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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning
symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values
the cultural industries - the channels of communication - that produce and distribute songs, novels, newspapers, movies, Internet services, and other cultural products to large amt of people
mass media
the process of designing cultural messages and stories and delivering them to large and diverse audiences though media channels as old as the printed book and as new as the Internet
mass communication
images, texts, and sounds are converted (encoded) into electronic signals (represented as binary numbers) that are then reassembled (decoded) as a precise reproduction of various media (i.e. a picture or magazine article)
digital communication
people who post commentary on personal-opinion Web sites
technological merging of content in different mass media. Ex: magazine articles and radio programs are also accessible on the Internet
media convergence
business model that involves consolidating various media holdings, such as cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and Internet access, under one corporate umbrella
cross platform
authors, producers, and organizations
programs, texts, images, sounds, and ads
newspapers, books, magazines, radio, television, or the Internet
media channel
readers, viewers, consumers
news editors, executive producers, and other media managers
citizens and consumers, if they choose, return messages to senders or gatekeepers through letters-to-the-editor, phone calls, e-mail, Web postings, or talk shows
people typically seek messages and produce meanings that correspond to their own cultural beliefs, values, and interests
selective exposure
Identified with "good taste", higher education, and support by wealthy patrons and corporate donors, is associated with "fine art". Ex: ballet, symphony, art museums, classic literature
high culture
Identified with "questionable tastes" of the masses, who enjoy commercial "junk" circulated by the mass media, such as reality TV, celebrity gossip Web sites, and action films.
Ex: soap operas, rock music, radio shock jocks, video games
low culture
a period of political and social reform that lasted roughly from the 1890s to the 1920s. Teddy Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson are associated with this time
Progressive Era
period from roughly the mid-twentieth century to today. There is a confusing array of examples: music videos, remote controls, Nike ads, shopping malls, fax machines, email, blogs, YouTube, iphones, reality tv.
postmodern period
appeal to ordinary people by highlighting or setting up a conflict between "the people" and "the elite"
attaining knowledge and understanding of mass media
media literacy
description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, engagement
critical process
vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite system designed to link and carry computer information worldwide
original Internet - enabled military and academic researchers to communicate on a distributed network system
software to send electronic messages to any computer
miniature circuits that could process and store electronic signals
thin glass bundles of fiber capable of transmitting thousands of massages simultaneously
fiber-optic cable
text data-linking system that allowed computer-accessed information to associate with, or link to, other information no matter where it was on the Internet
World Wide Web
written code that creates Web pages and links, is a language that all computers can read, so computers with diff operating systems can communicate
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
the software packages that help users navigate the Web
connecting millions of home-users to its proprietary Web system through dial-up and broadband connections
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
connecting which can quickly download multimedia content
rely on people to review and catalogue Web sites, creating categories with hierarchical topic structures than can be browsed
enter key words or queries to locate related material/Web pages. Some of the first of "this" were Yahoo!, Alta Vista, adn Inktomi
search engines
makes media convergence possible because it enables all media content to be created in the same basic way (converted into electronic signals represented thru binary numbers and then decoded into whatever it is i.e. image, sound, etc)
digital communication
enables users to send and receive real-time computer messages
instant messaging
Sites that contain articles or posts in chronological, journal-like form, often with reader comments adn links to other sites.
sites that enable anyone to edit and contribute to them.
Wiki Web sites
sites that enable users to create personal profiles, upload photos, create lists of favorite things, and post messages to connect with old friends and to meet new ones
social networking sites
an online identity
overhauled/repealed the nation's communication regulations
Telecommunications Act of 1996
entry point to the Internet
programmers openly shared program source code and their ideas to upgrade and improve programs
open-source software
identity theft via phony e-mails that appear to be from official Web sites asking customers to update their credit card and other personal information
the buying and selling of products and services on the Internet
information profiles that are automatically collected and transferred between computer servers whenever users access Web sites
information-gathering software which is often secretly bundled with free downloaded software. Enables unauthorized parties to gather information
policy favored by consumers that requires Web sites to obtain explicit permission from consumers befor they can collect browsing history data
opt-in policies
favored by data mining corporations allow for the automatic collection of browsing history data unless ht consumer requests to opt-out of the practice
opt-out policies
growing contrast between the "information haves", those who can afford to purchase computers and pay for Internet services, and the "Information have nots", those who may not have a computer or the money for Internet services
digital divide
free or low-cost wireless Internet access
individual consumers are given the ability by media companies to customize a Web page or other media form, allows the public to engage with and create media as never before
mass customization
plastic magnetic tape
permitted recording of two separate channels, or tracks, of sound. When played back through two loudspeakers, it creates a more natural sound distribution
captures the fluctuations of sound waves and stores those signals in a record's grooves or a tape's continuous stream of magnetized particles
analog recording
translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information as numerical code. When played back, a microprocessor translates these numerical codes back into sounds and sends them to loudspeakers
digital recording
digitally recorded discs
compact discs (CDs)
file format that enables digital recordings to be compressed into smaller, more manageable files
music that appeals either to a wide cross section of the public or to sizable subdivisions within the larger public based on age, region, or ethnic background
pop music
improvisational and mostly instrumental music form that absorbed and integrated diverse body of musical styles, including African rhythms, blues, and gospel.
a song recorded or performed by another artist
cover music
a slang term for "sex". combined the vocal and instrumental traditions of pop with the rhythm and blues sounds of Memphis and country twang of Nashville. Considered the first "integrationist music"
rock and roll
huge rhythm units smashing away behind screaming blues singers
R&B or Rhythm & Blues
the foundation of rock and roll. Influenced by African American spirituals, ballads, and work songs from the rural South
the practice of record promoters paying deejays or radio programmers to play particular songs
songs performed by untrained musicians and passed down mainly through oral traditions. Considered a more democratic and participatory musical form and often inspires its writers and performers to be more socially aware
folk music
Amplified folk music
Associated with Bob Dylan
style of music that arose in 1970s to challenge the orthodoxy and commercialism of the record business. Associated with the Ramones, Blondie, and Talking Heads
punk rock
development in rock in the 1990s that got its name from the often messy guitar sound and the anti-fashion torn jeans and flannel shirt appearance of its musicians and fans. Associated with Sonic Youth and Minutemen
vague label that describes many types of experimental rock music that offered a departure from the theatrics that staged extravaganzas of 1970s glam rock - (david bowie and kiss)
alternative rock
term for the urban culture that includes rapping, cutting (or sampling) by deejays, breakdancing, street clothing, poetry slams, and graffiti art
style of music - subgenre of hip-hop, that seeks to tell the truth about gang violence in American culture. has been accused of creating violence
gangster rap
a business situation in which a few firms control most of an industry's production and distribution resources.
record less commercially viable music, or music they hope will become commercially viable
the talent scouts of the music business, who discover, develop, and sometimes manage artists
A&R (artist & repertoire) agents
illegal reissues of out-of-print recordings and the unauthorized duplication of manufacturer recordings sold on the black market at cutrate prices
the unauthorized videotaping of audiotaping of live performances, which are then sold illegally for profit
unauthorized online file-sharing
online piracy
precursor of radio technology invented in the 1840s. Samuel Morse developed the first practical system, sending electrical impulses from a transmitter through a cable to a reception point
a series of dots and dashes that stood for letters in the alphabet
Morse code
invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light. Wireless transmissions came from James Maxwell
electromagnetic waves
waves harnessed so that signals could be sent from a transmission point to a reception point
radio waves
a form of voiceless point-to-point communication
wireless telegraphy
wireless voice and music transmissions
wireless telephony
once an agricultural term referring to the process of casting seeds over a large area - now means the transmission of radio waves (& later TV signaling) to a broad public audience
person-to-person communication. i.e. telegraph and telephone
addressed the problem of amateur radio operators increasingly cramming the airwaves. Made it so transmitting on radio would require licensing
Radio Act of 1912
GE founded this company that acquired American Marconi and radio patents fo other U.S. companies. Upon its founding in 1919 RCA had pooled the necessary technology and patents to monopolize the wireless industry and expand American communication throughout the world
Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
a cost-saving operation that links a group of broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location via special phone lines and now satellite
Paley and Bernay's concept in which CBS paid affiliate stations $50 per hour for an option on a portion of their time
option time
licensees did not own their channels but could only license them as long as they operated to serve the "public interest, convenience, or necessity".
Radio Act of 1927
oversee licenses and negotiate channel problems. supposed to be a temporary committee but grew into a regulatory agency
Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
established the FCC to replace the FRC.
communications Act of 1934
regulated radio, the telephone, the telegraph, and later television, cable, and the Internet
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
small electrical devices that, like vacuum tubes, could receive and amplify radio signals
amplitude modulation. Stresses the volume/height of radio waves
frequency modulation. offers static-free radio reception. supplies greater fidelity and clarity than AM. Ideal for music
management rather than deejays controlled programming each hour; formula-driven radio
format radio
playing the top songs many time during the day
derived from the number of records stored in a jukebox, this format came to refer to the forty most popular hits in a given week as measured by record sales
Top 40 format
emerged as an alternative format to conventional formats. rejected the commercialism associated with Top 40 tunes and played lesser-known alternative music and longer album cuts
Progressive Rock
progressive rock had become copied, tamed, adn absorbed by mainstream radio under the format labeled album-oriented rock
AOR (album-oriented rock)
nation's fastest growing format throughout much of the 90s.
appeals to adults over age 35
news/talk format
between 6 to9 am and 4 to 7 pm
drive time
middle-of-the-road or MOR is among radio's oldest and msot popular formats.
An eclectic mix of news, talk, oldies, and soft rock music
adult contemporary (AC) or MOR
another name for Top 40 Radio
contemporary hit radio (CHR)
format that claims the most stations - more than 2,000.
1947 - WDIA in Memphis was the first station to program exclusively for black listeners. Now called ___, this format targets a wide variety of listeners. plays ppl like Rihanna, Kanye, Mary J. Blige
ran experimental public stations.
public stations challenge the status quo in radio as well as in government
Pacifica Foundation
noncommercial network used for educational reasons
National Public Radio (NPR)
noncommercial network used for educational means
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
set up public broadcasting in the United States
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
established by Public Broadcasting Act of 1967
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)

as well as NPR and PBS
emerged in the 1990s with the popularity of the web. Internet stations come in two types: esisting station streaming their show over the web OR station may be crated exclusively for the Internet
Internet Radio
XM and Sirius are examples. Offer more than 100 stations for digital music, news, and takl channels to the U.S. via satellite
satellite radio
practice of making audio files available on the Internet so listeners can download them onto their computers and transfer them to portable MP3 players or listen to the files on the computer
digital technology that enables AM and FM radio broadcasters to multicast two to three additional compressed digital signals within their traditional analog frequency
HD radio
a promotional strategy that typically involves up-front payments from record comapnies to radio stations to play a song a specific number of times
class of 10- and 100-watt stations in order to give voice to local groups lacking access to the public airwaves
low-power FM (LPFM)
FCC eliminated ownership restrictions on radio
Telecommunications Act of 1996