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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the functions of the liver?

Hormone processor
Protein creator - albumin and clotting agents
Heat production

What is the blood supply for the liver?

Hepatic - 30%, oxygenated blood from heart, 12 kPa

Portal Vein- 70%, deoxygenated blood rich in nutrients, 1.3 kPa

Drains through hepatic vein

Where is the liver located?

Right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity

What are the features of sinusoids?

Fenestrated vessel

Wide capillaries

Lined with endothelia with fenestrae

Selective sieve

No basal lamina

What is the journey of bile?
Transported in hepatocytes
Secreted in bile canaliculi to bile ductules
Drained in small intestine

What is the structure of the portal venule?

Large lumen, collapsed structure and attenuated wall

What is the structure of the hepatic arteriole?

Single layer of smooth muscle cells
Small lumen

What is the structure of the bile ductule?

Simple cuboidal to columnar ciliated epithelium (to move bile)

What is the structure of the lobules in the liver?

80% - parenchyma
20% - stroma

50-100k lobules

What is the structure of hepatocytes?

Cuboidal Epithelial Cell

Single cell columns radiate from central vein

Rich in: Tight junctions, microvilli, Mi, peroxisomers, RER, SER, glycogen

What does the liver metabolise?

Metabolise fats, carbohydrates and proteins

How are fats metabolised in the liver?

Triglyceride Oxidation for energy production

Plasma lipoprotein synthesis

Cholesterol and phospholipid synthesis

How are carbohydrates metabolised in the liver?

Carbohydrates are converted into fatty acids and triglycerides

Glucose concentration regulation:


How are proteins metabolised in the liver?

Amino acid synthesis, Plasma protein synthesis – albumin/clotting factors

Detoxification of metabolism waste products e.g.Amino acid deamination- Urea formation

What does the liver detoxify?

Alcohol and other drugs

What else does the liver secrete?

Bile - contains products of metabolism - billirubin

Acts a detergent to emulsify fats

What is acinus?

Constructed around portal triad with Central vein as corners

What occurs in the three zones of the liver acinus?

Zone 1 - receives oxygen, nutrients, hormones first. Hepatocytes synthesizeglycogen and plasma proteins

Zone 3 - hypoxic, drug detoxification

What is the function of the endothelial cells?

Contain large fenestrae

Passage of large plasma-proteins - chylomicrons

Lacks BM

Endocytosis and transcytosis

What are Kupffer cells?

Mononuclear phagocytes
Found on the luminal endothelial face
Phagocytosis of bacteria, virus particles, damaged erythrocytes, immune complexes

What are hepatic stellate cells?

Quiescent; fat-containing/storing; Vitamin A storage; found in the space of Disse

What is the function of Canals of Hering?

Contain a reserve compartment of hepatocyte and bile duct progenitor cells – stem cell location

Where is the space of Disse?

Between hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells with fenestrae of 100 nm which are dynamic with Ca

How are fenestrae linked to arteriosclerosis?

Cannot take up cholesterol-rich chylomicrons

Stay in circulation

What affects size of fenstrae?

Actin disruption increases fenestrae numbers and size

Calcium addition yields fenestrae contraction

Serotonin and drugs

How does alcohol affect the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells?

Yields endothelium defenestration

Sinusoidal porocity decreases

Yields Hyperlipoproteinemia

Why is some alcohol considered good for you?

Enlarges fenestrae

Dietary lipid clearance by the liver

What is the function of Sphincter of Oddi

Smooth muscle ring

Controls entry of both bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum

What is gall bladder concentrated in?

Bile is highly concentrated

20x fold increase in bile salt concentration

What is bile composed of?

Bile salts (50%)

Bile pigments (e.g. bilirubin) (2%) - colour

Phospholipids (40%)

Cholesterol (4%)

What are the precursors of bile salts?

Bile acids

What are primary bile acids?

Cholic Acid (CA; 31%) and Chenodeocholic acid (CDCA; 45%)

Synthesised in liver from cholesterol

What are primary bile acids conjugated to?

Conjugated to aa like taurine (tauroconjugates) or glycine (glycoconjugates) to be excreted

Where are primary bile acids reabsorbed?

95% reabsorbed

Distal ileum and returned to the liver via portal vein

Are bile acids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Why is it important?

Both - amphipathic

Key feature for the emulsification of fat

What is the difference between primary and seccondary bile acids?

Secondary are more hydrophilic - more OH groups

What is the function of bile?

Contains Bile Acids that aid in fat absorption

Transports material (drugs, bilirubin etc.) to the intestine for excretion

What is an issue of too much secondary bile acids?

Colon cancer, gallstones, GI diseases

What do conjugated bile acids in the small intestine prevent?

Bacterial overgrowth

Bile salts - Bacteriostatic agents

Which direct does blood and bile flow in ?


Where are portal triads


How are bile salts excreted?

95% of bile salts are reabsorbed by small intestine.

5% lostin faeces