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142 Cards in this Set

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tendency of an object to float (depends on density of object)
negatively buoyant
tendency to sink (more dense than seawater)- benthic animals, continuous swimmers like sharks and tunas
positively buoyant
float (less dense)- surface (neuston)
neutrally buoyant
neither sink nor float (equal density) - live in water column, pelagic animals
Fats and oils/Blubber
Whales & dolphins
Oils (squalene)
shark livers
fat-filled lung structure
Gas bladders
Bony fishes
Aves, Reptilia, mammalia
gas-filled floats in some cnidaria (portugese man-of-war, vellela/wind sailors)
gastropods, cephalopods, nautilus
gas chambers
Fats/Oils Advantage
Not compressible, good for changing depth
Fats/Oils Disadvantage
less buoyant than air, energetically expensive to maintain fatty organ
Gas Advantage
cheap, more buoyant than oils/fats
Gas Disadvantage
gas is compressible, bad for changing depth
Physostamous gas bladder
Connect to esophagus, manually add/release air.
Gas gland
add air at depth
Physoclistous gas bladder
no connection to digestive tract
oval body
releases air
Deep sea fishes strategies for buoyancy
reduce heavy structures, increase water content
active fishes strategies for buoyancy
continuous swimming
Uses for sensory systems
find food, avoid predators, reproduction/communication, navigation/migration, schooling
Who has vision?
All vertebrates except the hag fish have a camera eye.
What do hag fish use for vision?
Eye spots (light/dark sensor)
What are the two types of photo receptors?
Cones and rods
Hight itnesting light/color receptors- blue, green, red, uv light
low intensity light/ good at detecting motion
What type of photoreceptors are used in the photic zone?
Rods and cones
What type of photoreceptors are use in the aphotic zone?
Deep Sea Dragonfishes
Produce red light to find prey, other fishes lack cones to see red light
ability to detect dissolved chemicals in the water
smell, fish have paired nasal sacs inside naves
only have one nasal sac
Marine tetrapods
two nostrils, only smell air
taste-mouth, gill rakers, some on barbel and fins
sensing movement/vibrations in H2O (through sensory hairs)
How do fish hear?
Inner ear, otoliths (vibrate w/ sound), some gas bladders have extension to otoliths
What is a "webrian" apparatus?
bones that connect gas bladder
What do gas glands regulate?
They regulate the secretion of gas from the blood into the bladder when these fishes are... (see slide)
Lateral line
sensory hairs along body that detect vibrations in the water
marine tetrapods
eardrum that conducts vibation to sensory hairs
use jaw bones to conduct vibrations
Sharks and rays
Ampulae of Lorenzini
Similar to lateral line, sensing weak electronic currents, used to find prey and navigate
Mechmoreception, vision: protection, reduces drag while swimming, keep reproductively active members of a population together
electroreception (Earth's magnetic field, currents)
visual cues
day length (biological clocks), position of sun
salmon returning to stream of birth (chemoreception)
orient w/ currents, temperature + salinity
Why migrate?
Food and reproduction
Reach maturity in saltwater but return to freshwater to spawn (salmon)
Spawn in saltwater, live most of life in freshwater (eels)
Who migrates off our coast?
intertidal, short fin mako, gray whales, northern elephant seal, white shark, albacore tuna
What sensory systems are used for reproduction?
Vision (courtship behaviors), chemo reception (pheromones), mechoreception (gas bladders)
Quantity vs.quality
r/k selection theory
What do r-selected species do?
(Quantity)- produce many offspring, most don't survive, fast growth rates, reach sexual maturity quickly, short gestation
What do k-selected species do?
(Quality)- produce fewer offspring that are well developed, offspring likely to survive, slower growth rates, late sexual maturity, tend to be long-lived, long gestation periods
live birth
placental viviparity
embryo is connected to mother- mammalia + some sharks
eggs hatch/develop inside mother- some sharks, bony fish, some sea snakes
eggs hatch/develop outside of mother- aves, reptilia, most osteichythes, agnatha, some chondrichthyes, most invertebrates
What are the advantages of viviparity?
More fully functional and many young survive to adulthood
What are the disadvantages of viviparity?
Fewer offspring, high maternal investment
What are the advantages of oviparity?
many young, less maternal investment
What are the disadvantages of oviparity?
Young are not usually very functional
How do hatched young continue to get nutrients for development post-hatch?
Yolk sac, uterine "milk" from mother, ovophagy (egg eating), intrauterine cannibalism
separation of sexes in different individuals (male + female)
individuals are simultaneously or sequentially both sexes
simultaneous hermaphrodites (synchronous)
act as both sexes at the same time (produce both eggs and sperm)
sequential hermaphroditism
sex change during lifetime
male first, female later (nemo)
female first, male later (sheephead)
Smaller body size
larger body size
female to hold eggs
Internal fertilization
chondricthyes, some osteicthyes, reptilia, aves, and mammalia
external fertilization
agnatha, most osteichthyes
Strategies for fertilization
sneak spawning, mouth brooders (hold eggs inside mouth), parasitic males
How many marine organisms are benthic?
live on substrate (mussels, barnacles)
live in the substrate (clams, worms)
What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis?
local species diversity is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent
abiotic stressors
(physical)- wave action, dessication, thermal stress, habitat surface area, salinity changes, smashing objects, O2 deprivation
drying out
biotic stressors
(biological)- predators, competition for food + space
What are some adaptions to prevent dessication?
close up/hold water, find shade in cracks, agglutinate sand/shell fragments (barrier), use light colors to reflect more heat
What do plants do to prevent dessication?
Hold water, agglutinate sand, have tough epidermis, secrete mucus, tolerate drying
What adaptions do animals have to deal with wave shock?
strong grips, low profiles, aggregate together, use rock contours
What adaptions do algae have to deal with wave shock?
flat blades to reduce drag, strong hold fast and massive stipes
Zone 4
Splash zone, periwinkles
Zone 3
high/upper intertidal, acorn barnacles
Zone 2
mid intertidal, mussels
Zone 1
lower intertidal, sea stars + algae
Upper limit
limited by physical factors (abiotic)
Lower limit
limited by biotic factors (competition, predation)
What is there competition for?
space, food, resources
Interference competition
directed competition (fighting for space/resource); shoving/displacement, undercut, stinging, chemical warfare, whiplash/ smash into rocks to prevent barnacles from settling
exploitative competition
more indirect; out competing species/ individual (being a better feeder)
spacial patchiness
(succession): rock-bacterial films-acorn barnacles- mussels/sea stars-disturbance- bare rock
scrape bacteria
filter/suspension feeders
grab particles
How do intertidal animals reproduce?
75% of organisms extend their range by broadcast spawning of eggs and sperms
larval dispersal
bottom type/texture, chemical attractants, current speeds, sound, light, presence of con specific adults
marrow plankton
only plankton for part of their lives
hollow plankton
cope pods, jellies
Where are estuaries?
Where are tide pools?
What is an estuary?
semi-closed coastal embayments where fresh water rivers meet and mix with the sea
Coastal plain estuary
drowned river valley
bar built estuary
has barrier island
carved by glaciers
tectonic estuary
San Francisco bay
Estuarine Circulation
detritus and other organic nutrients that settle out of the river water are transported back up into the estuary w/ each tidal cycle (constant upwelling zone)
well mixed estuary
water is mixed
stratified estuary
big zones of salinity
low tolerance to changes in salinity (most marine and freshwater organisms)
high tolerance to changes in salinity (can migrate between fresh and saltwater)
What animals are euryhaline?
salmon, anguilla, bull sharks
brackish water
not salt, not fresh, in between
Who osmoregulates in estuaries?
most Euryhaline organisms
Where do slow moving organisms live?
Where salinity is appropriate
Where do fast moving organisms live?
move with the salinity gradients to stay in their optimal environment
salt marsh
salt plants (upper limit-biotic; lower limit-abiotic)
too much water for plants to grow
eel grass
dependent on seawater
salt tolerant plants
upper limits on halophytes
biotic factors (competition0
lower limits on halophytes
abiotic factors (tolerance to undulation in seawater, low oxygen in sediment)
What are the rocky intertidal animals' upper limit?
abiotic factors
What are the rocky intertidal animals' lower limit?
biotic factors
What are the abiotic stressors on halophytes?
high salinity in soil and low O2 in the sediment
What can cause low O2 in sediment?
Lots of biological activities, anaerobic respiration (decomposes)
What are some adaptions that halophytes use to deal with abiotic stressors?
Grasses can excrete salts, some can hold fresh water, cord grass can conduct O2 to the roots and soil
organisms work together to make harsh environment better
What is an example of facilitation?
cord grass puts O2 into sediment/roots secure sediment which provides protection for crabs, fiddler crabs dig burrows so that O2 goes into the sediment
dead plant material
What is the estuary food chain?
upstream flat production-particle producers- particle consumers-predators
Why are estuaries important?
high productivity, spawning grounds, fish nursery, migratory routes for birds, build shorelines, water purification
oxygen depleting pollutants
agricultural fertilizers, poorly treated sewage
toxic pollutants
heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons
excess nutrients cause large phytoplankton blooms- dead zones