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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
consumer behavior
the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions
purchase decision process
-the stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy
-the process has five stages:
1)problem recognition
2)information search
3)alternative evaluation
4)purchase decision
5)postpurchase behavior
problem recognition:
perceiving a need
the initial step in the purchase decision, is perceiving a difference between a person's ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision
-advertisement can activate a consumers decision process
information search
-after recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information, the next stage in the purchase decision process
internal search
you may scan your memory for previous experiences with products or brands
-for frequentley purchased products this may be enough
external search
-this is needed when past experience or knowledge is insufficient, the risk of making a worng purchase decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low
-promary sources of external information are: 1)personal sources, such as relatives and friends whom the consumer trusts 2)public sources including various product-rating organizations and 3)marketer-dominated sources such as information from sellers including advertising, company websites, salespeople
alternative evaluation
the information search clarifies the problem for the consumer by 1)suggesting criteria to use for the purchase 2)yielding brand names that might meet the criteria and 3)developing consumer value perceptions
evaluative criteria
which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands
-firms try to identify and capitalize on both types of criteria to create the best value for the money sought by you and other consumers
-these criteria are often in advertisements
consideration set
the groups of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware
purchase decision
two choices remain: 1)from whom to buy and 2)when to buy
-choice of which seller to buy from will depend on terms of sale, your past experience buying from seller, and return policy
-may choose second most preferred b/c leberal refund and return policy
-when to buy is determined by a number of factors
-may buy sooner if on sale, saleperson,store atmosphere, money
postpurchase behavior
after buying a product, the consumer sompares it with his expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied
-if consumer is dissatisfied, marketers must determine whether the product wsa deficient (may need a design change) or consumer expectation too high (advertising oversold product)
-satisfaction or dissatisfaction affect consumer value perceptions, consumer communications, and repeat-purchase behavior
-happy tell three, upset tell nine
-focus attention on postpurchase behavior to maximize customer satisfaction and retention
cognitive dissonance
this feeling of post-purchase psychological tension or anxiety
-such as "Should I have purchased the _____"
-to alleviate it, consumers often attempt to applaud themselves for making the right choice
consumers sometimes skip or minimize one or more stages depending on the level of involvement, the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer
-high involvement purchase occasions typically have at least one of the three characteristics: the item to be purchased 1)is expensive 2)can have serious personal consequences, or 3)could reflect on one's social image
-for these high involvement consumers engage in extensive information search, consider many product attributes and brands, form attitudes and participate in word of mouth communication
variations in the consumer purchase decision process based on consumer involvement and product knowledge
extended problem solving, limited problem solving, routine problem solving
extended problem solving
each of the five stages is used, icluding considerable amount of time and effort
-high involvement purchase such as car and stereo system
limited problem solving
consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives
ex: choosing a toaster or resturant for lunch
routine problem solving
consumers recognize a problem, make a decison, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives
-purchase is a habit and low involvement and low priced