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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Food Sciences

Where agriculture meets the consumer

Value Added

A degree of innovation thatmakes a product more attractive to customers and consumers

Food-Borne Illness

Diseases, usually either infectious ortoxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion offood.

Causes of Food-Borne Illness

-Pathogens, infectiousagents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, parasites, and Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that enter the food supply

-Improper cooking orreheating of food

-Not keeping cold foods cold

-Not keeping hot foods hot

-Transferring pathogens fromcontaminated food to uncontaminated food

-Transferring pathogens frominfected humans to food during food processing or preparation.

-Improper hand washing


Microorganisms orinfectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, and parasites thatcan be transmitted in food and cause illness.


An organism thatderives nourishment and protection from another living organism known as thehost.


A group of related bacteria thatcan cause illnesses in humans and animals.

Symptoms of Salmonella

Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever

Ways to Prevent Salmonella

Cook poultry, meat, eggs thoroughly; washhands after handling poultry or meat

Listeria monocytogenes

A bacterium that hasbeen found in raw foods, such as uncooked meats, vegetables, and unpasteurizedmilk and processed foods that become contaminated after processing but beforepackaging or consumption, such as soft cheeses, hot dogs, and lunch meats.

Symptoms of Listeria monocytogenes

Fever, headaches, muscle aches, diarrhea; may lead to miscarriage,stillbirth, premature delivery in pregnant women

Ways to Prevent Listeria monocytogenes

Cook foods thoroughly, avoid unpasteurized dairy; pregnant women shouldwarm deli meat and hot dogs to steaming hot before eating; eat deli meat soon

Clostridium botulinum

A bacterium found inhoney that can lead to botulism

Symptoms of Clostridium botulinum

Double or blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficultyswallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness

Ways to Prevent Clostridium botulinum

Cook canned foods thoroughly; never eat food from bulging can

Food Danger Zone

The temperature range (40–140° F) at which microbial growth is mostlikely to occur.


Food: (high in protein), should be cooked

Acid: does not support growth

Temperature: higher than 135 degrees F,microwave should be set @ 41 decrees or less Time: Multiplies x2 in 15-30 minutes(sometimes 10 minutes), 500 mill in 5 hrs


Moisture: drying andsalting (crackers vs. bread)


Microorganisms or infectious agents suchas bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, and parasites that can be transmitted infood, through drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or from person-to- person contact and cause illness.


The transfer of a substance that can cause illness from one food toanother, usually on a utensil or a surface such as a cutting board or plate.

Mad Cow Disease

BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy). Causedby prions (Aninfectious protein that has been altered and is believed to cause diseases ofthe central nervous system.


Aninfectious protein that has been altered and is believed to cause diseases ofthe central nervous system.


“Generally Recognized as Safe” by FDA


Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system. Guidelines established to promotefood safety at every step of food production; the farm, storage, retail stores,restaurants and consumers. It provides a detailed manual of educationalmaterials and training workshops for organizations and individuals to follow.

7 Principles of HACCP

-Conducta hazard analysis to identify potential haz- ards that could occur in the foodproduction process.

-Identifythe critical control points (CCPs) —the points in the process where thepotential hazards could occur and can be prevented and/or controlled.

-Establishcritical limits for preventive measures associated with each CCP. A criticallimit is a criterion that must be met for each CCP. (Where appropriate,critical limits may reflect relevant current regulations.)

-EstablishCCP monitoring requirements to ensure that each CCP stays within its limit.Monitoring may require materials or devices (such as thermometers) to mea- sureor otherwise evaluate the process at CCPs.

-Establishcorrective actions if monitoring determines that a CCP is not within theestablished limits.

-Establisheffective record-keeping procedures that document that the HACCP system isworking properly.

-Establishprocedures such as inspections for verifying that the HACCP system is workingproperly.


Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Choosing and eating foods that benefit the health and well-being of the individual, the community (socially and economically), the food producer, and the environment by minimizing waste and protection of environmental resources. Focuses on the protection of what are known as non-renewable resources.

Elements of Sustainability

ecology, economy, and health

French Paradox

The low incidence of heartdisease among the French despite their consumption of a diet relatively high infat and cholesterol.

Why do researchers think the French Paradox exists?

Moderate consumption of alcohol, especially in red wine, has some potential health benefits. It is also believed that the French paradox may be related to wine consumption in that the French often have a high-fat diet but a low incidence of heart disease.

Functional Food

Foods that when added or presentin a diet provide a health benefit beyond normal nutrition.

Gender Specific Moderate Alcohol Consumption

one drinkper day for women and two drinks per day for men

Physiological Changes in Older Adults

loss of teeth, loss of Neuromuscular Coordination, impairedhearing/vision, muscular degeneration, physical discomfort, loss of musclemass, arthritis, decreased sense of taste and smell, geriatric failure to thrive

Social Changes for Older Adults

living alone, depression, anxiety, habits, economicconsiderations

Nutrition Requirements for Older Adults

-water, dietary fiber, protein, calcium, vitamin D, zinc, folate, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, and iron.

-foods high in vitamins, minerals, and high-quality protein but with limited calories.

-nutrient-dense foods (Meats, vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, and even cheese are good examples of )

-sweets and fats need to be restricted.

-2,000–2,200 kcal per day

--1,600–1,800 kcal per day, especially for those with sedentary behavior


-Calcium: 1,200 mg per day for women after age 50. For both men and women greater than 70 years of age, the DRI is 1,200 mg per day.

-To minimize or reduce the rate of bone loss, especially among postmenopausal women, daily requirements of calcium, and vitamin D need to be met.

-The DRI for vitamin D: 20 μg per day for both men and women greater than 70 years of age.

Effects of NutritionalStatus on Fertility for Men

-obesity and being underweight reducing their chancesof fathering a child

-undernutrition reduces spermcount and motility and can also affect sperm maturation. -obesity causes shiftsin hormone levels (testosterone is lower while estrogen is increased), reducing sperm production. -influenced by zinc and antioxidant status.

--zinc is required for sperm cellproduction

--antioxidants protect the vulnerable sperm fromoxidation (oxidative stress damages DNA of developing sperm and also reducestheir motility)

Effects of Nutritional Status on Fertility for Women

-being overweight orunderweight can severely reduce a woman’s chance of conceiving a child.

-undernutrition can result inthe loss of the menstrual cycle due to changes in hormone levels.

-acute undernutrition has a greater effect on inducing reducedfertility than chronic undernutrition.

-extreme levels of exerciseand eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa can also disrupt themenstrual cycle.

--the result of acaloric deficit in both cases.

-obesity and being overweight also negatively impact a woman’schance of conceiving.

-obese women have higher hormone levels that result inirregular menstrual cycles and obese women are at an increased riskfor polycystic ovary syndrome.

-High fiber diets, highcaffeine diets, and vegetarian diets have all been proposed to reduce femalefertility as well.

polycystic ovary syndrome

a condition where a hard coating forms over the outer layer of the ovaries and keeps eggs from being released.

Main Nutritional Needs of Pregnancy

Calorie needs increase

Protein needs increase

Fats recommended intake does not change

Needfor vitamins and minerals increases

Folate needs increase

Vitamin B6 needs increase

The DRI for iron increases

Calcium needs increase

-Vegans, women under age 25, and those who choose to avoid milk product

Zinc needs increase

Any woman childbearing agewho might become pregnant folic acid needs increase.

Vitamin/mineral supplementsare also recommended for women who may be at a nutritional risk.

For vegans, vitaminB12 supplements (and perhaps vitamin D and zinc) are recommended.

Hydration needs increase

Calorie Needs During Pregnancy

increase by 250–300 calories a day

Protein Needs During Pregnancy

increase by 25 g per day

Fat Needs During Pregnancy

-recommended intake level does not changeduring pregnancy.

-focus on the polyunsaturated fat found in nuts, oils, andwhole grains.

Vitamin and Mineral Needs During Pregnancy

-increases by about 30 percent

-supplements recommended for women who may be at a nutritional risk.

--vegans, breast- feeding, follow restrictive diets, smoke cigarettes, abuse alcohol, or are carrying twins or triplets.

Folate Needs During Pregnancy

-increase by about 50 percent

-used in red blood cell and DNA manufacture

-The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age consume 400 μg of folate per day.

-Once pregnant, the recommended intake increases to 600 μg a day.

-supplements should include 600 μg of folic acid daily

-Any woman childbearing age who might become pregnant should consume 400 μg of folic acid daily.


-occurs in many dark green leafy vegetables,beans, citrus fruits, whole grains, poultry, pork, and shellfish

-fortification of cereals and grains with folic acid, the synthetic form of folate, became mandatory in the United States and Canada in 1998.

--this fortification increases daily folate intake by 100 μg.

Folate Deficiency

-linked to neural tube defects.

--neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord during the first 28 days after conception. w/o adequate folate, the tube may not closecompletely.

---1 possible outcome is spinabifida (lower end of spinal cord may be exposed), (paralysis or weakness of the legs, bowel, or bladder can result)

---anencephaly: when the spinal cord fails to close at the top (results with the baby being born without a brain)

-increase the risk of a preterm delivery, a low-birthweight baby, and slow fetal growth rate

Vitamin B6 Needs During Pregnancy

-increase by about 50 percent

-used in amino acid metabolism

Vitamin B12 Needs During Pregnancy

-used in red blood cell and DNA manufacture

-for vegans, vitamin B12 supplements

Vitamin B12 Deficiency

-can cause neural tube defects.

--can be masked and occur independent of folate levels and folic acid supplementation.

Vitamin D Needs for Pregnancy

-For vegans, vitamin D supplements are recommended

Iron Needs During Pregnancy

-the DRI increases from 18 to 27 mg per day

-supplements should include 30 mg of iron

Calcium Needs During Pregnancy

-increase as much as 30 mg a day duringthe last trimester

-vegans, women under age 25, and those who choose to avoid milk products also are advised to take calcium supplements (600 mg per day).

Zinc Needs During Pregnancy

-DNA and RNA syntheses in the body depend on it

-For vegans, supplements are recommended.

-a higher level of iron can interfere with the absorption of this, so women who are taking more than 30 mg of iron per day should also take a supplement containing 15 mg of this

Copper Needs for Pregnancy

-a higher level of iron can interfere with the absorption of this, so women who are taking more than 30 mg of iron per day should also take a supplement containing 2 mg of this

Vitamin A Needs for Pregnancy

-supplementation is not recommended during pregnancy except at low levels.

-excessive levels can be toxic to the fetus

-adequate levels are available through a balanced diet

Nutrient Recommendations for Pregnancy

Supplement Needs for Pregnancy

-should provide no more than 100 percent of the DRIfor pregnant women and and .

-folic acid supplementation should begin 1 month before conception if at allpossible.

Unsafe During Pregnancy

Hydration During Pregnancy

-increase during pregnancy in order tosupport fetal circulation, amniotic fluid, and a higher blood volume.

-adequate intake can help prevent constipation by keeping food wastesmoving through the intestines.

-Individuals generally need 1–1.5 mL of waterfor each calorie consumed

Recommendations for Breastfeeding

recommended first 6 months, then w/ food for the first 12 months

Benefits of Breastfeeding for Mother

burns more calories, in some cases helps the mother get back toher pre-pregnancy weight more quickly, reduces the risk of ovarian cancer andbreast cancer, builds bone strength to protect against bone fractures in olderage, helps the uterus return to its normal size more quickly, less stressduring post-partum period, builds stronger bond with baby, saves money

Benefits of Breastfeeding for Baby

less likely to experience allergies and intolerances, earinfections (otitis media), vomiting, diarrhea, pneumonia, wheezing, and otherrespiratory diseases, meningitis, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),childhood cancers, autoimmune diseases, obesity

Changes in Caloric andProtein Needs though the Life Stages

Caloric needs decrease, Protein needs decrease during adulthood, then increase for older adults

Anorexia and Bulimia among Children

-high incidence among teenage girls, and perhaps more boys than once thought.

-parents should continue to encourage theiradolescent children to participate in family meals for the purposes ofpromoting better nutrition and communication.

Children According to CDC

Up to Age 20

Food Related Behaviors of Teenagers

-Failure to eat breakfast orsome other meal b. -Lack of time orcompanionship for regular meals

-Not drinking milk or notconsuming other calcium-rich foods

-Nutrient-poor food selectionin meals eaten away from home

-An overriding fear ofobesity, especially among girls, which leads to dieting

-Use of bodybuildingsupplements among boys to increase muscle mass

-Avoiding certain foods thatthey think will aggravate adolescent acne

-Excessive intake ofconvenience foods and fast food

-Adolescents tend to skipbreakfast at a higher rate than any other age group.

Weight Status of Children and Teenagers in US

-18% of Children in the USare obese

-Girls tend to have thisproblem more than boys do, African-American girls in particular.

-Obese teenage girls tend to become obese adults more so than boys.
-In manycases, these obese teens may not eat more than their leaner counterparts butare less physically active.

Caffeine and Alcohol in Breast Milk and Complementary Food Recommendations:

-Breast milk can transfer caffeine from mother to baby.

-Very high caffeine intake in nursingmothers may make babies irritable (about 20 percent of all newborns experience colic)

-A woman should either avoid caffeine or limit her daily caffeine intake tono more than 300 mg per day.

-Small amounts may betolerated as the baby grows


extended crying or fussiness in babies that are otherwise healthy and well nourished. It occurs in infants that are between 2 weeks and 4 months of age.

In what way do microorganisms, freezing and heating, and salt affect food?


-Bad: spoilage, foodborneillness

-Good: fermentation (yeast,beer, wine, cheese, sausage), microorganisms won’t grow (alcohol over 12%)

Freezing: Preservation,changes quantity Heating: Preservation,changes quality (canned)

Salt: Preservation,decreases water activity Drying: Preservation

Organization in US and FL responsible for Safety and Production of Food

-US: FDA (Food and DrugAdministration), USDA (US Department of Agriculture), Bureau of Alcohol,Tobacco, and Firearms

-FL: FDACS (FloridaDepartment of Agriculture and Consumer Services), Local health agencies(restaurants)

Types of “Growth” for a Company

-New markets (US geography,international sales)

-New consumers targeted(Gerber tropicals for Latin American populations)

-Buy out another company andtheir customers --New products!

Categories and Characteristics of New Food Products

-Line Extension: new flavor,variety

--Less R&D time, lessinvestment, may need to negotiate shelf space

-Repositioned Products:oatmeal as cholesterol-reducing product, new packaging, new marketing, legalreview

--Less R&D time

-New Form: converted rice,instant grits

--R&D, increasedmanufacturing, consumers must see added value

-Reformations: diet softdrinks, cheesier Doritos, nacho cheese

--“New &Improved”, lessdevelopment time

-New Packaging: single-servecottage cheese, pouch of tuna

--R&D depends on packagenovelty, equipment changes

-Innovative: frozen dinner ina bag, ready to eat salad kits

--Risk/expense, more marketing& sales support

-Creative: surimi, Splenda,Proctor & Gamble made alestra for Wow Chips

--More R&D, increasedrisk/reward, often ingredients, GMOs

--GE-derived: yellow rice


the purchaser, theone who buys in the marketplace, “gatekeeper”- the one who buys the food thatcomes into the household, the purchasing manager that approves the final vendorlist, chef who decides the menu of the day


uses what ispurchased by the customer (they can of course be the same person), consumerscan influence the customer (parents shopping with their kids in the cerealaisle), marketers have to be very clear about how they will appeal to eachgroup


This is aphysical, retail outlets where products are sold

-Farmer’s markets


-Vending machines

-On-line provisioners


conceptual (not a place), it represents a needidentified that marketers hope to turn into a want, that is an opportunity tosell (the market for organic foods)

Characteristics and Processes Leading to Development of Successful New Food Products

-Concept Development

-Technical Development


Concept Development

i. Brainstorming summary,project title and concept description, market justification, including categoryanalysis (base decision on sound sources), product description (includingpotential ingredients and manufacturing strategy) (This can be preliminary),proposed product development plan (develop lists/tasks that must beaccomplished)

Technical Development

Productformula/manufacturing steps, detailed costs, potential ingredient suppliers,prototype of product (what it might look like, description of package),nutrition label (e.g., facts, ingredients, allergens) – preliminary, moredetailed process flow diagram (for making the product commercially in pilot orlarge scale quantities) (be sure to include pertinent conditions includingtimes, temperatures, etc.) (you may need to conduct some independent literaturereview regarding how this product (or a similar product) is made commercially),regulatory aspects of proposed product, including food safety considerationsthat will be addressed in Phase 3


Final formula(s) and manufacturing flow diagrams, andquality and safety program description, packaging materials, pricing andequipment (packaging is integral to the product and can affect shelf life),sensory and/or marketing test, conclusions and justification for launch/no launch

Fish Toxins in Food

Listeria monocytogenes (bacteria), Clostridium botulinum (bacteria), HepatitisA (virus)

Food Allergy

triggered whena protein from the diet is absorbed w/o being completely digested, immunesystem reaction��Y�

Common Allergens

Milk,eggs, nuts, wheat, soy, fish/shellfish, peanuts

Food Sensitivity

a result of digestive enzymes notfunctioning properly.

Food Preservation Techniques

drying, freezing, pasteurizing, irradiation, canning, aseptic packaging,nitrates (salt), nitrites.


-Some species of fish can contain high levels of thisform of mercury.

-Enters waterways from industrial pollution.

-Smaller organismsconsume it, and then it works its way up the food chain

-Thuslarger fish, such as swordfish, tuna, shark, and mackerel, contain very highlevels.

Methylmercury effect on human health

especially harmful to an unborn baby or a young child’sdeveloping nervous system.

In adults, mercury poisoning can adversely affectfertility and blood pressure regulation, may cause memory loss, tremors,vision loss, numbness of the fingers and toes, and may lead to heartdisease

Organizations responsible for notifying the public aboutlevels on mercury in fish



A polyphenol found in grapes and other plants thatprotects against free radical damage. Same as catechin.

Classification of alcohol among nutrients

-People who consume alcohol in excess may develop nutritionalproblems.

-Many drinkers satisfy their caloric intake needs at the expense ofnot consuming energy-yielding macronutrients: fat, carbohydrates, and proteins.

-Alcohol has few other nutrients, and not consuming other foods with vitamins andminerals may lead to inadequate intake. Alcoholics frequently experiencevitamin and mineral deficiencies because of decreased consumption of nutrient-dense foods, reduced absorption of nutrients, and livermalfunction as a result of fatty liver and/or cirrhosis.

Alcohol is a diuretic.

--Water-soluble vitamins may be excreted at a greater ratethrough the urine because these vitamins are not stored in the body to anysignificant extent.

Thus, B vitamins (thiamine and folate in particular) andvitamin C status may be compromised in those with heavy alcohol intakes.

Thegroup of symptoms that result from the loss of these water-soluble vitamins,particularly thiamine, is called Wernicke– Korsakoff syndrome; these symptomsinclude eye muscle paralysis, loss of memory, and damaged nerves.

Anothervitamin that is lost with alcohol, especially in the liver, is folate.

Because one of the enzymes (alcohol dehydro- genase) used to metabolize alcoholcontains zinc, decreased zinc stores are common among heavy alcohol users.

Potassium, magnesium, and phosphates are other nutrients lost through alcoholabuse.

Alcohol and coffee

The bottom line on consuming coffee whenintoxicated is that you will be a wide-awake drunk!


A compound that, when consumed, causes you to urinatemore and can lead to dehydration.

Diuretic effect on a body

loss of nutrients through the urine, particularly the water-soluble vitamins (loss of B vitamins, which in turn results in undernutrition.)

Food sources of phytoestrogens

-Compounds found in plants, such as soy, that may help prevent symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

-may actually increase the risk of breast cancer in some women by raising estrogen levels.

Properties of Carotenoids

-pigment in plants such as carrots and sweet potatoes.

-carotenoid familyincludes molecules such as alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene; lutein;zeaxanthin; lycopene; cryptoxanthin; vioaxanthin; and bixin.

-450different kinds may exist.

-carotenoids arebest obtained from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables rather than fromsupplements.

Increased Intake of Carotenoids

-associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and certain cancers.

-some of the protection may be related to their antioxidant activity.


-predominant carotenoid in the human diet; it is also a commonly used supplement.

-several investigations have failed to demonstrate that supplementation helps prevent or treat heart disease and cancer.

-beta-carotene supplementation increased the incidence of lung cancer in cigarette smokers.

-Oversupplementation can also lead to an orange discoloration of the skin, especially in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

-fruits and vegetables may contain other factors that are necessary in combination with, or supportive of, the health benefits of beta-carotene. Therefore, isolating it as a supplement does not provide the same benefit.

Digestion of Alcohol

Alcohol is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract (primarily the stomach), enters the bloodstream.

Absorption of Alcohol

The body absorbs alcohol more rapidly than nutrients. When consumed on an empty stomach, alcohol enters the bloodstream faster than when the stomach is full.

Metabolism of Alcohol

The only organ in the body capable of metabolizing alcohol is the liver, but only 90 percent of blood alcohol is metabolized by the liver. The remaining 10 percent is eliminated through the lungs and urine.

Once alcohol enters liver cells, it is normally converted into acetaldehyde, which is a toxic compound (catalyst for this conversion is an enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase). The acetaldehyde produced is then “detoxified” through another enzymatic reaction, where the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 converts acetaldehyde into acetic acid. Acetic acid is not toxic and can be metabolized by the body for energy or used to make fat. A fatty liver can result from these reactions. Some individuals have a genetic variant of this gene, which reduces their level of enzyme activity, and therefore, they metabolize alcohol slowly. As a result, they cannot consume al- cohol without major mental impairment and damage to their organs.

Possible negative affects of alcohol

Asians, Native Americans, and other groups tend to have a higher percentage of in- dividuals with this genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 enzyme. The direct harmful effects of alcohol consumption are produced by acetaldehyde. This compound is thought to damage the liver mitochondria and lead to hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). It may also cause hardening and scarring of the liver, which is called cirrhosis, and the advanced stage of cirrhosis is irreversible. In the brain, alcohol is thought to interfere with enzymes involved with neurotransmitter synthesis so that slightly different compounds are produced, which then react with acetaldehyde to produce morphine-like compounds. This may help explain why alcohol becomes so addictive.

Alcohol Dehydrogenase

requires zinc in order to function properly, and men have more of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme than do women, which contributes to the ability of males to consume more alcohol than women.

Liver diseases induced by excessive alcoholconsumption

1. Fatty liver

2. Hepatitis

3. Cirrhosis

Fatty Liver

-simply the accumulation of fat within liver cells. -if the person stops drinking, it isreversible.

-can lead to inflammation of the liver in the shortterm, but if alcohol intake continues, fatty liver disease can contribute topermanent liver damage.


-an inflammation of the liver that can cause fluidaccumulation in the abdomen, jaundice (yellowing of the skin), and neurologicalproblems

-when the condition advances, results in liver failure.

-becausethe liver has the ability to create new cells, hepatitis is reversible if theperson abstains from alcohol and consumes an adequate diet.


-the liver becomes hardened and scarred.

-a serious, often fatal liver condition.

-early stage of livercirrhosis is reversible, but not the late stage.

-Ten to 15 percent ofalcoholics develop liver cirrhosis by the time they die.

-this resulting from alcohol abuse is one of the 10 leading causes of deathin the United States.

-Women who consume the same amount of alcohol as men areeven more likely to develop liver disease.�

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

-infection by Escherichia coli (bacteria) O157:H7.

-hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acutekidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

CDC Growth Charts

Older American Act

-Nutrition Program

-eligible to all ages60+, food, nutrition assessments and counseling, social interaction, congregatemeals, home-delivered meals

Lean Body Mass

muscle, bone, organs, connectivetissue, and water

Nutritional Genomics

interactionsbetween genetics, lifestyle, environmental factors, life circumstances