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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marine Biology can best be described as:
A) The study of life
B) The study of the marine environment
C) The study of marine animals
D) All of the above
D) All of the above
The first marine lab established in the world in Naples, Italy in 1872 was the?
Stazione Zoologica.
The first marine lab established in the US at Woods Hole, Massachusetts was the?
Marine Biological Laboratory.
The scientific Method consists of?
Observations, Inductive and Deductive Reasoning, Experiment, control in and experiment, hypothesis, and conclusion.
The innermost layer of the earth is called the?
The core of the earth is composed mostly of?
The pressure in the core is more than a million times that at the?
Earth’s Surface
The layer outside the earths core is called the?
Though most of the mantle is thought to be solid, it is very?
Hot, near the melting point of rocks
Because the mantle is so hot is flows almost like a?
Liquid, swirling and mixing over hundreds of millions of years.
The outermost layer of the earth is called the?
Compared with deep layers of the earth, the crust is extremely?
Thin like a rigid skin floating on top of the mantle.
The composition and characteristics of the crust differ greatly between the oceans and the?
A continuous chain of submarine volcanic mountains that encircles the globe like the seams on a baseball is called?
The Mid Ocean Ridge
What is the difference between Continental crust and Oceanic Crust?
Oceanic Crust is much younger and more dense than Continental Crust.
Continental Crust is composed of granite and Oceanic crust is compose of?
A mineral called basalt
A continuous chain of submarine volcanic mountains that encircles the globe like the seams on a baseball is called?
The Mid Ocean Ridge
What is the largest geological feature on Earth?
The Mid Ocean Ridge
At regular intervals the Mid Ocean Ridge is displaced to one side or the other by cracks, or faults, in the earths crust known as?
Transform Faults
Deep depressions in the sea floor are called?
What is formed when two plates collide and one plate dips below the other and sinks back down into the mantle?
Magnetic anomalies are bands of rock that run parallel to the mid-ocean ridge system. What do they provide evidence for?
Volcanoes form at ocean ridges.
The sea floor was not formed all at once, but in strips that parallel the mid-ocean ridge called?
Magnetic anomalies
The abyssal plain is dotted with volcanic islands and submarine volcanoes called?
Distinctive flat-topped seamounts are called ____ are common in parts of the Pacific.
The downward movement of one lithospheric plate into the mantle is called?
Subduction and trenches are also called subduction zones
The continental margins are the boundaries between continental crust and oceanic crust. Starting from the top and continuing to the bottom the margin consists of?
Continental Shelf (ends at the shelf break), Continental Slope, Continental Rise, and ends at the Abyssal Plain.
The four major Ocean Basins from largest to smallest are?
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic.
The relative size and depth of the Pacific Ocean is?
64.2mi2 with an average depth of 13,741 feet
The relative size and depth of the Atlantic Ocean is?
33.4mi2 with an average depth of 12,258 feet
The relative size and depth of the Indian Ocean is?
28.3mi2 with an average depth of 12,704 feet
The relative size and depth of the Arctic Ocean is?
3.7mi2 with and average depth of 4,364 feet
The shallowest part of the continental margin that is the richest part of the ocean with the most life and the best fishing is the?
Continental Shelf.
The closest thing to the exact edge of the continent is the?
Continental Slope
Sediment moves down a submarine canyon and accumulates in what portion of the continental margin?
Continental Rise
Trenches are zones of intense geological activity, including earthquakes and volcanoes, so this type of continental margin is called a?
Active Margin (little to no shelf, steep slope, and trench with no rise)
What type of continental margin has a flat coastal plain, wide shelves, and relatively gradual continental slopes?
Passive Margin (Wide shelves, gentle slopes, and well-developed rise)
Salinity units of measure are in part per?
Factors that affect the salinity of water in the ocean are?
Evaporation, Freezing, Precipitation, and Runoff.
The temperature and salinity of seawater determine its density. Water gets ____ as it gets saltier, colder, or both.
Because the earth is round and roating, anything that moves over its surface tends to turn a little rather than moving in a straight line. This effect is called the?
Coriolis effect
In the northern hemisphere the Coriolis effect always deflects things to the right or left?
In the southern hemisphere the Coriolis effect always deflects things to the right or left?
Due to the Coriolis Effect, when wind pushes the upper most layer of water instead of it moving in the same the water moves off at an angle of?
45 degrees this is know as the Ekmnan spiral
Though each microlayer moves in a different direction, taken as a whole the Ekman layer moves at a 90 degrees from the wind direction. This process is called?
Ekman Transport.
Water molecules are made up of one oxygen atom and two small ____ atoms.
Water naturally occurs in what three states or phases?
Solid, Liquid and Gases.
As water cools the molecules move slower and pack closer together making the water more or less dense?
More dense
When water freezes the molecules move so slowly the the hydrogen bonds take over, locking the molecules into a crystal that are farther apart. The water is now more or less dense?
Less dense, this is why ice floats.
The highest part of a wave is called the ____ and the lowest part is called the ____.
Crest, Trough
The vertical distance between the trough and the crest is called the?
Wave height
The distance between one wave crest and the next wave crest is called the?
The time a wave takes to go by a given point is called the?
Period of the wave
The span of open water over which the wind blows is called the?
The size if the wave generated by the wind depends on the size of the?
Once away from the wind waves settle into?
What occurs when the crest of one wave meets the trough of another?
Wave cancellation
What occurs when the crest of one wave meets the crest of another?
Wave reinforcement
The major wind fields of the atmosphere push the sea surface creating?
Surface Currents
Under the influence of the Coriolis effect, the wind-driven surface currents combine into huge, more or less systems called?
What is a dominant influence on near-shore sea life?
Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the ___ and the ___.
Moon and Sun
What occurs at full and new moons when the sun and moon are in line with each other?
Tidal Range (large difference between high and low tides)
A tidal Range is called?
Spring Tides, because they surge up like spring water
When the sun and moon are at right angles their effects partially cancel each other. This is called?
Neap Tides (Tidal range is small)
Two high tides and two low tides a day are called?
Semidiurnal Tides
Successive high tides of different heights are called?
Mixed Semidiurnal Tides
An uncommon tide is when there is only one high and one low tide every day. This is called?
Diurnal Tide
In clear ocean water ____ light penetrates the deepest and ____ light the least.
Blue, Red
List the colors of light the penetrates from deepest to the least.
Blue, Green, Yellow, Violet, Orange, and Red
Water pressure increases __ atmosphere with each __m increase in depth.
1 atmosphere, with every 10m of depth