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200 Cards in this Set

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A 30-year-old patient complainsabout having abdominal pain and diarrheafor five days; body temperaturerise up to 37, 5oC along with chills. Theday before a patient had been in aforest and drunk from an open waterreservoir. Laboratory analyses enabledto make the following diagnosis: amebicdysentery. What is the drug of choice forits treatment


Quite often the cause of secondaryimmunodeficiency is an infectioninvolvement, when the causative agentspropagate directly in the cells of immunesystem and destroy it. The following diseasesare characterized by:

Infectious mononucleosis, AIDS

Heart rate of a 30-year-old man underemotional stress reached 112 bpm. Thereason for the heart rate increase isthe altered condition of the followingconducting system of heart:

Sinoatrial node

Sanitary bacteriological research onwater by the membrane filter methodrevealed two red colonies on a membranefilter (Endo agar) through which 500 mlof analyzed water were passed. Calculatethe coli index and coli titer of the analyzedwater:

4 and 250

A 46-year-old female patient hasa continuous history of progressivemuscular (Duchenne’s) dystrophy. Whichblood enzyme changes will be of diagnosticvalue in this case?

Creatine phosphokinase

Extensive thromboembolic infarctionof the left cerebral hemispheres,large septic spleen, immunocomplexglomerulonephritis, ulcers on the edges ofthe aortic valves, covered with polypousthrombus with colonies of staphylococcuswere revealed on autopsy of the youngman who died in coma. What diseasecaused cerebral thromboemboly?

Septic bacterial endocarditis

A 10-year-old girl has a history ofrepeated acute respiratory viral infection.After recovering she presents with multiplepetechial hemorrhages on the sites offriction from clothing rubbing the skin.What kind of hypovitaminosis has this girl?


Autopsy of a patient who sufferedfrom croupous pneumonia and died frompneumococcal sepsis revealed 900 ml ofturbid greenish-yellow liquid in the rightpleural cavity. Pleural leaves are dull,plephoric. Name the clinicopathologicalform of inflammation in the pleural cavity:


Researchers isolated 5 isoenzymicforms of lactate dehydrogenase from thehuman blood serum and studied theirproperties. What property indicates thatthe isoenzymic forms were isolated fromthe same enzyme?

Catalyzation of the same reaction

Apatient suffering fromstomach ulcerhas been treated with an antacid drugalmagel. For acute bronchitis treatment hewas prescribed the antibiotic methacycline.However within next 5 days thefever didn’t fall, cough and sputumnature remained unchanged. A physiciancame to the conclusion that the drugswere incompatible. What type of drugincompatibility is the case?

Pharmacokinetic, absorption stage

ECG of a 44-year-old patient showssigns of hypertrophy of both ventriclesand the right atrium. The patient was diagnosedwith the tricuspid valve insufficiency.What pathogenetic variant of cardiacdysfunction is usually observed in case ofsuch insufficiency?

Heart overload by volume

Proserin increases skeletal muscle tonewhen given systematically. Halothaneinduces relaxation of skeletal musclesand reduces proserin effects. What isthe nature of proserin and halothaneinteraction

Indirect functional antagonism

The minute blood volume in a patientwith transplanted heart has increased as aresult of physical activity. What regulativemechanism is responsible for thesechanges?


An aged man had raise of arterialpressure under a stress. It was caused byactivation of:

Sympathoadrenal system

Autopsy of a man who died fromchronic cardiovascular collapse revealed"tiger heart". Sidewards of endocardiuma yellowish-white banding can be seen;myocardium is dull, dark-yellow. Whatprocess caused this pathology?

Fatty parenchymatous degeneration

55-year-old male patient was hospitalisedto a surgical clinic for suspectedsepticemia. What material should betaken for analysis?

Blood, sugar broth

A patient has pellagra. Interrogationrevealed that he had lived mostly on maizefor a long time and eaten little meat.This disease had been caused by the deficitof the following substance in the maize:


During examination of a 6-yearoldchild a doctor revealed greyishfilms on the pharyngeal tonsils.Their removal provoked moderatehaemorrhage. Bacterioscopy revealedgram-positive clublike bacteria. Whatsymptoms will develop in this child withinthe next few days if no specific treatmentis provided?

Toxic lesions of myocard, liver andkidney

A 46-year-old patient consulted adoctor complaining about joint pain thatbecomes stronger the day before theweather changes. Blood examination revealed an increased concentration ofuric acid. The most probable cause of thedisease is the intensified disintegration ofthe following substance:

Adenosine monophosphate

12 hours after an accute attack ofretrosternal pain a patient presented ajump of aspartate aminotransferase activityin blood serum. What pathology is thisdeviation typical for?

Myocardium infarction

After a trauma of the upper thirdof the anterior forearm surface a patientpresents with difficult pronation, weakeningof palmar flexor muscles and alteredskin sensitivity of 1-3 fingers. Which nerveis damaged?

n. medianus

A 2-year-old child with mental andphysical retardation has been deliveredto a hospital. He presents with frequentvomiting after having meals. There isphenylpyruvic acid in urine. Whichmetabolism abnormality is the reason forthis pathology?

Amino-acid metabolism

A 38-year-old man died in the attemptof lifting weight. He had collaptoid state.Autopsy revealed an extensive aneurismrupture of thoracic aorta. He sufferedfrom visceral syphilis during his lifetime.What pathological process causedweakness of aortic wall, its dilatation andrupture?

Vanishing of elastic fibers

patient suffering from myastheniahas been administered proserin. After itsadministration the patient has got nausea,diarrhea, twitch of tongue and skeletalmuscles. What drug would help to eliminatethe intoxication?

Atropine sulfate

A man died from an acute infectiousdisease accompanied by fever, jaundice,haemorrhagic rash on the skinand mucous membranes as well as byacute renal insufficiency. Histologicalexamination of renal tissue (stained byRomanovsky-Giemsa method) revealedsome convoluted bacteria looking likeC und S letters. What bacteria wererevealed?


46-year-old patient suffering fromthe diffuse toxic goiter underwent resectionof the thyroid gland. After thesurgery the patient presents with appetiteloss, dyspepsia, increased neuromuscularexcitement. The body weight remainedunchanged. Body temperature is normal.Which of the following has caused such acondition in this patient?

Reduced production of parathormone

Medical examination at the militaryregistration and enlistment officerevealed that a 15-year-old boy was high,with eunuchoid body proportions,gynecomastia, female pattern of pubichair distribution. The boy had also fatdeposits on the thighs, no facial hair, highvoice, subnormal intelligence quotient.Which karyotype corresponds with this disease?

47, XXY

A doctor recommends a patient withduodenal ulcer to drink cabbage andpotato juice after the therapy course.Which substances contained in thesevegetables help to heal and prevent theulcers?

Vitamin U

Urine analysis of a 12-year-old boyreveals high concentration of all aliphaticamino acids with the highest excretionof cystine and cysteine. US of kidneysrevealed kidney concrements. What is themost likely pathology?


A 5-year-old child has been diagnosedwith acute right distal pneumonia.Sputum inoculation revealed that thecausative agent is resistant to penicillin,but it is senstive to macrolides.What drugshould be prescribed?


Autopsy of a 73-year-old man who hadbeen suffering from the coronary heart diseasealong with cardiac insufficiency fora long time revealed: nutmeg liver, browninduration of lungs, cyanotic indurationof kidneys and spleen. What kind of circulationdisorder was the cause of sucheffects?

General chronic venous congestion

patient suffering from chronichyperacidic gastritis takes an antaciddrug for heartburn elimination. After itsingestion the patient feels better but at thesame time he has a sensation of stomachswelling.Which of the following drugs mightbe the cause of such side effect?

Sodium hydrocarbonate

A 30-year-old male patient with acutepancreatitis has been found to have adisorder of cavitary protein digestion.The reason for such condition can be thehyposynthesis and hyposecretion of thefollowing enzyme


A patient has been given high dosesof hydrocortisone for a long time. Thiscaused atrophy of one of the adrenalcortex zones. Which zone is it?


A victim of an accident has bleedingfrom the soft tissues anteriad the mandibularangle. Which vessel should be ligatedfor the bleeding arrest?


Microscopic examination of a gramstainedscrape from a patient’s tonguerevealed oval, round, elongated chains ofdark-violet gemmating cells.What diseasecan be caused by this causative agent?


The greater amount of nitrogen isexcreted from the organism in form ofurea. Inhibition of urea synthesis andaccumulation of ammonia in blood and tissues are induced by the decreased activityof the following liver enzyme

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

A 36-year-old female patient has a historyof collagen disease. Urine analysis islikely to reveal an increased concentrationof the following metabolite:


A coprological survey revealed lightcoloredfeces containing drops of neutralfat. The most likely reason for this conditionis the disorder of:

Bile inflow into the bowel

The secretion of whixh hypophysialhormones will be inhibited after takingthe oral contraceptives containing sexhormones?

Gonadotropic hormone

A histological specimen of a kidneyshows a part of the distal tubule goingbetween the afferent and efferent arteriole.The cells building the tubule wall havedense nuclei; basal membrane is absent.Such structural formation is called:

Macula densa

During preparation of a patient to aheart surgery it was necessary to measurepressure in heart chambers. In one ofthem pressure varied from 0 mm Hg upto 120 mm Hg within one cardiac cycle.What heart chamber is it?

Left ventricle

A patient with essential hypertensionhas a high rate of blood renin. Whichof antihypertensive drugs should bepreferred?


In order to determine toxigenicity ofdiphtheria bacilli a strip of filter paperimpregnated with antitoxic diphtherialserumwas put on the dense nutrientmedium.There were also inoculated a microbalculture under examination and astrain that is known to be toxigenic. Ifthe microbal culture under examinationproduces exotoxin, this wil result information of:

Precipitin lines

It was revealed that T-lymphocyteswere affected by HIV. Virus enzyme -reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependentDNA-polymerase) - catalyzes thesynthesis of:

DNA on the matrix of virus mRNA

Microscopical examination of anenlarged cervical lymph node revealedblurring of its structure, absence oflymphoid follicles; all the microscopic fieldsshowed cells with roundish nuclei andthin limbus of basophil cytoplasm. It isknown from the clinical data that othergroups of lymph nodes are also enlargedas well as spleen and liver. What diseasemight be suspected?

Lymphoid leukosis

A 38-year-old patient came to atraumatology centre and complainedabout an injury of his right hand. Objectively:the patient has a cut wound in theregion of the thenar eminence on the righthand; distal phalanx of the I finger cannotbe flexed. What muscle was injured?

Long flexor muscle of thumb

Lung ventilation in a person isincreased as a result of physical activity.Which of the following indices of theexternal respiration is much higher thanin a state of rest?

Respiratory volume

As a result of activation of the ionchannels of the external membrane therest potential of an excitable cell hasgreatly increased. What channels wereactivated?

Potassium channels

As a result of continuous starvationthe glomerular filtration rate hasincreased by 20%. The most probablecause of the glomerular filtration alterationunder the mentioned conditions is:

Decrease in the oncotic pressure ofblood plasma

patient with cardiogenic shock,hypotension, asphyxia and edemata wasgiven an injection of non-glycosidic cardiotonic.What drug was injected?


After transfusion of 200 ml of blood apatient presented with body temperaturerise up to 37, 9oC. Which of the followingsubstances is the most likely cause oftemperature rise?


A man who is riding the carouselpresents with increased heart rate, sweating,nausea. This condition is caused primarilyby the stimulation of the followingreceptors:

Vestibular ampullar

A worker of a cattle farm fell acutelyill and then died from the progressingintoxication. Autopsy revealed enlarged,hyposthenic spleen of dark-cherry colourwhen dissected; excessive pulp scraping.At the base and fornix of brain pia matersare edematous, soaked with blood, darkred("scarlet hat"). Microscopic examinationrevealed serous haemorrhagicinflammation of brain tissues and tunicsalong with destruction of small vesselwalls.What is the most likely diagnosis?


Which of the listed diuretic agents WILLNOT have diuretic effect on a patientwith Addison’s disease?


A man with a wound of his limb thathad been suppurating for a long time diedfrom intoxication. Autopsy revealedextreme emaciation, dehydration, brown atrophy of liver, myocardium, spleen andcross-striated muscles as well as renalamyloidosis. What diagnosis correspondswith the described presentations?


This drug has a destructive effect onerythrocytic forms of malarial plasmodiaand dysenteric amoebae. It is used fortreatment and prevention of such diseasesas malaria, amebiasis and interstitial disease.What drug is it?


A patient has an increased pyruvateconcentration in blood, most of it isexcreted with the urine. What kind of avitaminosishas this patient


A child suffers from drug idiosyncrasy.What is the cause of such reaction?

Hereditary enzymopathy

One of the parents is suspected ofhaving phenylketonuria recessive gene.What is the risk of giving birth to a childwith inborn phenylketonuria?


Pulmonary examination of a patientwho has worked as a stone grinderfor 9 years revealed small dense roundishnodules consisting of connective tissue.The nodules were found to haveperipheral macrophages. Such pulmonaryalterations are indicative of the followingdisease:


A 12-year-old teenager has significantlyput off weight within 3 months;glucose concentration rose up to 50 millimole/l. He fell into a coma. What is themain mechanism of its development?


Which way of heat emission by thebodies of greenhouse workers is the mosteffective at the temperature of 36oCdegrees and relative humidity of 70%?

Liquid evaporation

Examination of a 70-year-old patientrevealed insulin-dependent diabetes.What drug should be administered?


A disaster fighter at a nuclear powerplant developed hemorrhagic syndromeon the background of acute radiation disease.What is the most important factorof syndrome pathogenesis?


Jaundice treatment involves administrationof barbiturates inducing thesynthesis of UDP-glucuronyl transferase.A medicinal effect is caused by theproduction of:

Direct reacting (conjugated) bilirubin

A histological specimen shows ablood vessel. Its inner coat is composedby endothelium, subendothelium andinternal elastic membrane. The middlecoat is enriched with smooth myocytes.Such morphological characteristics aretypical for the following vessel:

Muscular-type artery

An 18-year-old man was delivered tothe hospital after a road accident. Examinationat the traumatological departmentrevealed multiple injuries of soft tissues offace in the region of the medial eye angle.The injuries causedmassive haemorrhage.What arterial anastomosis might havebeen damaged in this region?

a. carotis externa et a. carotis interna

Autopsy of a 75-year-old man with along history of atherosclerosis revealed agrey irregular-shaped focus of loose consistencyin the right parietotemporal regionof brain. What is the most likely cause ofthis process?

Thrombosis of the right medial cerebralartery

Autopsy of a man with a malignantstomach tumour who had diedfrom cancer intoxication revealedin the posteroinferior lung fields somedense, grayish-red irregular foci protrudingabove the section surface. Microscopicexamination revealed exudate containinga large amount of neutrophils in thelumen and walls of small bronchi andalveoles. Such pulmonary alterations indicatethe following disease:

Acute purulent bronchopneumonia

A surgeon has to find the commonhepatic duct during the operativeintervention on account of concrements inthe gall ducts. The common hepatic ductis located between the leaves of:

Hepatoduodenal ligament

Autopsy of a 1,5-year-old childrevealed haemorrhagic skin rash,moderate hyperaemia and edema ofnasopharyngeal mucous membrane, smallhaemorrhages in the mucous membranesand internal organs; dramatic dystrophicalterations in liver and myocardium; acutenecrotic nephrosis; massive haemorrhagesin the adrenal glands. What disease arethese alterations the most typical for?

Meningococcal infection

A 75-year-old-female patient withcomplaints of visual impairment hasbeen delivered to the ophthalmologicdepartment. Objective examinationrevealed a brain tumor in area of the leftoptic tract. The patient has a visual fielddefect in the following area:

Left half of both eyes retina

A patient with coronary diseasehas been diagnosed with myocardialhypertrophy, tachycardia and a decreasein minute blood volume. What is theleading mechanism of cardiac hystiocytedamage in this case?

Damage of specific membrane pumps

Blood analysis of a patient withjaundice reveals conjugated bilirubinemia,increased concentration of bile acids.There is no stercobilinogen in urine.What type of jaundice is it?

Obstructive jaundice

While studying maximally spiralizedchromosomes of human karyotype theprocess of cell division was stopped in thefollowing phase:


man is being measured power inputson an empty stomach, in the lying position,under conditions of physical andpsychic rest at a comfortable temperature.Power inputs will reach the maximum at:

5-6 p.m.

When measuring power inputs of aman by the method of indirect calorimetrythe following results were obtained:1000 ml oxygen consumption and 800 mlcarbon dioxide liberation per minute. Theman under examination has the followingrespiratory coefficient:


A newborn child with pylorostenosishas often repeating vomiting accompaniedby apathy, weakness, hypertonicity,sometimes convulsions. What disorderform of acid-base balance is it?

Nongaseous alkalosis

A concentrated solution of sodiumchloride was intravenously injected to ananimal. This caused decreased reabsorptionof sodium ions in the renal tubules. Itis the result of the following changes ofhormonal secretion:

Aldosterone reduction

A patient has been diagnosed withalkaptonuria. Choose an enzyme whosedeficiency can be the reason for thispathology:

Homogentisic acid oxidase

A patient consulted an urologist aboutpain during urination. Analysis of his urinetaken in the daytime revealed eggs witha characteristic sharp point. It is knownfrom the anamnesis that the patient hasrecently returned from Australia. What isthe most likely diagnosis?

Urogenital schistosomiasis

A 49-year old female patient has limitationof left limbs arbitrary movements.Muscular tonus of left hand and leg isoverstrained and spasmodic, local tendonreflexes are strong, pathological reflexesare presented. What is the most likelydevelopment mechanism of hypertensionand hyperreflexia?

Reduction of descending inhibitoryinfluence

A 35-year-old patient complains abouthaving severe rhinitis and loss of senseof smell for a week. Objectively: the nasalcavity contains a lot of mucus covering themucous membrane and blocking olfactoryreceptors. In what region of the nasal cavityare these receptors located?

Superior nasal concha

A 10-year-old child had the mantouxtuberculin test administered. 48 hourslater a papule up to 8 mm in diameterappeared on the site of the injection.What type of hypersensitivity reactiondeveloped after the tuberculin injection?

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction

Vitamin B1 deficiency causes disturbanceof oxidative decarboxylationof α-ketoglutaric acid. This leads tothe impaired synthesis of the followingcoenzyme:

Thiamine pyrophosphate

Examination of a pregnant womanhaving Rh-negative blood revealed highlevel of antierythrocytic antibodies.For its reduction she was implanted withher husband’s Rh-positive skin graft.The graft was rejected in two weeks.Its microscopic examination revealed circulatorydisturbance, edema and cellularinfiltration with lymphocytes, neutrophilsand macrophages predominance. What isthe most likely pathology?

Graft immunity

A 17-year-old girl took a high doseof phenobarbital to commit a suicide.An ambulance doctor cleansed herstomach and gave her an intravenousinjection of bemegride and sodiumhydrocarbonate solution. What was sodiumhydrocarbonate injected for?

For increasing renal excretion ofphenobarbital

While examining the oral cavity astomatologist revealed inflammation ofpapillae on the border of the medianand posterior third of the back of tongue.What papillae are inflamed?

Papillae vallatae

A patient is 44 years old. Laboratoryexamination of his blood revealed thatcontent of proteins in plasma was 40 g/l.What influence will be exerted on thetranscapillary water metabolism?

Filtration will be increased, reabsorption- decreased

A patient has corestenoma. What isthe reason of such condition?

Increased tonus of parasympatheticcentres

46-year-old man had a bulgingdark macula on skin that caused no discomfort.With time it began to increasein size and became painful. It turned darkbrown and there was a nodule on palpation.Histological examination of tissuesrevealed spindle and polymorphous cellswith multiple mitoses. Their cytoplasmcontained brown pigment. What tumouris it?


The patient with complaints ofpermanent thirst applied to the doctor.Hyperglycemia, polyuria and increasedconcentration of 17-ketosteroids in theurine were revealed. What disease is themost likely?

Steroid diabetes

A 32-year-old patient consulted adoctor about the absence of lactationafter parturition. Such disorder might beexplained by the deficit of the followinghormone:


An infant has pylorospasm, weakness,hypodynamia, convulsions as a result offrequent vomiting.What kind of acid-basedisbalance is it?

Excretory alkalosis

A weightlifter has a disruption ofthoracic lymphatic duct as a result of liftinga weight. Choose the most likely siteof injury:

In the region of aortic hiatus

Awoman suffering from osteochondrosishas acute pain in her humeral articulationthat gets worse when she tries to abducther shoulder. These symptoms might becaused by damage of the following nerve:

Axillary nerve

Pyeloureterography X-ray photoshowed a renal pelvis with minor calycesonly (major calyces were absent). Whatform of urinary tracts of a kidney wasrevealed?


A female patient presents withendocrine dysfunction of follicular cellsof the ovarian follicles resulting froman inflammation. The synthesis of thefollowing hormone will be inhibited


A 19-year-old female patient hashad low haemoglobin rate of 90-95 g/l sincechildhood. Blood count results obtainedafter hospitalisation are as follows:erythrocytes - 3, 2 · 1012/l, Hb- 85 g/l,colour index - 0,78; leukocytes - 5, 6 · 109/l,platelets - 210 · 109/l. Smear examinationrevealed anisocytosis, poikilocytosisand target cells. Reticulocyte rate is 6%.Iron therapy was ineffective. What bloodpathology corresponds with the describedclinical presentations?


A liquidator of a breakdown at anuclear power plant who was irradiatedcomplained about vomiting that occurs allof a sudden. What medication should beprescribed?


A patient with acute myocardialinfarction has been administered heparin as a part of complex therapy. Sometime after heparin injection the patientdeveloped hematuria. What heparinantagonist should be injected in order tomanage the complication?

Protamine sulfate

A45-year-old patient was admitted tothe cardiological department. ECG data:negative P wave overlaps QRS complex,diastolic interval is prolonged afterextrasystole. What type of extrasystole isit?


A patient complains of hydruria (7liters per day) and polydipsia. Examinationreveals no disorders of carbohydratemetabolism. These abnormalities mightbe caused by the dysfunction of thefollowing endocrine gland:


Before a surgery a blood sample of a30-year-old man has been typed. Bloodis Rh-positive. Standard serums of suchgroups as 0 αβ (I), Аβ (II), Вα (III) didn’tactivate erythrocyte agglutination reaction.The group of the analyzed blood is:

0 αβ (I)

Medical examination of a 20-yearoldwoman revealed a dense incapsulatednode 1 cm in diameter that was palpatedin the mammary gland. The postoperativebiopsy revealed connective tissueovergrowth around the mammary ductsand glandular components of different diameterthat didn’t make lobules and boreno signs of cellular abnormality. What diagnosiswill be made?


A 38-year-old male patient has beenill with systemic lupus erythematosus forthree years. He was diagnosed with diffuserenal affection accompanied by massiveedemata and expressive proteinuria.What is the most likely cause of proteinuriadevelopment?

Autoimmune renal affection

A student failed to answer all thequestions of examination paper correctly.As a result he blushed, felt hot andlost confidence. What type of arterialhyperemia has developed in this case?

Neurotonic hyperemia

Acute renal impairment causeddeath of a bleeding patient. Autopsyrevealed enlarged kidneys with a broadpale pink cortical layer expressivelydemarcated from dark red renal pyramids.Macroscopic examination revealedlack of epithelial nuclei of convolutedtubules, tubulorrhexis, phlebostasis. Thecell nuclei of choroid glomus and straighttubules were present. What pathology isit


A female patient consulted a doctorabout pain and limited movements inthe knee joints. Which of the followingnonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugsshould be administered taking into considerationthat the patient has a history ofchronic gastroduodenitis?


A patient presents with icteritiousnessof skin, scleras and mucousmembranes. Blood plasma the total bilirubinis increased, stercobilin is increasedin feces, urobilin is increased in urine.What type of jaundice is it?


Blood plasma of a healthy mancontains several dozens of proteins. Duringan illness new proteins can originate,namely the protein of "acute phase".Select such protein from the listed below:

C-reactive protein

A patient working at a pig farmcomplains about paroxysmal abdominalpain, liquid feces with admixtures ofmucus and blood, headache, weakness,fever. Examination of large intestinerevealed ulcers from 1 mm up to severalcm large, feces contained oval unicellularorganisms with cilia. What disease shouldbe suspected?


During hypersensitivity test a patientgot subcutaneous injection of an antigenwhich caused reddening of skin, edema,pain as a result of histamine action. Thisbiogenic amine is generated as a result oftransformation of the following histidineamino acid:


During fighting a man had a cardiacarrest as a result of a hard blow to theupper region of anterior abdominal wall.Which of the describedmechanisms mighthave provoked the cardiac arrest?

Parasympathetic unconditioned reflexes

There is a severe time restriction forpeople’s staying at a height of over 800m above the sea level without oxygenbombs. What is the life limiting factor inthis case?

Partial oxygen pressure

A patient with marked pneumofibrosisthat developed after infiltratingpulmonary tuberculosis has been diagnosedwith respiratory failure. What isits pathogenetic type?


During surgical manipulations a patienthas been given novocaine injection foranesthesia. 10 minutes later the patientdeveloped paleness, dyspnea, hypotension.What type of allergic reaction is it?

Anaphylactic immune reaction

A sensitive neural ganglion consistsof roundish neurocytes with one extensionthat divides into axon and dendrite at asome distance from the perikaryon. Whatare these cells called?


A patient complained about dizziness,memory impairment, periodicalconvulsions. It was revealed that thesechanges were caused by a product ofdecarboxylation of glutamic acid. Name this product


It was found out that somecompounds, for instance fungi toxins andsome antibiotics can inhibit activity ofRNA-polymerase. What process will bedisturbed in a cell in case of inhibition ofthis enzyme?


During an experiment the myotaticreflex has been studied in frogs. Afterextension in a skeletal muscle itsreflectory contraction was absent. Thereason for it might be a dysfunction ofthe following receptors:

Muscle spindles

An adult man presents with systemicarterial pressure drop from 120/70 to90/50 mm Hg. This resulted in reflexvasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction will beminimal in the following organ:


A culture of monkey cells (Vero) anda group of mouse sucklings were infectedwith an inoculum taken from a child withprovisional diagnosis "enterovirus infection".There was no cytopathic effect onthe cell culture but mouse sucklings died.What enteric viruses might have causeddisease of this child?

Coxsackie A

An electron microphotography of afragment of proper gastric gland showsa big irregular round-shaped cell. Thereare a lot of intracellular tubules and mitochondriain the cytoplasm. Specify thiscell:

Parietal cell

Blood count of an athlete is asfollows: erythrocytes - 5, 5 · 1012/l, Hb-180 g/l, leukocytes - 7 · 109/l, neutrophils -64%, basophils - 0,5%, eosinophils - 0,5%,monocytes - 8%, lymphocytes - 27%. Firstof all, such results indicate the stimulationof


A patient died from cardiopulmonarydecompensation. Histological examinationrevealed diffused pulmonary affectionalong with interstitial edema, infiltrationof tissue by limphocytes, macrophages,plasmocytes; pulmonary fibrosis, panacinaremphysema. What is the most likelydiagnosis?

Fibrosing alveolitis

If a man has an attack of bronchiospasmit is necessary to reduce the effectof vagus on smooth muscles of bronchi.What membrane cytoreceptors should beblocked for this purpose?


A male patient has been diagnosedwith gastric ulcer. Bacteriologicalexamination of biopsy material fromthe affected part of stomach revealedsmall colonies of gram-negative, oxidereductase-positive flexibacteria that grewon the chocolate agar on the fifth day.Which of the following microorganismsis the most likely causative agent?

Helicobacter pylori

There are several groups ofmolecular mechanisms playing importantpart in pathogenesis of insult to cellswhich contributes to the pathologydevelopment. What processes are stimulatedby proteinic damage mechanisms?

Enzyme inhibition

A patient has been diagnosed witha compression fracture of a lumbarvertebra. As a result he has a considerableincrease in curvature of thelumbar lordosis. Which ligament damagecan induce such changes in the spinecurvature?

Anterior longitudinal ligament

A 49-year-old patient with croupouspneumonia died from pneumococcalsepticemia. Autopsy revealed up to 700ml of turbid greenish-yellow foul-smellingliquid in the left pleural cavity. The pleuralleaflets were dull and plethoric. Whatform of pleural inflammation is it?


A 35-year-old man developed acuteheart failure while running for a long time.What changes in ionic composition can beobserved in the cardiac muscle?

Accumulation of Na+ and Ca2+ ions inthe myocardium cells

A child with a history offrequent angine and pharyngitis hasbeen diagnosed with lymphadenopathyand splenomegaly. His appearance ischaracterised by pastosity and paleness,muscular tissue is poorly developed.Lymphocytosis is present. What kind ofdiathesis is it?

Lymphohypoplastic diathesis

In response to a change in body positionfrom horizontal to vertical bloodcirculation system develops reflectorypressor reaction. Which of the followingis its compulsory component?

Systemic constriction of the venousvessels

After an immunoassay a childwas diagnosed with immunodeficiencyof humoral immunity. What is thereason for the primary immunodeficiencydevelopment in the child?

Hereditary abnormality of immunesystem

Life cycle of a cell includes theprocess of DNA autoreduplication. As aresult of it monochromatid chromosomesturn into bichromatid ones. What periodof cell cycle does this phenomenon fallinto?


Examination of a 12-year-oldboy with developmental lag revealedachondroplasia: disproportional constitutionwith evident shortening of upperand lower limbs as a result of growthdisorder of epiphyseal cartilages of longtubal bones. This disease is:

Inherited, dominant

2 days after labour a womandeveloped shock along with DICsyndrome that caused her death. Autopsyrevealed purulent endomyometritis, regionalpurulent lymphangitis, lymphadenitisand purulent thrombophlebitis. Therewere also dystrophic alterations andinterstitial inflammation of parenchymalorgans.What is the most likely diagnosis?


After a craniocerebral trauma a patientlost the ability to execute learnedpurposeful movements (apraxia). Theinjury is most likely localized in thefollowing region of the cerebral cortex:

Gyrus supramarginalis

Tissue inosytol triphosphates aregenerated as a result of the phosphatidylinositoldiphosphate hydrolysis andact as secondary agents (mediators) inthe mechanism of hormone action. Theireffect in cells is directed at:

Calcium ion liberation from cellulardepot

A patient with coronary diseaseand arrhythmia has been administered adrug that blocks potassium channels andprolongs the action potential. What drugis it?


A patient takes digoxin for cardiacinsufficiency. What diuretic may increasedigoxin toxicity due to the intensifiedexcretion of K+ ions?


During starvation muscle proteinsbreak up into free amino acids. Thesecompounds will be the most probablyinvolved into the following process:

Gluconeogenesis in liver

A female patient consulted a doctorabout a sense of epigastric discomfort,nausea and anorexia. A duodenal contentanalysis revealed lamblia. What drugshould be prescribed?


A 28-year-old female patientconsulted a gynecologist about sterility.Examination revealed underdevelopedovaries and uterus, irregular menstrualcycle. Analysis of the sex chromatinrevealed 2 Barr’s bodies in most somaticcells. What chromosome disease is mostlikely?

Triple X syndrome

A 1-year-old baby has been hospitalisedfor body and limbs lesions. Examination revealed carnitine deficiency in thechild’s muscles. A biochemical reason forthis pathology is the disorder of:

Transport of fatty acids to mitochondria

During anesthetization a patientpresented with symptoms of tonusincrease of parasympathetic nervoussystem such as hypersalivation andlaryngospasm. What drug could haveprevented these undesirable effects

Atropine sulphate

Some students developed myodyniaafter continuous physical activity duringphysical education. The reason for suchcondition was accumulation of lactic acidin the skeletal muscles. It was generatedin the students’ bodies after activation ofthe following process:


A newborn develops dyspepsiaafter the milk feeding. When the milkis substituted by the glucose solutionthe dyspepsia symptoms disappear. Thenewborn has the subnormal activity of thefollowing enzyme:


A doctor asked a patient to breathout fully after taking a normal breath.What muscles contract during suchexhalation?

Abdominal muscles

On an electron micrograph a scientisthas identified a structure formedby eight histone proteins and a part ofDNA molecule which makes about 1,75revolutions around the molecules. Whichstructure has been identified?


A patient with massive burnsdeveloped acute renal insufficiencycharacterized by a significant andrapid deceleration of glomerular filtration.What is the mechanism of itsdevelopment?

Reduction of renal blood flow

A three-year-old child has hadmarked diarrhea for three days. Immuneelectron microscopy of his excrementsrevealed bilayer pseudocovered capsid virusesthat looked like small spoke wheels.What viruses have been revealed?


A male patient has fever andenanthesis. As a result of the examinationinvolving serological tests he hasbeen diagnosed with fasciola hepatica. Itwas found out that the patient had beeninfected through raw river water. Whichstage of fasciola life cycle is invasive forhumans?


A patient with high-titer antinuclearantibodies died from progressing renalimpairment. Autopsy revealed mesangioproliferativeglomerulonephritis andabacterial polypous endocarditis. Therewas periarterial bulbar sclerosis in spleenand productive proliferative vasculitis inskin. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Electronic microphotography ofpulmonary alveole’s wall presents a bigcell. Its cytoplasm has a lot of mitochondria,developed Golgi apparatus,osmiophil lamellated corpuscles. What isthe main function of this cell?

It produces surfactant

A patient has food poisoning.Laboratory analysis revealed a cultureof anaerobic gram-positive spore-formingbacteria. What is the most likely kind ofthe isolated causative agent?

C. perfringens

An animal has an increased tonusof extensor muscles. This the resultof intensified information transmissionto the motoneurons of the spinalcord through the following descendingpathways:


70-year-old male patient died fromacute coronary insufficiency. He had kneejoint swelling, gonycampsis and gonalgiaduring his lifetime. Pathomorphologicexamination of the deformed jointsand synovial membranes revealedmembrane hyperaemia with multipleperivascular inflammatory infltrationsmade by lymphocytes, plasmocytesand macrophagocytes. There was anaccumulation of organized fibrin coveringsome areas of synovium membrane andlooking like rice grains in the articular liquid.What is the most likely diagnosis?

Atrophic arthritis

A man having a hearing loss aftera head trauma was delivered to theneurosurgery department. The cause ofthe hearing loss might be the damage ofthe following lobe of cerebral cortex:


A pregnant woman was registeredin an antenatal clinic and underwentcomplex examination for a number ofinfections. Blood serum contained IgMto the rubella virus. What is this resultindicative of?

Of primary infection

A patient with tuberculosis diedfrom progressing cardiopulmonarydecompensation. Autopsy in the region ofthe right lung apex revealed a cavity 5 cmin diameter communicating with lumenof a segmental bronchus. On the insidecavity walls are covered with caseousmasses with epithelioid and Langhanscells beneath them. What morphologicalform of tuberculosis is it?

Acute cavernous tuberculosis

Vomiting matters of a patientsuspected of having cholera were deliveredto the bacteriological laboratory.The material was used for preparing a"hanging drop"specimen. What type ofmicroscopy will be applied for identificationof the causative agent by its mobility

Phase-contrast microscopy

A patient with enteritis accompanied by massive diarrhea has low water ratein the extracellular space, high water rateinside the cells and low blood osmolarity.What is such disturbance of waterelectrolyticmetabolism called?

Hypo-osmolar hypohydration

Examination of a 6-month-old childrevealed a delay in closure of the occipitalfontanelle. When should it normallyclose?

Until 3 months

A newborn child was found to havereduced intensity of sucking, frequentvomiting, hypotonia. Urine and bloodexhibit increased concentration of citrulline.What metabolic process is disturbed?

Ornithinic cycle

A male patient has been diagnosedwith acute radiation disease. Laboratoryexamination revealed a considerablereduction of platelet serotonin level. Thelikely cause of platelet serotonin reductionis the disturbed metabolism of thefollowing substance


In course of a conditional experimentthe development of mesenchyma cellswas completely inhibited. Developmentof the following muscular tissue will be disturbed:

Smooth muscular tissue

A histologic specimen shows anorgan’s parenchyma which is presentedby lymphoid tissue making some lymphnodes. The nodes are located diffusivelyand contain a central artery. Whatanatomic formation might have suchmorphological structure?


A victim with a head trauma in thetemporal region has been diagnosed withepidural hematoma. What artery is mostlikely to be damaged?

Medial membranous artery

A child has mental and physicalretardation, grave damage of internalconnective tissue. Urine analysis revealskeratan sulfates. What metabolic processis disturbed?


A tooth extraction in a patientwith chronic persistent hepatitis wascomplicated with prolonged hemorrhage.What is the reason for the haemorrhagicsyndrome?

Decrease in thrombin production

Sex chromosomes of a woman didn’tseparate and move to the opposite polesof a cell during gametogenesis (meiosis).The ovum was impregnated with a normalspermatozoon. Which chromosomal diseasecan be found in her child?

Turner’s syndrome

A female patient was administeredloratadine for allergic cheilitis treatment.What is the mechanism of the drug’s action?

It blocks the activity of H1 histaminereceptors

Ultramicroscopical examination of"dark"hepatocyte population in the cellcytoplasm detected a developed granularendoplasmic reticulum.What function hasthis organella in these cells?

Synthesis of blood plasma proteins

A doctor prescribed a cephalosporinantibiotic to the patient after appendectomyfor infection prevention. Antimicrobialactivity of this group of antibiotics is basedupon the disturbance of the followingprocess:

Microbial wall formation

A patient underwent an extraction ofa part of a CNS structures by medical indications.As a result of the extraction thepatient developed atony, astasia, intentiontremor, ataxy and adiadochokinesis.Which part of CNS structure had beenextracted?


A patient has been diagnosed withinfluenza. His condition became drasticallyworse after taking antipyretic drugs.His consciousness is confused, AP is 80/50mm Hg, Ps is 140/m, body temperaturedroped down to 35, 8oC.What complicationdeveloped in this patient?


A patient consulted a doctor aboutloss of taste sensitivity on the tongue root.The doctor revealed that it is caused bynerve affection. Which nerve is it?


Which muscle contraction will beobserved in the upper extremity duringholding (but not moving) a load in acertain position?


An older woman has been hospitalisedfor acute pain and edema of the righthip joint that appered after a fall. Objectively:the hip is adduced inwards, hip jointmovements are impaired. The patientis most likely to have a fracture of thefollowing bone or bone part:

Femoral neck

A 45-year-old woman has breastcancer. Her left arm has symptoms oflymphatic system insufficiency - limbedema, lymph node enlargement. Whatform of lymphatic circulation insufficiencyis it?

Mechanic insufficiency

Study of conversion of a food colouringagent revealed that neutralization ofthis xenobiotic takes place only in onephase - microsomal oxydation. Name acomponent of this phase:

Cytochrome Р-450

While performing an inguinal canaloperation on account of hernia a surgeon damaged the canal’s contents. Whatexactly was damaged?

Funiculus spermaticus

A patient with myocardial infarctionwas admitted to the cardiologicaldepartment. For pain relief it was decidedto potentiate fentanyl action witha neuroleptic. Which of the followingneuroleptics is the most suitable forneuroleptanalgesia?


A25-year-old man has spent a long timein the sun under high air humidity. Asa result of it his body temperature rose upto 39oC. What pathological process is it?


A 26-year-old man is in the torpidshock phase as a result of a car accident.In blood: 3, 2 · 109/l. What is the leadingmechanism of leukopenia development?

Redistribution of leukocytes inbloodstream

A patient consulted a doctor about asensation of imbalance which appearedafter a trauma.Which nerve is damaged?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

An alcoholic has alcoholic psychosiswith evident psychomotor agitation.Whatneuroleptic drug should be administeredfor emergency care?


patient who has been treated ina neural clinic and has been taking asedative for a long time got the followingcomplication: cough, rhinitis, epiphora.What drug caused these disturbances?

Sodium bromide

The liver puncture biopsy of a patientwith hepatocellular insufficiency revealedhydropic and ballooning degenerationofhepatocytes, necrosis of certain cells,presence of Kaunsilmen’s bodies. Portaland lobular stroma were infiltrated mostlywith lymphocytes and macrophagesas well as with a small number ofpolymorphonuclear lymphocytes. What isthe most likely diagnosis?

Acute viral hepatitis

In order to accelerate healing of aradiation ulcer a vitamin drug was administered.What drug is it?

Retinol acetate

After inoculation of the materialobtained from the pharynx of an anginapatient onto the blood-tellurite agar, greycolonies could be observed. They were4-5 mm in diameter, radially striated (inform of rosettes). Microscopical examinationrevealed gram-positive bacilli withclavate swollen ends arranged in formof wide-spread fingers. Identify these microorganisms:

Diphtheria corynebacteria

Cytogenetic examination of a patientwith reproductive dysfunction revealednormal karyotype 46ХY in some cells, butmost cells have karyotype of Klinefelter’ssyndrome - 47 ХХY. Such cell heterogenityis called:


A patient presents with acne andinflammatory alterations of facial skin.Microscopial investigation of lesion focihas revealed live arthropods sized 0,2-0,5 mm. They have prolate vermiformform and four pairs of thin short limbslocated in the middle part of the body.The revealed arthropods cause:


Surgical approach to the thyroidgland from the transverse (collar)approach involves opening of interaponeuroticsuprasternal space. What anatomicstructure localized in this space isdangerous to be damaged?

Jugular venous arch

An injured person was delivered tothe hospital with a penetrating wound inthe left lateral region of abdomen. Whatpart of the large intestine is most likelydamaged?

Colon descendens

A 4-year-old child presents withgeneral weakness, sore throat and deglutitiveproblem. After his examination adoctor suspected diphtheria and sent thematerial to the bacteriological laboratory.In order to determine the diphtheriacausative agent the material should beinoculated into the following differentialdiagnostic medium:

Blood tellurite agar

Examination of the anterior abdominalwall of a pregnant woman revealeda tumour-like formation that arose onthe spot of a tumour that was removedtwo years ago. The neoplasm was welldefined,dense, 2х1 cm large. Histologicalexamination revealed that the tumour wascomposed of differentiated connective tissuewith prevailing collagen fibres. Whattumour might be suspected?