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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people

Traditional leadership perspective

Command and control

Decision making

Theory X approach

Modern leadership perspective

Inspiring employees

Creating a vision

Shaping core values and culture

Building effective teams

Theory Y approach

Why is leadership increasingly important?

Changing organisational structures with flatter hierarchy's and greater delegation to subordinates. Teamwork and focus on quality assurance. Coaching new staff, support and empowerment.

Rapid change is a constant feature of business life and soft skills of leadership and management is increasingly important - paternalistic. Hard to be authoritarian in modern era.

The role of strategic leadership

Influence/control corporate strategy of a business

Usually personally identified with the strategy

Occurs in small firms and large corporates

How strategic leadership is demonstrated

Command - Leaders take direct control; used in a crisis

Vision - Leaders set the vision and core beliefs

Decision making - Leader weighs up options and decides

Symbolic - Leader is embodiment of the strategy but not involved day-to-day. Sets a good example


Inspire people

Build relationships

Take risks

Have followers


Enact the plan

Use their authority

Manage risks

Have subordinates

Senior management

Board of directors

Set corporate objectives and strategic direction

Responsible to shareholders - led by the CEO

Middle management

Accountable to senior management

Run business functions and departments

Junior management

Supervisory role - accountable to middle management

Monitor and control day to day tasks and manage a team of workers

Leadership style

The way that the functions of leadership are carried out. The way that a leader behaves.


Focus of power is with the manager

Communication is top down and one way

Formal systems of command and control

Use of rewards and penalties

Very little delegation

McGregor Theory X approach


Leader decides what is best for employees

Links with Mayo - addressing employee needs

Akin to a parent-child relationship

Little delegation

Softer form of authoritarian


Focus of power is with the group as a whole.

Leadership functions are shared within the group

Employees have greater involvement in decision making

Emphasis on delegation and consultation


Leader has little input in day-to-day decision making

Conscious decision to delegate power

Managers and employees have freedom to do what they think is best

Effective when staff are ready and willing to take on responsibility

McGregor Theory X Manager


Average worker is lazy and dislikes work

Workers need to be controlled and directed

Centralised organisation and exercise of authority

McGregory Theory Y Approach


Most people enjoy work

Workers will take responsibility and organise themselves

Decision making can be delegated

Why leadership styles are moving away from autocratic

Change in society's values

Better educated workforce

Focus on the need for soft HR skills

Changing workplace organisation

Greater workplace legislation

Pressure for greater employee involvement

Tannenbaum and Schmidt

"Continuum" of leadership behaviour

Represents the degree of authority used by the manager AND represents the area of freedom available to non managers.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt - "Tells"

Leader identifies problem, makes decision and announces it to subordinates. Expects implementation.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt - "Sells"

Leader still makes decision but attempts to overcome resistance through discussion and persuasion

Tannenbaum and Schmidt - "Consults"

Leader identifies problem and presents it to the group. Listens to advice and suggestions before making decision.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt - "Joins"

Leader defines problem and passes on solving and decision making to the group (which the manager is a part of).

Blake Mouton Grid

Identifies 5 different leadership styles based on a grid

X axis - Concern for completing task

Y asis - Concern for people

Impoverished management

Laissez-faire style. Minimal effort on management. Hopes to avoid blame for errors.

Low concern for people AND tasks

Country club management

Focus on creating comfortable, safe working environment. Minimal conflict.

High concern for people. Low concern for tasks

Task management

Autocratic. Consistent with McGregor theory X. Workers have to complete tasks - nothing else.

Low concern for people. High concern for tasks

Team management

Staff closely involved in decision making and feel valued. Consistent with McGregory theory Y.

High concern for people AND tasks

Middle of the road management

Compromises made to achieve acceptable performance. Thought to be less effective leadership style.

Middle concern for people AND tasks

Factors affecting leadership style

Personal value systems

Manager's experience

Confidence in subordinates

Feelings of security

Nature of the business problems

Type of organisation (type, structure, etc)

Effectiveness of teams and groups

Skills and experience of subordinates

Pressure (time, costs, etc)