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152 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the first line of defense?
body coverings such as mucus membranes, skin, etc.
What is the second line of defense?
phagocytic cells
What is another name for the specific immune system?
adaptive immune response
What is the third line of defense?
specific immune system/ adaptive immune response
What is the most important non-specific DM?
intact skin
What makes skin such a great defensive mechanism?
keratin, dry, slightly acidic, oil, contains chemicals that inhibit bacteria, and perspiration
What is bacteriolytic lysozymes?
proteins that eat bacteria
What is defensin and where is it commonly found?
a protein that pokes holes in bacteria cell membranes - mucous membranes
What is transferrin and where is it found?
a protein that binds to free Fe so pathogens cannot - blood
What is lactoferrin and where is it found?
a protein that binds to free Fe so pathogens cannot - mother's milk
What are the steps in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, diapedisis, adherence, engulf
What do phagocytes eat?
antigen antibody complex
How do killer cells rid the body of what is hurting it?
Define inflammation.
homeostatic response to tissue damage, functions in cleaning the damge site so tissue repair can occur
How is pus carried away?
What is interferon?
a protein that is made by lymphocytes when they produce baby viruses. If the interferon makes it to the new cell before the virus then it prevents the cell from making new viruses
What is complement?
a protein that binds to foreign cells and targets them for phagocytosis
Define opsonization.
a process that enhances phagocytosis
Define cytolysis.
When compliment attaches to a cell it pokes holes in the membrane
Define cytokines.
chemicals produced by certain types of cells and then go to different cells and deliver a message
Define normal flora.
microbes that live in you and on you all the time. These won't allow new microbes to come in a set up residence
The immune system has 3 important properties, what are they?
specifity, systemic, once you have it, it has memory
What are the two types of immune responses?
cellular or cell mediate immunity and antibody mediate immunity or humoral immunity
In cellular mediated immunity what is the cell called that actually does the killing?
cytotoxic T cell
What does cell mediated immunity typically protect you against?
intracellular attacks
What does antibody mediated immunity or humoral immunity typically protect you against?
extracellular attacks
What happens in antibody mediated/humoral immunity?
b cells first become plasma cells which secrete proteins called antibodies that complex with bacteria, virus, or bacterial toxin and targets them for phagocytosis
Define an antigen.
any substance that when inject into an organism causes an immune response
What two properties do complete antigens have?
immunogenicity and reactivity
Define immunogenicity.
ability of an antigen to stimulate an immune response
Define reactivity.
the ability of an antigen to react with a preformed antibody or sensitized T cell
What do you use as antigens?
proteins or lippo proteins or in some cases polysaccharides
What chemicals have no ability to be sensed by the immune system?
stainless steel and plastic polymers
Define an epitope.
part of the antigen that the immune system sees
Define hapten.
a molecule that is too small for immonogenticy but it will react with a preformed antibody or a sensitized T cells
Define major histocompatibilty complex antigens.
glycoproteins found on all cell membranes except RBCs that mark your cells as yours
What are MHCs that are found on WBC?
HLA - human leukocyte antigen
What is responsible for organ rejection?
MHC - major histocompatibility complex
Define immunilogic tolerance.
a specific unresponsiveness to an antigen
How did T cells come about?
derived from Thymus gland
How do B cells come about?
derived from Bone marrow
Define immunocompetence.
the ability of an immune system cell to recognize and respone to a specific antigen
Why types of cells carry out antigen processing?
machrophages, dendritic cells, and activated B cells
What are the steps of antigen processing?
cells located at entry points for pathogens, carry out phagocytosis, eats a pathogen and places epitope on membrane, takes epitope to B cell and complexes with it
Define cross reaction.
a specific antibody that is able to react with more than one antigen
Define antigenic challenge.
very first encounter between an antigen and your immune system
Where does antigenic challenge usually occur?
most frequently in spleen or lymph nodes
In the antigenic challenge what is the function of a B cell?
clones and divided those cloned cells into two different groups, plasma and memory B cells
What is the function of the plasma cell in an antigenic challenge?
produce identical antibodies so the antigen will complex with it
What is the function of memory B cell in an antigenic challenge?
responsible for long term protection and these are th ones that protect from subsequent attacks later on in life
What is the legal name for antibodies?
Antibodies are in what group?
group of plasma proteins in the group of globulins
What are the long chains of antibodies called?
What are the short chains of antibodies called?
What are the two regions on the peptide chains on antibodies called?
ends are variable, the rest is constant
How many classes of antibodies are there?
What is the class of antibodies that is in the greatest amount?
What is the function of IgG?
opsonization and fixing complement
What is the class of antibodies that crosses the placenta wall?
When do you develop IgG antibodies?
when you are exposed to the antigen
How many sets of polypeptide chains does IgM have?
What is the first antibody that baby's system begins to make?
When is the only time IgM is produced?
during your first exposure
What antibody is used to date infection?
What antibody decreases in numbers when you get stressed out?
Where can IgA be found?
blood, lymph, mucous membrane, tears, saliva, secretions of GI tube, mother's milk
What is the function of IgA in mucous membranes?
it is lying in wait in places where microbes frequently enter the body and busts them up
What antibody functions as the receptor site of the antigen for B cells?
What antibody can be found on membrane of mast cells?
What is a monoclonal antibody?
What is a hybridoma?
cross between a plasma cell and a cancer cell
What are the 2 major types of T cells?
killer or cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
What is the function of killer or cytotoxic T cells?
responsible for destroying foreign antigens
What is the function of helper T cells?
help to intensify immune system responses
Who secretes cytokine and what function does it have?
Helper T cells > tells the activated B or T cell to divide
What is the function of suppressor or regulatory T cell?
functions to reduce an immune response when you no longer need the protection at such an intensity
which type of T cell is responsible for immunologic tolerance?
suppressor/regulatory T cell
How do special killer T cells attack the problem?
secrete a chemical that tell machrophages to go and eat the problem
What is another name for special killer T cells?
delayed hypersensitivity T cells
What is another name for delayed hypersenstitivity T cells?
special killer T cells
What antibody is responsible for immunologic memory?
Concerning B cells in immunologic memory what happens during a subsequent response?
memory B cells respond more quickly and more intensely
What are the other names for subsequent response?
secondary or anamnestic response
Define naturally acquired active immunity.
first exposure to the pathogen was in the form of an infection - produce IgG and memory B cells and therefore lifelong protections
Define artificially acquired active immunity?
first exposure to the pathogen was from a vaccine - produces IgG and memory B cells and therefore lifelong protection
Define naturally acquired passive immunity.
transfer of IgG from mom to fetus across placenta - only IgG crosses and after a couple of month the protein is broken down to amino acids
Define artificially acquired passive immunity.
involves the use of gamma globulin therapy, which is where you receive a dose of a certain IgG
What is the route of lymph flow through a lymph node?
subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, medullary sinus, efferent lymphatic vessel
What cell makes and secretes an antibody?
plasma cell
What cell is necessary for your long term protection?
memory B cells
A: left renal
B: inferior mesenteric
C: inferior vena cava
A: left axillary
B: right brachial
C: right radial
D: right ulnar
A: right subclavian
B: brachiocephalic trunk
C: left subclavian
A: left dorsal venous arch
B: left dorsal metatarsal
C: left dorsal digital
A: left dorsal artery of foot
B: left arcuate
C: left dorsal metatarsal
D: left dorsal digital
A: Right deep palmar arch
B: Right superficial palmar arch
C: Left common palmar digital
D: Left proper palmar digital
A: Right palmar venous plexus
B: Right palmar digital
C: Right proper palmar digital
A: Superior sagittal sinus
B: Inferior sagittal sinus
C: Straight sinus
D: Right transverse sinus
E: Sigmoid sinus
A: Superior vena cava
B: Pulmonary trunk
C: Coronary sinus
D: Great cardiac
A: Inferior mesenteric
B: Left external iliac
C: Left internal iliac
D: Right deep femoral
A: Left common iliac
B: Left internal iliac
C: Left external iliac
A: Left common iliac
B: Left internal iliac
C: Left external iliac
A: Right basilic
B: Right radial
C: Right median antebrachial
D: Right ulnar
A: Left anterior tibial
B: Left posterior tibial
C: Left fibular
A: Left small saphenous
B: Left anterior tibial
C: Left posterior tibial
A: Right internal jugular
B: Right external jugular
C: Right subclavian
D: Right brachiocephalic
A: Right internal carotid
B: Right vertebral
C: Right common carotid
D: Right external carotid
E: Left common carotid
A: Thoracic aorta
B: Abdominal aorta
C: Celiac trunk
D: Common hepatic
A: Right hepatic
B: Hepatic portal
C: Splenic
D: Superior mesenteric
A: Left gastric
B: Splenic
C: Left renal
D: Superior mesenteric
E: Left gonadal
A: Right axillary
B: Right cephalic
C: Right brachial
D: Right median cubital
A: Left femoral
B: Left deep femoral
C: Left popliteal
A: Left femoral
B: Left great saphenous
C: Left popliteal
What immune cells are found in humoral immunity?
B cells
What immune cells are found in antibody mediated immunity?
B cells
What immune cells are found in cellular immunity?
T cells
Is gamma globulin therapy long or short term treatment?
Define a vaccine.
a suspension of antigen that when injected into an individual stimulates an immune response
What is interferron?
an antiviral protein made by cells in you such as machrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes
Define an attenuated vaccine.
microbe is alive, but has been altered so it can't make the recipient sick
Define a toxoid vaccine.
take the toxin from the bacteria so that it can't hurt you
What are the three types of vaccines?
killed whole cell, attenuated, toxoid
Define a microbial component vaccine.
a vaccine where they only use the epitope of the pathogen
What is the vaccine where they only use the epitope of the pathogen?
microbial component
What Igs do you develop from attenuated vaccines?
IgA and IgG
Which vaccine is life long?
What is the function of herd immunity?
prevents those who have gotten the vaccine and it didn't take are still protected because those around them cannot get the sickness
What happens when a cell decides to become cancerous?
cell divides like crazy and MHC marker changes making the cell a foreign cell
Why do people still get cancer?
MHC doesn't change enought for cytotoxic cell to recognize it to attack and sometimes people's T cells aren't quite strong enough to beat the cancer
If a person't T cells aren't strong enough to conquer cancer cells what do scientists do to the T cells?
take them out of the body,m make them stronger, and inject them back into the patient
Define autograft.
donor is the recipient, transplant from one part of body to another
What type of transplant is the best?
Define isograft.
transplant between identical twins therefore MHC is the same
Define allograft.
transplant between genetically different individuals of the same species
What is the most common transplant?
When a person receives an allograft what do they need to take so they do not reject the organ?
How long does an organ receiver have to take immunosuppressients?
Define a xenograft.
transplant between species
What is graft vs. host disease?
donated organ mount an immune attack against the recipient, usually fatal
Define immunodeficiencies.
the individual's immune system cannot either produce or maintain an immune response
What is the sign of an immunodeficiency?
repeated infections
What is a primary or congenital immunodeficiency?
when someone is born with an immunodeficiency
What is a secondary or acquired immunodeficiency?
a person develops an immunodeficiency
How can someone develop an immunodeficiency?
malnutrition, cancer, infection
Define autoimmune diseases.
the body looses the ability to discriminate between self and non-self, antibodies destroy self antigens
Define a hypersensitivity reaction.
usually an allergy reaction, results when the immune system causes tissue damage, immune system responds to an antigen it doesn't need to
What are the four types of hypersensitivity reactions?
Type 1: immediate
Type 2: cytotoxic
Type 3: immune complex
Type 4: delayed or cell mediated
Which type of hypersensitivity reaction has no symptoms the first exposure?
Type 1 immediate
What happens during type1 immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
B cells make IgE and binds to cell membrane of a mast cell and histamine is released
What happens in a type 2 cytotoxic hypersensitivity reaction?
antigen is on cell membrane in insoluble and antibody is soluble so when there is an antigen-antibody complex the cell breaks down ex: clumping in blood
What happens in type 3 immune complex hypersensitivity reaction?
antigen-antibody complexes produce too fast and phagocytic cells cannot keep up causing inflammation
What happens in type 4 delayed or cell mediated hypersensitivity reactions?
T cells attack but it takes a while ex: cancers, poison ivy, nickel in soaps