George H.W. Bush won the presidency partially by attacking THIS PERSON'S record on crime.
Michael Dukakis
In the late 1980s, a series of anti-Communist revolts broke out in ___.
Eastern Europe
The end of the Cold War was signaled by the signing of ________.
arms-control treaties between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
Called for dramatic cuts in American and Soviet supplies of long-range nuclear weapons.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START)
When the Soviet Union collapsed, the U.S. promoted a move toward Western-style democracy in the ___________.
former Soviet states
Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait began the ____.
Persian Gulf War
A major reason that President George Bush responded forcefully to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was that he wanted to protect the ______.
flow of oil to the West
Conflict in which Iraq was driven out of Kuwait by U.N. forces.
Persian Gulf War
In the early 1990s, unemployment rose when companies engaged in laying off workers to cut costs.
downsizing
To deal with the recession of the early 1990s he agreed to raise taxes as part of a deficit-reduction plan. (contrary to his earlier promise)
President George H.W. Bush
Won the presidency in 1992 with 43% of the popular vote.
Bill Clinton
A successful businessman, who ran as a third-party candidate for President in both 1992 & 1996.
Ross Perot
Dominant issue in the presidential campaign of 1992.
the economy
President Clinton wanted to reform the healthcare system because millions of Americans did not have _____.
health insurance
President Clinton's first budget aimed to reduce the deficit by ______.
spending cuts & tax increases
For the first time in 40 years, Republicans won a majority in both houses of Congress, in the ____.
1994 congressional elections
Republican pledge to limit the role of the federal government, cut regulations and taxes, and balance the budget.
Contract with America
Former Senate Majority Leader who ran for President in 1996.
Bob Dole
The reason given by the House of Representatives for impeaching President Clinton was that he had _______.
lied under oath
To charge government official with wrongdoing.
impeach
President Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives but he was not _______.
convicted by the Senate
The confusion over ballot reports from this state led to controversy in the Presidential election of 2000.
Florida
Confusion over the ballot reports in Florida, during the election of 2000, led to the final decision about the recount being made by the ______.
Supreme Court
Won the Presidential election of 2000 after the Supreme Court decided he should get Florida's electoral vote.
George W. Bush
Democratic candidate for President, in 2000, who won the largest percentage of the popular vote but lost in the electoral college.
Al Gore
Most of George W. Bush's support in the 2000 election came from what sections of the country?
the South and the Midwest
Systematic separation of people of different racial backgrounds.
apartheid
The U.S. imposed economic sanctions on South Africa to protest its policy of _____.
apartheid
Imprisoned in South Africa for 27 years, HE became that country's president after apartheid.
Nelson Mandela
The U.S. sent billions of dollars in aid to Russia for the use in creating a __________.
free market economy
The breakup of THIS former Communist country, in the early 1990s, brought the worst violence in Europe since World War II.
Yugoslavia
Yasir Arafat of the PLO and Yitzhak Rabin of Israel signed a historic peace agreement in ______. (year)
1993
American foreign policy in the post-Cold War era had to contend with violent turmoil in _____. (3 places)
the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East
On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked planes and flew them into the _____.
World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon
Because ITS government, run by the Taliban, had supported Al Qaeda, in 2001 the U.S. attacked _____.
Afghanistan
Starting in 1965, U.S. immigration policy contributed to the nation's increasing ______.
diversity
In the 1990s, most immigrants to the U.S. came from ___.
Asia and Latin America
American immigration policy as of 1990 has been characterized by ______.
easier admissions
A policy that gives special consideration to women and members of minority groups to make up for past discrimination.
Affirmative action
What was the main issue in the debate over affirmative action?
fairness
Fastest growing age group in the U.S., in the 1990s is the people over 65.
"the graying of America"
The greatest threat to Social Security and Medicare during, and since, the 1990s was the rapidly growing number of Americans over ______.
65 years of age
Older Americans pushed for a prohibition against forced _______.
retirement at a given age
The growth of industries that use computer technology has increased the demand for _____.
educated workers
The internet has increased the demand for what type of services?
internet and technology
In the 1990s there was a continuing growth of global ___.
trade
Pact called for the removal of trade restrictions between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Created a free trade zone in North America.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Businesses that operates in more than one country.
Multinational corporations