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70 Cards in this Set

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Periosteum

connective tissue covering all bones

cortical bone

compact or dense bone on outer surface

trabecular bone

less dense, more open structure

bone marrow

spongy tissue in flat bones

osteoblasts

build bone

osteciast

break down of bone

calcium: functions

bone growth


blood clot formation


muscle contraction


cellular metabolism


maintaining cell integrity

calcium: health benefits

decrease bone fractures


decreases risk for colon cancer


decrease risk of kidney stone formation


decrease lead absoption

calcium: deficiency

decrease bone mineral density


osteopenia


osteoporosis

calcium absorption decreased by

oxalates


tannins


vitamin d deficiency


diarrhea


increased age

calcium absorption increased by

high need growth


pregnancy


parathioyol hormones

calcium: food source

drak green leafy vegetables


almonds


sardines


milk, yogurt, cheese


calcium supplements recommended to

lactose intolerant


milk allergies


ovo-vegetarian


began


low calcium diets


phosphorous: functions

part of DNA and RNA replication


component of bone and teeth strengthening


allows enzymes and B vitamins to function


maintains blood pH and fluid balance

Phosphorus: deficiency (found in)

preterm infants


vegans


alcoholics


nutrient poor diets


persistent diarrhea

phosphorus: nutrient needs

absorption enhanced by presence of vitamin D


efficiently absorbed by the body

phosphorus: food source

naturally abundant in many foods


milk, cheese, bread


nuts, fish, breakfast cereals, bran, eggs

vitamin d

produced in the skin when exposed to UV light


cholesterol is vitamin D precursor


hormone


activation occurs in liver and kidneys

vitamin d: functions

-maintains calcium and phosphorus in blood


-binds to and affects- immature system, nervous system, skin, muscles, reproductive organs


-may decrease certain types of cancer risks


amount of sun exposure needed to activate bitamin d i affected by

skin color


time of day


strength of UV


age


exposure time


season


vitamin d: deficiency (decrease levels of vitamin d

intestinal calcium absorption decrease


rickets


osteoporosis


vitamin d: deficiency (increase deficiency risk in)

dark skinned people


low vitamin D diet


elderly


insufficient sun exposure


diet without fortified food

vitamin d: food sources

dietary sources are limited


fatty fish


fortified dairy foods


fortified breakfast cereals

vitamin d: excess (toxicity symptoms)

weakness


loss of appetite


diarrhea and vomiting


confusion


increase of urine output


magnesium: functions

nerve and heat functions


assists enzymatic reactions


provides rigidity to bones

magnesium: deficiency (causes)

decrease bone strength and bone volume


poor bone development


decrease bone formation


increase bone resporation


helps relax muscles after contraction


stabilizes calcium in enamel

Magnesium: diseases related

hypertension


type 2 diabetes


osteoporosis


migraines


magnesium: absorption

increase phosphorus, decrease mg absroption


increase fiber, decrease mg absorption


decrease protein, decrease mg absorption

magnesium: nutrient needs

RDA


-400 mg/day for men


-310 mg/ day for women

magnesium: food source

squash


whole grains


bran


beans


nuts


seeds


milk


meat


hard tap water


coffee (espresso)

magnesium: excess ( toxicity)

people with kidney failure


abuse of OTC laxatives and antacids with Mg


elderly people are at higher risk

fluoride: functions

prevent dental caries


-strengthens teeth structure


-stimulates remineralization of enamel

fluoride: food source

marine fish


clams


lobster


shrimp


tea


seaweed


natural water sources


fluoridated water source

fluoride: excess

fluorosis can occur from excessive intake of fluoridated toothpaste


Vitamin K: functions

synthesized by colonic bacteria


builds bones


blood clotting

vitamin k: deficiency in infants

gut at birth is sterile: no bacteria on GI tract


cant synthesize vitamin k needed for clotting


vitamin k: deficiency in adults

after long term antibiotic use and metabolism

vitamin k: food source

resistant to cooking losses


absorption requires dietary fat


food: liver, dark green veggies

iron: deficiency anemia (stages)

one: depleted body stores but no physical symptoms


two: depleted circulating iron and some physopogical symptoms


three: RBG's are some and pale

iron: nutrient needs

male and post-menopausal female: 8 mg


female: 18 mg/ day


average intake: 13 mg (women), 18 mg (men)

zinc: deficiency

growth retardation and sexual organ immaturity


acne-like rash


taste alteration

folate: functions

cell division


as coenzyme: supplies or accepts single carbon compounds


helps form DNA

folate: deficiency (in early RBS synthesis)

immature cells cant divide


cells grow larger

folate: deficiency (symptoms)

tongue inflammation


diarrhea


poor growth


mental confusion

folate: deficiency in pregnant women

decrease folate levels


neural tubes close with first 28 days

folate: nutrient needs

400 mg/day

Vitamin B-12: functions

functions in folate metabolism


maintaining myelin sheath that insulates neurons from each other


requires intrinstic factor for absorption

Vitamin B-12: deficiency

-destruction of parts of myelin sheath


-neurological symptoms: irregular muscle actions, impaired reflexes, eventual paralysis


-pernicious anemia: lack of B-12 absorption

Ways to determine intensity

percentage of age predicted maximum heart rate


rating of perceived exertion scale

exercise and food intake

-most obvious distincton in nutrient needs between active and inactive total more calories


-except for high energy intake at extremes daily intake dues not exceed 4000 k calories for me and 300 k cal for women

When is ATP used?

always

what activities are ATP used for?

all

when is PCr used?

all exercise initially, short bursts of energy

what activities in PCr used in?

shot put, high jump, bench press

when are anaerobic carbohydrates used?

high intensity (30 seconds to 2 minutes)

what activities are anaerobic carbohydrates used?

200 yard sprint

when are aerobic carbohydrates used?

exercise lasts 2 minutes to several hours

what activities are aerobic carbohydrates used?

basketball, swimming, jogging, power walking, soccer

when is aerobic fat used?

exercise lasting more than a few minutes

what activities are aerobic fats used?

long distance running, cycling

when is aerobic protein used?

low amount used during all exercise

what activities are aerobic proteins used for?

long distance running

what makes up most of bones?

minerals

what percent of calcium is used for bone growth, development and maintanence?

99 percent

what is a precursor for vitamin D

cholesterol

where is calcidol turned into calcitrol?

kidneys

what makes clotting factors active?

vitamin k and calcium

primary function of red blood cells

carry oxygen from lungs to tissue

cells that are normal color are

normocytic

how often should you do aerobic actvity

5 days a week, 20-60 minutes