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200 Cards in this Set

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Characteristic sign of glycogenosis ismuscle pain during physical work. Bloodexamination usually reveals hypoglycemia.This pathology is caused by congenital deficiencyof the following enzyme:

Glycogen phosphorylase

Histologic specimen of a kidneydemonstrates cells closely adjoined to therenal corpuscle in the distal convolutedtubule. Their basement membrane isextremely thin and has no folds. These cellssense the changes in sodium content of urineand influence renin secretion occurringin juxtaglomerular cells. Name these cells

Macula densa cells

A 46-year-old female patient has continuoushistory of progressive muscular(Duchenne’s) dystrophy. Which bloodenzyme changes will be of diagnostic valuein this case?

Creatine phosphokinase

A laboratory experiment on a dogwas used to study central parts of auditorysystem. One of the mesencephalonstructures was destroyed. The dog has lostthe orienting response to auditory signals.What structure was destroyed

Inferior colliculi of corpora quadrigemina

A patient has decreased concentrationof magnesium ions that are requiredfor ribosomes connection to granularendoplasmic reticulum. This condition isknown to disrupt the process of protein biosynthesis.Disruption occurs at the followingstage:


A 6-year-old child with suspected activetuberculous process has undergone diagnosticMantoux test. What immunobiologicalpreparation was injected?


During postembryonal haemopoiesisin red bone marrow the cells of one ofthe cellular differons demonstrate gradualdecrease in cytoplasmic basophilia as wellas increase in oxyphilia, the nucleus is beingforced out. Such morphological changes aretypical for the following haemopoiesis type


When taking exams students often havedry mouth. The mechanism that causes thisstate results from the following reflexe

Conditioned sympathetic

A 67-year-old patient with clinicaldiagnosis of chronic bronchitis,pneumosclerosis, and cardiopulmonarydecompensation has the biopsy materialtaken from the suspicious area in his rightbronchus mucosa. Cellular and tissue atypismalong with pearly bodies can be histologicallydetected. What pathologic process ischaracterized by the described histologicalchanges?

Squamous cell carcinoma of bronchuswith keratinization

A microspecimen of heart showsrectangular cells from50 to 120 micrometerslarge with central position of nucleusand developed myofibrils. The cells areconnected by intercalated discs. These cellsare responsible for the following function:

Function of heart contractions

Untrained people often have musclepain after sprints as a result of lactateaccumulation. This can be caused byintensification of the following biochemicalprocess:


Poisoning caused by botulinum toxinthat prevents calcium ions from enteringaxone nerve endings of motoneurons is lifethreateningbecause it can lead to:

Respiratory arrest

Increased HDL levels decrease the riskof atherosclerosis.What is themechanism ofHDL anti-atherogenic action

They remove cholesterol from tissues

It has been found out that one of a pesticidecomponents is sodium arsenate thatblocks lipoic acid. Which enzyme activityis impaired by this pesticide?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

drycleaner’s worker has been found tohave hepatic steatosis. This pathology canbe caused by the disruption of synthesis ofthe following substance


A 35-year-old man with peptic ulcer diseasehas undergone antrectomy. After thesurgery secretion of the following gastrointestinalhormone will be disrupted themost:


Atretic bodies and developed yellowbody can be observed along with folliclesof various orders in an ovary specimen.What stage of ovarian and menstrual cycle ischaracterized by the described ovary condition?


A 16-year-old adolescent is diagnosedwith hereditary UDP (uridine diphosphate)glucuronyltransferase deficiency.Laboratory tests revealed hyperbilirubinemiacaused mostly by increased bloodcontent of the following substance:

Unconjugated bilirubin

Prior to glucose utilization in cells it istransported inside cells from extracellularspace through plasmatic membrane. Thisprocess is stimulated by the followinghormone:


After implantation of a cardiac valvea young man systematically takes indirectanticoagulants. His state was complicatedby hemorrhage.What substance content hasdecreased in blood?


12-year-old patient has white nonpigmentedspots on the skin. The spotsappeared after the patient became 10 yearsold, and they constantly grow. This spotsappeared due to the lack of the followingskin cells:


A group of Ukrainian tourists returningfrom Samarqand was bringing with themgerbils. During examination in customs officeulcers were detected on the skin of theanimals. What protozoa is the most likely tocause the disease in the animals, if mosquitosare the carriers?

Leishmania tropica major

A 5-year-old child has been diagnosedwith acute right distal pneumonia. Sputuminoculation revealed that the causativeagent is resistant to penicillin and senstiveto macrolides. What drug should be prescribed?


To an emergency ward a 7-year-oldchild was delivered in the condition ofallergic shock caused by a bee sting. Highconcentration of histamine is observed inblood. Production of this amine is the resultof the following reaction:


A 65-year-old man suffering from goutcomplains of pain in his kidneys. Ultrasonicexamination revealed kidney stones. Acertain substance in increased concentrationcan cause kidney stones formation. Namethis substance:

Uric acid

Sex chromatin was detected duringexamination of a man’s buccal epithelium.It is characteristic of the followingchromosome disease:

A. Klinefelter’s syndrome

Pure culture of microorganisms wasobtained from pharynx of a child withsuspected diphtheria.Morphologic, tinctorial,cultural, and biochemical propertiesof the microorganisms were studied andrevealed to be characteristic of diphtheriaagents. What investigation should be additionallyperformed to make a conclusion,that these microorganisms are pathogenicdiphtheria bacilli

Determine toxigenic properties

Autopsy of a man who had tuberculosisrevealed a 3x2 cm large cavity in the superiorlobe of the right lung. The cavity wasinterconnected with a bronchus, its wallwas dense and consisted of three layers: theinternal layer was pyogenic, themiddle layerwas made of tuberculous granulation tissueand the external one was made of connectivetissue.What is the most likely diagnosis

Fibrous cavernous tuberculosis

A 7-year-old child has acute onset of disease:temperature rise up to 38oC, rhinitis,cough, lacrimation, and large-spot rash onthe skin. Pharyngeal mucosa is edematous,hyperemic, with whitish spots in the buccalarea. What kind of inflammation causes thechanges in the buccal mucosa?

Catarrhal inflammation

Analysis of sputum taken from a patientwith suspected pneumonia revealed slightlyelongated gram-positive diplococci with pointedopposite ends. What microorganismswere revealed in the sputum

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Serological diagnostics of infectious diseases is based upon specific interaction withantigenes. Specify the serological reactionthat underlies adhesion of microorganismswhen they are affected by specific antibodiesin presence of an electrolyte:

Agglutination reaction

A 4-year-old child was admitted to anorthopaedic department with displaced shinfracture. Bone fragments reposition requiresanalgesia. What drug should be chosen?


Doctors make mostly radial incisionsduring mammary gland surgery. What particularsof anatomical organizationmake suchsurgical technique preferable?

Lobe apexes converge towards nipples

A 41-year-old man has a history ofrecurrent attacks of heartbeats (paroxysms),profuse sweating, headaches. Examinationrevealed hypertension, hyperglycemia,increased basal metabolic rate, andtachycardia. These clinical presentations aretypical for the following adrenal pathology:

Hyperfunction of the medulla

A 12-year-old child has developednephritic syndrome (proteinuria, hematuria,cylindruria) 2 weeks after the case of tonsillitis,which is a sign of affected glomerularbasement membrane in the kidneys. Whatmechanism is the most likely to cause thebasement membrane damage?

Immune complex

Several minutes after a dentist administerednovocaine for local anaesthesia ofa patient’s tooth, the following symptomssharply developed in the patient: fatigue,skin itching. Objectively the following canbe observed: skin hyperemia, tachycardia,BP dropped down to 70/40 mm Hg. Whatkind of allergic reaction is this pathology?


A patient with probable liver abscesswas delivered to a surgical department. Thepatient for a long time had been on anassignment in an African country and hadrecurrent cases of acute gastrointestinal disturbance.What protozoan disease can itbe?


Work in a mine is known to causeinhalation of large amounts of coal dust.Inhaled coal dust can be detected in thefollowing pulmonary cells:

Alveolar macrophages

Electrical activity of neurons is beingmeasured. They fire prior to and at thebeginning of inhalation. Where are theseneurons situated?

Medulla oblongata

Electrocardiogramanalysis demonstratesthat cardiac cycle of a human equals 1second. It means that heart rate per minuteequals:


Glomerular filtration of a person, whohas been starving for a long time, hasincreased by 20%. The most likely cause offiltration changes in the given conditions is:

Decrease of blood plasma oncoticpressure

Cells of healthy liver actively synthesizeglycogen and proteins. What organelles arethe most developed in them?

Granular and agranular endoplasmicreticulum

Atria of an experimental animal weresuperdistended with blood, which resultedin decreased reabsorption of Na+ and waterin renal tubules. This can be explained bythe influence of the following factor on kidneys:

Natriuretic hormone

A patient with hypertensic crisis hasincreased content of angiotensin II in blood.Angiotensin pressor effect is based on:

Contraction of arteriole muscles

A 43-year-old-patient has arterialhypertension caused by increase in cardiacoutput and general peripheral resistance.Specify the variant of hemodynamicdevelopment of arterial hypertension in thegiven case:


A patient has been hospitalisedwith provisional diagnosis of virus Bhepatitis. Serological reaction based oncomplementation of antigen with antibodychemically bound to peroxidase or alkalinephosphatase has been used for disease diagnostics.Name this serological reaction:

Immune-enzyme analysis

A surgeon has to find the commonhepatic duct during operative interventionfor treatment of concrements in the gallducts. The common hepatic duct is locatedbetween the leaves of:

Hepatoduodenal ligament

It is known that the gene responsible fordevelopment of blood groups according toAB0 system has three allele variants. Existenceof the IV blood group can be explainedby the following variability form


When measuring power inputs of aperson by the method of indirect calorimetrythe following results were obtained:oxygen consumption is 1000 ml andcarbon dioxide production is 800 ml per minute.The person under examination has thefollowing respiratory coefficient:


On examination of a newborn boy’sexternal genitalia a fissure in the urethraopening on the inferior surface of his penisis detected.What maldevelopment is it?


Poisoning caused by mercury (II) chloride(corrosive sublimate) occurred in theresult of safety rules violation. In 2 daysthe patient’s diurnal diuresis became 620ml. The patient developed headache, vomiting,convulsions, dyspnea; moist crackles areobserved in the lungs. Name this pathology:

Acute renal failure

For people adapted to high externaltemperatures profuse sweating is notaccompanied by loss of large volumes ofsodium chloride. This is caused by the effectthe following hormone has on the perspiratoryglands:


Along with normal hemoglobin typesthere can be pathological ones in the organismof an adult. Name one of them


Emotional stress causes activation ofhormon-sensitive triglyceride lipase in theadipocytes. What secondary mediator takespart in this process?

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

A patient has been diagnosed withalkaptonuria. Choose an enzyme that cancause this pathology when deficient

Homogentisic acid oxidase

As a result of a continuous chronicencephalopathy a patient has developedspontaneous motions and disorder of torsomuscle tone. These are the symptoms of thedisorder of the following conduction tract

Tractus rubrospinalis

A child is 10 years old. The followingpresentations have developed: sharppain during swallowing, swollen neck, bodytemperature rise up to 39, 0oC, bright-red finelypapular rash all over the body. Pharynxand tonsils are sharply hyperemic ("flamingpharynx"), "crimson tongue". On the tonsilssurface there are isolated greyish necrosisfocuses.What disease it might be?

Scarlet fever

A patient suffers from intermittentfevers and normalizations of bodytemperature that occur during the day. Thetemperature rise is observed regularly everyfourth day. Specify the type of temperaturecurve:

Febris internuttens

A woman with the III (В), Rh- bloodgroup gave birth to a child with the II (А)blood group. The child is diagnosed withhemolytic disease of newborn caused byrhesus incompatibility. What blood groupand Rh can the father have?

II (А), Rh+

patient is diagnosed with hereditarycoagulopathy that is characterised by factorVIII deficiency. Specify the phase of bloodclotting during which coagulation will be disruptedin the given case:

Thromboplastin formation

Angiocardiography of a 60-year-old manrevealed constriction of the vessel located inthe left coronary sulcus of his heart. Namethis pathological vessel:

Ramus circumflexus

A patient complains of pain in the rightlateral abdomen. Palpation revealed adense, immobile, tumor-like formation. Thetumor is likely to be found in the followingpart of the digestive tube:

Colon ascendens

During regular check-up a child isdetected with interrupted mineralization ofthe bones. What vitamin deficiency can bethe cause?


During hystological analysis of thelymph node situated in the posteriorneck triangle of an 18-year-old patienta morphologist detected a clusterof cells including the following: isolatedmultinucleate Reed-Sternberg cells, largeand small Hodgkin’s cells and numerouslymphocytes, isolated plasma cells, eosinophils.What disease has developed in thepatient?


An infant has pylorospasm, weakness,hypodynamia, convulsions as a result offrequent vomiting. What kind of acid-basedisbalance is it?

Excretory alkalosis

A 39-year-old man who had beenoperated for the stomach ulcer died 7days after the surgery. Autopsy revealedthat peritoneal leaves were dull, plephoric,covered with massive yellow-greenish films,the peritoneal cavity contained about 300ml of thick yellow-greenish liquid. Whatpathologic process was revealed in the peritonealcavity?

Fibrinous suppurative peritonitis

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors arewidely used as psychopharmacologicaldrugs. They change the level of nearlyall neurotransmitters in synapses, withthe following neurotransmitter being theexception:


A patient with urolithiasis has developedsevere pain attacks. For pain shock preventionhe was administered an antispasmodicnarcotic analgesic along with atropine.Name this drug:


A patient with acute myocardial infarctionhas been administered heparin as a partof complex therapy. Some time after heparininjection the patient developed hematuria.What heparin antagonist should be injectedto remove the complication?

Protamine sulfate

A 37-year-old woman complains ofheadache, vertigo, troubled sleep, numbnessof limbs. For the last 6 years she has beenworking at a gas-discharge lamp-producingfactory in a lead-processing shop. Blood testfindings: low hemoglobin and RBC level,serum iron concentration exceeds the normby several times. Specify the type of anemia:

Iron refractory anemia

Despite the administration of cardiotonicsand thiazide diuretic a patient withchronic heart failure has persistent edemasand the risk of ascites arose.What medicationshould be administered to enhance thediuretic effect of the administered drugs


Acute renal impairment caused deathof a patient with hemorrhage. Autopsyrevealed enlarged kidneys with broad palepinkcortical layer expressively demarcatedfrom dark-red renal pyramids. Macroscopicexamination revealed lack of epithelial nuclei of convoluted tubules, tubulorrhexis,phlebostasis. The cell nuclei of choroidglomus and straight tubules were present.What pathology is it?


A 3-year-old child with meningealsymptoms died. Postmortem macroscopyof the pia matter revealed miliary noduleswhich were microscopically represented bya focus of caseous necrosis with masses ofepithelioid and lymphoid cells with largecells containing crescent-shaped peripheralnuclei situated between them. Specify thetype of meningitis in the child:


A 66-year-old woman had intravenousinjection of magnesium sulfate solutionto stop hypertensive crisis. However herarterial pressure did not decrease andafter repeated introduction of the samepreparation she developed sluggishness,slow response to stimuli; the patient isunconsciousness and her respiration is inhibited.What preparation is antagonist ofmagnesium sulfate and can remove thesymptoms of its overdose?

Calcium chloride

A patient working at a pig farm complainsof paroxysmal abdominal pain, liquidfeces with mucus and blood, headache,weakness, fever. Examination of largeintestine revealed ulcers from 1 mm up toseveral cm in diameter, feces contained ovalunicellular organisms with cilia. What diseasecan be suspected?


An unconscious patient was deliveredby ambulance to the hospital. On objectiveexamination the patient was found topresent no reflexes, periodical convulsions,irregular breathing. After laboratoryexamination the patient was diagnosed withhepatic coma. Disorders of the centralnervous system develop due to accumulationof the following metabolite:


When playing a child received a hit to thepresternum region.As a result of this traumaan organ located behind the presternumwasdamaged. Name this organ


A child suffers from dry cough. Whatnon-narcotic antitussive drug will relieve thepatient’s condition?

Glaucine hydrochloride

Apatient complains of acute pain attacksin the right lumbar region. During examinationa nephrolithic obturation of the rightureter in the region between its abdominaland pelvic segments has been detected.What anatomical boundary exists betweenthose two segments?

Linea terminalis

A patient has insufficient blood supplyto the kidneys, which has caused thedevelopment of pressor effect due toconstriction of arterial resistance vessels.This condition results from the vessels beingstrongly affected by the following substance:

Angiotensin II

In a village a case of anthrax has beenregistered. Medical services began epidemiologicallyindicated specific prophylaxis ofpopulation against anthrax.What preparationwas used for this purpose?

Live vaccine

Experimental stimulation of thesympathetic nerve branches that innervatethe heart caused an increase in the force ofheart contractions because the membraneof typical cardiomyocytes permitted anincrease in:

Calcium ion entry

According to the results of glucosetolerance test a patient has no disorderof carbohydrate tolerance. Despite thatglucose is detected in the patients’s urine (5mmol/l). The patient has been diagnosed withrenal diabetes. What renal changes causeglucosuria in this case?

Decreased activity of glucose reabsorptionenzymes

Alveolar space of acinus was invaded bybacteria that interacted with the surfactant.This led to the activation of the cells thatare localized in the alveolar walls and on thesurface. Name these cells:

Alveolar macrophages

Parents of a 5-year-old boy report himto have frequent colds that develop intopneumonias, presence of purulent rasheson the skin. Laboratory tests have revealedthe following: absence of immunoglobulinsof any type, and naked cells are absentfrom the lymph nodes punctate. What kindof immune disorder is it?

X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia(Bruton type agammaglobulinemia)

Examination of a 42-year-old patientrevealed a tumour of adenohypophysis.Objectively: the patient’s weight is 117kg, he has moon-like hyperemic face, redbluestriae of skin distension on his belly.Osteoporosis and muscle dystrophy arepresent. AP is 210/140 mm Hg. What is themost probable diagnosis?

Cushing’s disease

2 days after labour a woman developedshock along with DIC syndrome thatcaused her death. Autopsy revealedpurulent endomyometritis, regionalpurulent lymphangitis, lymphadenitis andpurulent thrombophlebitis. There werealso dystrophic alterations and interstitialinflammation of parenchymal organs. Whatis the most likely diagnosis?


In case of alkaptonuria, homogentisicacid is excreted in urine in large amounts.The development of this disease is associatedwith metabolic disorder of the followingamino acid:


When blood circulation in the damagedtissue is restored, lactate accumulation stopsand glucose consumption decelerates. Thesemetabolic changes are caused by activationof the following process:

Aerobic glycolysis

Adoctor examined a patient, studied theblood analyses, and reached a conclusion,that peripheral immunogenesis organs areaffected. What organs are the most likely tobe affected?


doctor asked a patient to make a deepexhalation after a normal inhalation. What muscles contract during such exhalation?

Abdominal muscles

A 4-year-old child with hereditaryrenal lesion has signs of rickets; vitaminD concentration in blood is normal. Whatis the most probable cause of ricketsdevelopment?

Impaired synthesis of calcitriol

In a cat with decerebrate rigidity themuscle tone is to be decreased. This can beachieved by:

Destruction of the vestibular nuclei ofDeiters

Autopsy of a 5-year-old child revealedin the area of vermis of cerebellum a softgreyish-pink node 2 cm in diameter withblurred margins and areas of haemorrhage.Histologically this tumour consisted ofatypical monomorphous small round cellswith large polymorphous nuclei. Whattumour is it?


Surface with an intact toad on it wasinclined to the right. Tone of extensormuscles became reflectory higher due to theactivation of the following receptors

Vestibuloreceptors of utricle and saccule

A patient with high-titer antinuclearantibodies died from progressing renalimpairment. Autopsy revealed mesangioproliferativeglomerulonephritis andabacterial polypous endocarditis. Periarterialbulbar sclerosis was detected in spleenand productive proliferative vasculitis inskin.What is the most likely diagnosis?

Systemic lupus erythematosus

When studying the signs of pulmonaryventilation, reduction of forced expiratoryvolume has been detected. What is the likelycause of this phenomenon?

Obstructive pulmonary disease

specimen of a parenchymal organshows poorly delineated hexagonal lobulessurrounding a central vein, and theinterlobular connective tissue containsembedded triads (an artery, a vein and anexcretory duct).What organ is it?


patient had a trauma that causeddysfunction of motor centres regulatingactivity of head muscles. In what parts ofcerebral cortex can the respective centrenormally be located?

Inferior part of precentral gyrus

During intravenous saline transfusiona patient’s condition deteriorated drastically,and the patient died from asphyxiation.Autopsy revealed acute venous congestionof internal organs with sharp right heartdilatation. When the right ventricle waspunctured underwater, the bubbles escaped.What pathological process occurred in thepatient?

Air embolism

Diseases of respiratory system and circulatorydisorders impair the transport ofoxygen, thus causing hypoxia. Under theseconditions the energy metabolism is carriedout by anaerobic glycolysis. As a result, the following substance is generated andaccumulated in blood:

Lactic acid

Examination of a 6-month-old childrevealed a delay in closure of the occipitalfontanelle.When should it normally close

Before 3 months

Sex chromosomes of a woman didn’tseparate and move to the opposite polesof a cell during gametogenesis (meiosis).The ovum was impregnated with a normalspermatozoon.Which chromosomal diseasecan be found in her child?

Turner’s syndrome

A patient was prescribed loratadine totreat allergic cheilitis. What is the mechanismof action of this drug?

Blockade of H1-histamine receptors

During introduction of local anesthesiaa patient has gone into anaphylactic shock.What drug must be administered to the patient?

Epinephrine hydrochloride

patient has been diagnosed withinfluenza. His condition drasticallyworsened after taking antipyretic drugs. Heis unconscious, AP is 80/50 mm Hg, Ps is140/m, body temperature dropped down to35, 8oC. What complication developed inthis patient?


An alcoholic has alcoholic psychosiswith evident psychomotor agitation. Whatneuroleptic drug should be administered foremergency aid?


During blood transfusion a patienthas developed intravascular erythrocytehemolysis. What kind of hypersensitivitydoes the patient have?

II type (antibody-dependent)

In the course of an experimentthalamocortical tracts of an animal were cut.What type of sensory perception remainedintact?


A 4-year-old child presents withgeneral weakness, sore throat and deglutitiveproblem. After his examination a doctorsuspected diphtheria and sent the materialto a bacteriological laboratory. To determinethe diphtheria causative agent the materialshould be inoculated into the following differentialdiagnostic medium:

Blood tellurite agar

When treating a patient withchronic cardiac failure a doctor detectedbradycardia and deterioration of the patient’sgeneral state. Such condition is causedby cumulative effect of a drug. Which drugof those listed below has cumulative action?


A doctor was addressed by a 30-yearoldman.There is a probability of the patientbeing HIV-positive. To clarify the diagnosisthe doctor proposed to perform polymerasechain reaction. The basic process in this kind of investigation is:

Gene amplification

Due to the use of poor-quality measlesvaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child developed an autoimmunerenal injury. The urine was found to containmacromolecular proteins. What process ofurine formation was disturbed?


A 26-year-old female patient withbronchitis has been administered a broadspectrum antibiotic as a causal treatmentdrug. Specify this drug


A 65-year-old man suddenly lost visionin one eye due to the retinal detachment.The patient underwent enucleation. Histologicalexamination of the removed eyeretina and choroid revealed clusters of atypicalcells with marked polymorphism of cellsand nuclei, with a moderate number of mitosesincluding the pathological ones. Thecell cytoplasm and intercellular mediumcontained brown pigment resulting in positiveDOPA reaction. Perls’ reaction wasnegative. What is the most likely diagnosis?


During determining the blood groupaccording to the AB0 systemwith salt solutionsof monoclonal antibodies agglutinationdid not occur with any of the solutions.Whatblood group is it?

0 (I)

One of the factors that cause obesity isinhibition of fatty acids oxidation due to:

Low level of carnitine

During ventricular systole the cardiacmuscle does not respond to additional stimulationbecause it is in the phase of:

Absolute refractoriness

A patient is diagnosed with acutemorphine hydrochloride intoxication.Prescribe the oxidizing agent for gastriclavage:

Potassium permanganate

During cell division DNA replicationoccurs after a signal is received from thecytoplasm, then a certain portion of theDNA helix unwinds and splits into two individualstrains. What enzyme facilitates thisprocess?


A patient has been given atropinesulfate for rapid relief of spastic colonsymptoms. The use of this drug is contraindicatedduring the followng disease


As an example of specific human parasitesone can name Plasmodium falciparum,human pinworm and some others. Thesource of parasite invasion in these cases isalways a human. Such specific human parasitescause the diseases that are called


In the course of an experiment therehas been increase in nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by increase inconcentration of the following ions that arepresent in the solution around the cell:


An HIV-positive patient’s cause ofdeath is acute pulmonary insufficiencyresulting frompneumonia. Pathohistologicalinvestigation of lungs has revealed interstitialpneumonia, alveolocyte desquamationand methamorphoses: alveolocyteenlargement, large intranuclear inclusionssurrounded by lightly-coloured areas.Transformed cells resemble owl’s eye. Namethe causative agent of pneumonia:


The organisms to be identified have anucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane.Genetic material is concentrated predominantlyin the chromosomes that consistof DNA strands and protein molecules.These cells divide mitotically. Identify theseorganisms:


A 2-year-old boy is diagnosed withDown syndrome. What chromosomalchanges may be the cause of this disease?

Trisomy 21

After a road accident a victim hastachycardia, arterial blood pressure 130/90mm Hg, tachypnoe, the skin is pale anddry, excitation of central nervous system isobserved. What shock stage is the patientmost likely in?


As a result of a mechanical injury anover 10 cm long portion of a peripheralnerve was damaged. This caused an impairmentof the upper limb activity. The patientwas offered nerve transplantation.What glialcells will participate in regeneration andprovide the trophism of the injured limb?

Schwann cells

A 47-year-old man developed intestinalcolic against the background of essentialhypertension. In this situation it would bemost efficient to arrest the colic by administeringdrugs of the following group:

Myotropic antispasmodics

Microscopy of a female patient’s swabsmade from vaginal secretion revealed gramnegativebean-shaped diplococci. Whatprovisional diagnosis can be made


A 54-year-old woman was brought to acasualty department after a car accident. Atraumatologist diagnosed her with multiplefractures of the lower extremities. What kindof embolism is most likely to develop inthis case?


A therapeutist has an appointmentwith a 40-year-old patient complaining ofrecurrent pain attacks in his hallux jointsand their swelling. Urine analysis revealedits marked acidity and pink colour. Whatsubstances can cause such changes in theurine?

Uric acid salt

A 30-year-old man with diabetesmellitus type I was hospitalised. Thepatient is comatose. Laboratory testsrevealed hyperglycemia and ketonemia.What metabolic disorder can be detectedin this patient?

Metabolic acidosis

A 15-year-old patient has fastingplasma glucose level 4,8 mmol/l, one hourafter glucose challenge it becomes 9,0mmol/l, in 2 hours it is 7,0 mmol/l, in 3hours it is 4,8 mmol/l. Such parameters arecharacteristic of:

Subclinical diabetes mellitus

A patient has undergone surgicalremoval of a cavitary liver lesion 2 cmin diameter. It was revealed that thecavity wall was formed by dense fibrousconnective tissue; the cavity containedmurky thick yellowish-green fluid with anunpleasant odor. Microscopically the fluidconsisted mainly of polymorphonuclearleukocytes. What pathological process arethese morphological changes typical for?

Chronic abscess

A patient consulted a physician aboutchest pain, cough, fever. Roentgenographyof lungs revealed eosinophilic infiltrateswhich were found to contain the larvae.What kind of helminthiasis are thesepresentations typical for?


During appendectomy a patient hadthe a. appendicularis ligated. This vesselbranches from the following artery

A. Ileocolica

A 28-year-old patient undergoingtreatment in a pulmonological departmenthas been diagnosed with pulmonaryemphysema caused by splitting of alveolarseptum by tissular tripsin. The disease iscaused by the congenital deficiency of the following protein:

α1-proteinase inhibitor

A patient, who has been suffering fora long time from intestine disbacteriosis,has increased hemorrhaging caused by disruptionof posttranslationalmodification ofblood-coagulation factors II, VII, IХ, and Хin the liver. What vitamin deficiency is thecause of this condition?


During a surgery for femoral hernia asurgeon operates within the boundaries offemoral trigone. What structure makes upits upper margin?

Lig. inguinale

An obstetrician-gynecologist measurespelvis size of a pregnant woman. A caliperwas used to measure the distance betweenthe two iliac crests. What measurement oflarge pelvis was made?

Distantia cristarum

A patient has arterial hypertension.What long-acting drug from the group ofcalcium channel blockers should be prescribed?


A patient has been diagnosedwith URTI. Blood serum containsimmunoglobulin M. What stage of infectionis it?


A43-year-old patient suffers fromacutepancreatitis with disrupted common bileduct patency. What condition can developin this case?

Mechanical jaundice

A patient has a tumor of the eyesockettissues behind the eyeball. Disruption ofaccomodation and pupil constriction isobserved. What anatomical structure isdamaged?

Ganglion ciliare

Lymphocytes and other cells of ourbody synthesize universal antiviral agentsas a response to viral invasion. Name theseprotein factors


A patient consulted a dentist aboutrestricted mouth opening (trismus).Anamnesis states a stab wound of the lowerextremity. What infection may cause thesesymptoms?


A patient has damaged spinal cord whitematter in the middle area of the posteriorwhite column, disrupted proprioceptivesensibility of the lower limb joints andmuscles.What fibers are affected?

Fasciculus gracilis

In an elderly person the change in heartforce and vessels physical properties weredetected; they can be clearly observed ongraphic recording of carotid pulse waves.What method was applied?


A patient has developed paroxysmalventricular tachycardia against thebackground of cardiac infarction.What antiarrhythmicdrug should be chosen to avoidlowering cardiac output?

Lidocaine hydrochloride

Electrocardiogram of a young manreveals deviation of his electrical axis ofheart to the left. This phenomenon can becaused by:

Hypersthenic body type

A 6-year-old child suffers from delayedgrowth, disrupted ossification processes,decalcification of the teeth.What can be thecause?

Vitamin D deficiency

A 30-year-old patient’s blood testrevealed the following: erythrocyte countis 6 · 1012/l, hemoglobin is 10,55ммоль/l.Vaquez’s disease was diagnosed. Name theleading part of pathogenesis:

Neoplastic erythroid hyperplasia

A 25-year-old patient complains ofincreasing pain in his leg muscles occurringduring walking and forcing him to makefrequent stops. Objectively: skin of legsis pale, no hair-covering, toenails are withtrophic changes, no pulsation of pedalarteries. The most probable cause of thesechanges is:


This year influenza epidemic ischaracterised by patients’ body temperaturevarying from 36, 9oC to 37, 9oC. Such feveris called:


A woman complains of visual impairment.Examination revealed obesity in thepatient and her fasting plasma glucose levelis hyperglycemic. What diabetes complicationcan cause visual impairment/blindness?


Prolonged treatment of hypothyroidismhas caused general dystrophy, dental caries,tachycardia, tremor of extremities. Whatdrug is the cause of these side effects?


A 3-year-old child has eaten somestrawberries. Soon he developed a rashand itching. What was found in the child’sleukogram?


A patient has been found to have amarked dilatation of the saphenous veinsin the region of anterior abdominal wallaround the navel. This is symptomatic ofpressure increase in the following vessel

V. portae hepatis

Cholesterol content in blood serumof a 12-year-old boy is 25 mmol/l.Anamnesis states hereditary familialhypercholesterolemia caused by synthesisdisruption of receptor-related proteins for:

Low-density lipoproteins

Obesity is a common disease. Theaim of its treatment is to lower contentof neutral fats in the body. What hormonsensitiveenzyme is the most important forintracellular lipolysis?

Triacylglycerol lipase

40-year-old woman was diagnosedwith glomerulonephritis based on her clinicalsymptoms and the results of urineanalysis. Anamnesis states chronic tonsillitis.What microorganisms are the most likelycause for her kidney damage?


A man is suffering from diarrhea. Insummer he spent his vacation in the southat the sea coast. Bacteria with the followingproperties were detected in his feces: gramnegativecurved mobile monotrichous bacillithat do not produce spores or capsules.They are undemanding to nutrient mediumbut require alkaline reaction (рН 8,5-09,5).Described are the agents of the followingenteric infection:


A patient is diagnosed with chronicatrophic gastritis attended by deficiency ofCastle’s intrinsic factor.What type of anemiadoes the patient have?

B12-deficiency anemia

A pregnant woman was detected withIgM to rubella virus. An obstetriciangynecologistrecommended therapeuticabortion due to the high risk of teratogenicaffection of the fetus. Detection of IgM wasof great importance as it is these specificimmunoglobulins that:

Indicate recent infection

A patient is diagnosed with cardiacinfarction. Blood test for cardiospecificenzymes activity was performed. Which ofthe enzymes has three isoforms?

Creatine kinase

A 50-year-old man, who has beensuffering from chronic hepatic failure forseveral years, has developed ascites. Whatis the main mechanism of this disorderdevelopment?

Increased pressure in portal vein system

A 30-year-old man has sustained aninjury to his thorax in a traffic incident, whichcaused disruption of his external respiration.What type of ventilatory difficultycan be observed in the given case?

Restrictive extrapulmonary ventilatoryimpairment

A 53-year-old man suffering from diabetesmellitus has developed a painfulconical induration, bluish-red with yellowcenter, on the skin of his neck. Such changesare characteristic of:


Biochemical analysis of an infant’serythrocytes revealed evident glutathioneperoxidase deficiency and low concentrationof reduced glutathione. What pathologicalcondition can develop in this infant?

Hemolytic anemia

In winter a 3-year-old child hassharp rise of body temperature up to40oC. Hemorrhagic rash is observed onthe skin and mucosa. Bean-shaped gramnegativemicroorganisms situated in pairsare detected in the blood. What provisionaldiagnosis can be made?


Microelectrode analysis of nerve fiberbiolectrical activity revealed, that itsmembrane potential equals 90 mV. Its initialrest potential was 85 mV. What processoccurs in this case?


Parkinson’s disease is caused by disruptionof dopamine synthesis. What brainstructure synthesizes this neurotransmitter?

Substantia nigra

Determining a patient’s blood group withmonoclonal test-reagents revealed positiveagglutination reaction to anti-A and anti-B reagents, and negative reaction to anti-D.What blood group does this patient have

IV (АВ) Rh−

A patient visited a dentist to extract atooth. After the tooth had been extracted,bleeding from the tooth socket continuedfor 15 minutes. Anamnesis states that thepatient suffers from active chronic hepatitis.What phenomenon can extend the time ofhemorrhage?

Decrease of fibrinogen content in blood

Name the halogen-containing antisepticwith fungicidal properties, which is used totreat dermatomycosis

Iodine solution

Due to severe pain syndrome a patientwas prescribed a narcotic analgesic. Namethis drug:


During pathomorphological kidneyinvestigation of a patient, who for a longtime had been suffering from osteomyelitisand died from progressing renal failure,the following was revealed: depositsof homogeneous eosinophilic massesin glomerular mesangium, arterial andarteriolar walls, and stroma, which becamered when stained with Congo red. Whatpathological process is this?


microslide presents a tissue withspherical cells, each of them containing alarge fat drop covered with thin cytoplasmlayer in its center. Nucleus is compressedand situated at the cell periphery. What tissueis it?

White adipose tissue

To treat rheumatoid arthritis a65-year-old woman was prescribed animmunosuppressive hormonal drug as a partof her complex therapy. Name this drug


An experiment was aimed at testingflexor reflex in a spinal frog, which wasinitiated by simultaneous stimulation withisolated pre-threshold electrical impulses.The frequency of those impulses was such,that the reflex occurred.What process in thenerve centers can be observed during thisexperiment?

Temporal summation

A patient diagnosed with acutedysentery has been treated for 3 days in aninfectious diseases hospital. On admissionthere were complaints of high temperature,stomachache and fluid excrements withmucus as often as 8-10 times a day. Whatsample should be taken for analysis?


An 18-year-old woman has body disproportion,wing-like folds on the skin ofher neck, underdeveloped ovaries, nucleiof her buccal epithelium cells have no Barrbodies. Dermatoglyphics method revealedthat her adt angle is 66o. What provisionaldiagnosis can be made in this case?

Turner’s syndrome

A 27-year-old patient with injury tothe neck has lost approximately 30% ofthe blood volume. The patient’s condition issevere: blood pressure is 60/40 mmHg, heartrate is 140/min., respiratory rate is 30/min.,conscious. Characterize the condition of thepatient’s circulatory system:

Hypovolemic shock

A soldier with explosion-caused traumawas delivered to a hospital. Examinationrevealed his tympanic membrane to be intact. What defense reflex prevented thetympanic membrane from rupturing

Contraction of m. tensor tympani

A person with the fourth blood group(genotype IAIB) has in erythrocytes bothantigen A controlled by allele IA andantigen B controlled by allele IB. Thisphenomenon is an example of the followinggene interation:


During narcosis a patient developed arisk of cerebral edema.What drug should beadministered in this case


During surgery performed in abdominalcavity a surgeon located ligament of liverstretching from anterior abdominal wall(navel) to inferior surface of liver. What ligamentis it?

Round ligament of the liver

9-year-old boy has acute onset of disease:sore throat, body temperature rise upto 39, 5oC; on the second day diffuse skinrash was detected all over his skin exept fornasolabial triangle. On examination of oralcavity: crimson tongue, "flaming pharynx",necrotic tonsillitis. What diagnosis is themost likely?

Scarlet fever

A 49-year-old man complains ofpain in his metatarsophalangeal jointsand joint deformation. In blood hyperuricemycan be observed. X-ray has revealedmetatarsophalangeal joint space narrowing,erosion, periarticular calcification ofthe both joints, osteoporosis. Microscopyhas revealed inflammatory granulomatousreaction surrounding necrotizing masses inthe area of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.Choose the most likely diagnosis:

Gout (podagra)

Granulomas containing lymphocytesand macrophages were detected duringanalysis of skin biopsy material. Amongmacrophages there are large cells with fatinclusions, which contain microorganismsin spheric packages (Virchow’s cells). Thefollowing disease is based on the describedtype of hypersensitivity:


A patient with suspected necrosis ofthe upper abdominal cavity organs was deliveredto a surgical department. This conditionis associated with acute circulatory disturbanceof the following vessel:

Tuncus coeliacus

Name the drug that inhibits excretoryfunction of pancreas during treatment ofacute pancreatitis

Contrykal (Aprotinin

An 18-year-old patient has developedcandidiasis after the case of pneumoniatreated with β-lactam antibiotic. What antimycoticagent should be prescribed


During autopsy of a 9-month-old girl’sbody, who died due to severe pneumoniacomplicated with sepsis, lack of thymus isobserved. In the lymph nodes the lymphoidfollicles and cortical substance are absent;follicles of spleen are reduced in size with no light zones and plasma cells. What is thecause of such structural changes?

Thymus agenesis

A patient with femoral neck fracture,who for a long time had to remain in bedin a forced (supine) position, has developeddark-brown lesions along the backbone; softtissues are swollen, in the areas of macerationthere is a foul-smelling liquid. Name theclinicopathologic type of necrosis


A woman poisoned with unknownsubstance was hospitalised in a toxicologicaldepartment. What group of drugs canbe administered to decrease absorption andintroduction of the poison to her body?


A patient after disrupted cerebral circulationhas developed paralysis. Choosethe anticholinesterase drug to be prescribedin this case:


50-year-old woman is being treatedfor shingles in a neurology unit.What reactivatedvirus causes this disease

Varicella zoster virus (chickenpox virus

During examination of a patient adoctor should use anatomical division ofanterior abdominal wall into regions formore precise diagnostics. How many suchregions can abdomen be divided into?