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223 Cards in this Set

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INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY, METHODS & BIOPSYCHOLOGY FLASH CARD SET I
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Psychology
All observable actions we do, thoughts and feelings.
behavior and mental processes
Scientific study that aims to solve problems.
applied research
Pure science that aims to increase scientific knowledge.
basic research
Established the first Psychological Laboratory
Wilhelm Wundt
“Father of modern psychology.”
Wilhelm Wundt
We study the history of psychology because it’s past helps explain______.
Current psychological thinking
A particular view of behavior and or mental processes that has grown into a movement.
Psychological perspective
Ways to explain behavior.
Psychological perspective
A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth.
Humanistic Psychology
Psychological perspective that emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Gestalt Psychology
Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.
functionalism
School of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Psychoanalytic perspective
Founder of the Psychoanalytic perspective.
Sigmund Freud
Modernized version of Psychoanalytic theory.
Psychodynamic Perspective
School of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses.
Behaviorist Perspective
Theory that holds that psychology should study only observable behaviors.
Behaviorist Perspective or Behaviorism
Holds that all behavior is the result of reinforcements and punishments
Behaviorism
Two leading behaviorists.
John Watson & B.F. Skinner
School of thought that focuses on how we take in, process and retrieve information.
Cognitive Perspective
School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought or emotion.
Biological perspective (bio-psychology)
School of thought that focuses on how thinking changes in different contexts or situations.
Social-cultural perspective
Study the extent to which our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
Behavior Genetics
The perspective that focuses on the relative power and limits of genetics and environmental influences on behavior.
Behavior Genetics
A movement in Psychology that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive.
Positive Psychology
Investigates the unique ways individuals think about and interpret life experiences.
Cognitive Perspective
The emphasis on natural selection of psychological traits is part of the _________.
Evolutionary Perspective
Psychological traits exist because they increase chances of survival.
Natural Selection
Courage, originality and wisdom are investigated by ________.
Positive Technology
In its early years Psychology focused on the study of __________.
Mental Processes
From the 1920s to the 1960s American psychologists emphasized the study of______.
Observable Behavior
Most early psychologists were white men because________
Female and minority students were often prohibited from college
Early in the history of psychology racial and gender barriers discouraged potential ____.
Minority students
Focus on how thinking or behavior changes in different cultural contexts.
Social-cultural psychology
Cognitive Psychology did not become respected until after ________.
1950
Combines the biological perspective with the behavioral perspective.
Behavior Genetics
Evolutionary psychologists are most interested in the __________ perspective.
biological
Study actual chemical reactions of the brain.
Bio-psychologists
Conduct research on mental and physical growth from prenatal through adulthood.
Developmental Psychologists
Life-span psychologists
Developmental Psychologists
About half of all psychologists specialize in ___
Clinical or Counseling Psychology
A method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis.
Scientific Method
Comes from casual uncontrolled observations.
Common Sense
It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Critical Thinking
A tendency for researchers to engage in behaviors and selectively notice evidence that supports their hypothesis or expectations
Researcher Bias
A tendency for participants to behave in a certain way because they believe they know what the researcher wants.
Participant Bias
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results an experiment.
Researcher (experimenter) Bias
A tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed.
Participant Bias
Observing without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations.
Naturalistic Observation
"
Case study
Watching your subjects directly.
Naturalistic Observation
A group of subjects who represent a larger group.
Sample
The larger group of people that researchers want to generalize to.
Population
The statistical relationship between two or more variables.
correlation
Both variables increase or decrease together.
Positive Correlation
One variable increases while the other variable decreases.
Negative Correlation
A research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each other.
Correlational Study
A research technique designed to discover self reported attitudes or behaviors of a sample of people, through use of questionnaires or interviews.
Survey Method
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Random Sample
A research technique that studies the same group of individuals over a long period of time.
Longitudinal Study
A research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time.
Cross-sectional Study
A research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables to observe the effect on another variable.
experiment
An investigator’s testable prediction about the outcome of research.
hypothesis
People whose reactions are observed as part of an experiment.
participants
A specification of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes.
operational definition
The research variable that a researcher actively manipulates.
Independent variable
If the hypothesis is correct it will cause a change in the dependant variable
Independent variable
In psychology, the behavior or mental process where the impact of the independent variable is measured.
dependent variable
The research variable that is influenced by the independent variable
dependent variable
The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment, that is the independent variable
experimental group
These individuals function as a comparison for the experimental group participants.
control group
The participants in a group who are not exposed to the independent variable.
control group
Helps minimize preexisting differences among those assigned to different groups
random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance.
random assignment
The only research method that can demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships
experiment
To draw cause-and-effect conclusions from an experiment, researchers must control for ___.
confounding variables
In an experiment a variable, other than the independent variable, that could influence the dependent variable.
confounding variable
This procedure is used to control for the independent variable, that could influence the dependent variable.
double-blind procedure/experiment
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant of the expected outcome of the research.
double-blind procedure/experiment
Is used to see if a drug has an effect beyond the expectations of it.
placebo
A non active substance or condition that may be administered instead of a drug or active agent.
placebo
Unless a study can be replicated, the results are likely to be ________.
fluke occurrence
Repeating a research study to see whether the results can be reliably reproduced
replication
APA
American Psychological Association
Researchers must inform participants, in advance; of the nature of the research, potential risks, and their right to refuse. (in understandable language).
informed consent
Researchers may conduct studies that involve harm and discomfort only under certain circumstances and only with __________.
informed consent
Researchers must never release data about individual participants.
right to confidentiality
Participants must receive full explanation of research when their involvement is done.
right to debriefing
Deception and concealment of information is allowed.
APA code of ethics
Informed consent, right to be protected from harm of discomfort, right to confidentiality, and the right to debriefing.
APA code of ethics
Prior to the 1960s, most psychological research was based on the study of_____.
white male college students
Most likely to research mental processes.
cognitive psychologists
They make up the chromosomes and direct how cells become specialized for various functions during prenatal development.
genes
A segment of DNA; biochemical units of heredity.
genes
Deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes.
chromosomes
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
DNA
Consists of all the genetic material in its chromosomes.
genome
Complete instructions for making an organism.
genome
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual's genetic code.
mutation
The source of all genetic diversity.
mutation
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
Evolutionary Psychology
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
natural selection
Twins who are genetically identical organisms.
identical twins
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two.
identical twins
They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the same fetal environment.
fraternal twins
Twins who develop from separate eggs.
fraternal twins
The proportion of variation among individuals that we attribute to genes.
heritability
The debate on how much behavior is relatively effected by heredity and environment.
Nature versus Nurture
Identical twins who have been separated from birth are helpful in the study of _____.
Nature versus Nurture
Every non genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
environment
The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms, and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next.
culture
Culture may function to ensure a group's ______.
survival
Prescribe "proper" behavior.
norms
Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior.
norms
Defines identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
individualism
Cultural style that places personal goals or needs ahead of group goals or needs.
individualism
Defines personal identity in terms of group identification.
collectivism
Cultural style that places group goals or needs ahead of personal goals and needs.
collectivism
The system that relays messages in the form of electrochemical impulses throughout the body.
nervous system
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
nervous system
A nerve cell.
neuron
The basic building block of the nervous system.
neuron
The cell body of a neuron.
soma
Contains the nucleus and other parts that keep the neuron healthy.
soma
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron.
dendrites
Receive messages and conduct impulses toward the soma.
dendrites
The extension of a neuron.
axon
Neural impulses are sent through the ____.
axon
The endpoint of a neuron.
axon termina
Where neurotransmitters are stored.
axon termina
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron.
action potential
A neural impulse.
action potential
The “recharging phase.” When a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential.
refactory period
A neuron is capable of generating an action potential when it is at _______.
resting potential
The state of a neuron when it is at rest.
resting potential
The incoming message must be above a certain threshold to cause a __________.
neural impulse (action potential)
A neuron will fire when the incoming message is stronger than the neuron’s ______.
firing threshold
All action potentials are the same strength.
all-or-none law
The principle stating that if a neuron fires, it always fires at the same intensity.
all-or-none law
The tiny gap at the junction between neurons.
synaptic gap or cleft
The tiny, fluid-filled gap between the tip of the sending neuron and the receptor sites on the receiving neuron.
synapse
Chemical messengers that, when released by a sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on receiving neurons.
neurotransmitters
When it binds with the receptor sites on a receiving neuron it sets up the next link in the chain of communication within the nervous system.
neurotransmitters
A neurotransmitter that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential.
excitatory effect
A neurotransmitter that makes it less likely that a receiving neuron will generate an action potential
inhibitory effect
Cells present in every sensory system to change some other form of energy into neural impulses that the brain can process
receptor cells
Bundles of individual neurons
nerves
Nerves that carry information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Sensory nerves
Nerve cells in the brain and spinal chord responsible for processing information related to sensory input and motor output
interneurons
Nerves that carry information to the muscles and glands from the central nervous system.
motor nerves
A neurotransmitter that affects learning and memory.
acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction.
acetylcholine
Excessive activity of this neurotransmitter is associated with schizophrenia.
dopamine
A neurotransmitter that affects learning, attention, and emotions.
dopamine
It appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons.
serotonin
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arousal, and mood.
serotonin
Neurotransmitter linked to pain control and pleasure
endorphins
Neural impulses travel at speeds ranging from _____.
3 to 400 feet per second
A drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter.
antagonist
A drug that boosts the effect of a neurotransmitter.
agonist
The sensory and motor nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
peripheral nervous system
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems combined.
peripheral nervous system
the division of the peripheral system that controls glands and muscles of the internal organs
autonomic nervous system
The parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous systems make up the _____.
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is part of the ____.
peripheral nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats.
sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
parasympathetic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
The somatic nervous system is part of the _____.
peripheral nervous system
A set of glands that produce hormones.
endocrine system
The body's two communication systems.
nervous and endocrine
Chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands and circulated in the blood.
hormones
The endocrine system’s “master gland.”
pituitary gland
In conjunction with the brain, controls other endocrine glands.
pituitary gland
Endocrine gland that helps regulate energy level in the body.
Thyroid gland
Endocrine glands that help arouse the body in time of stress.
adrenal glands
Results from the pancreas consistently secreting less insulin than it should.
diabetes
The Brain & the Spinal Chord.
central nervous system
Is responsible for the automatic survival functions.
brainstem
Begins where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull.
brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain.
brainstem
The base of the brainstem; controls life-support functions like heartbeat and breathing.
medulla
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling wakefulness and arousal.
reticular formation
The Thalamus is located at the top of the ______.
brainstem
It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex.
thalamus
The brain’s sensory switchboard.
thalamus
The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem.
cerebellum
Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
cerebellum
A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
Computerized Axial Tomography Scan (CT or CAT scan)
Allows us to see structures within the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Position Emission Tomography Scan
Includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.
limbic system
A ring of structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral cortex.
limbic system
Helps regulate important functions such as memory, fear, aggression, hunger and thirst.
limbic system
Neural structure lying below the thalamus.
hypothalamus
Neural structure that directs maintenance activities such as eating, drinking, and body temperature and is linked to emotion.
hypothalamus
A neural center in the limbic system; it helps process new memories for permanent storage.
hippocampus
The amygdala are linked to _______.
emotions (e.g. fear and anger)
Two almond-shaped neural clusters in the limbic system.
amgdala
The body’s ultimate control and information processing center.
cerebral cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that form the cerebral hemispheres.
cerebral cortex
The long crack running all the way from the front to the back of the cerebral cortex, separating the left and right hemispheres.
longitudinal fissure
The large bands of neural fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between them.
corus callosum
The portion of the cerebral cortex involved in making plans and judgments.
frontal lobes
The frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are just behind the ________.
forehead
The portion of the cerebral cortex; which includes the motor cortex.
frontal lobes
The parietal lobes are part of the cerebral cortex lying at the _____________.
top of the head towards the rear
The portion of the cerebral cortex which includes the somatosensory cortex and general association areas used for processing information.
partietal lobes
Includes the visual processing area of the cerebral cortex.
occipital lobes
The occipital lobes are a part of the cerebral cortex lying at the __________.
back of the head
The temporal lobes are part of the cerebral cortex that lay roughly above the ________.
ears
Portion of the cerebral cortex that includes the auditory (hearing) areas.
temporal lobes
Brain area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
motor cortex
Brain area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations.
somatosensory cortex
Brain area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Broca's area
Brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe.
Wernicke's area
The brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage.
plasticity
Brain plasticity is especially pronounced in ____________.
children