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75 Cards in this Set

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Study of joints (anatomy, function, dysfunction, and treatment)
Kinesiology (kih-NEE-see-OL-oh-jee)
Study of musculoskeletal movement; subdiscipline of biomechanics
a point where two bones meet; typically named after the bones involved
Joint functions
Diarthrosis (DY-ar-THRO-sis)
Amphiarthrosis (AM-fee-ar-THRO-sis)
Synarthrosis (SIN-ar-THRO-sis)
Synarthrosis (SIN-ar-THRO-sis)
A joint capable of little or no movement; ex. a suture
Amphiarthrosis (AM-fee-ar-THRO-sis)
A joint capable of slight movement; ex. intervertebral joint
Diarthrosis (DY-ar-THRO-sis)
A freely movable joint; ex. elbow joint
Joint structure
Bony/Synostoses (SIN-oss-TOE-seez)
Types of fibrous joints
Gomphoses (gom-FOE-seez)
Syndesmoses (SIN-dez-MO-seez)
How bones in a fibrous joint are connected
Collagen fibers emerge from one bone and penetrate another bone
A broad syndesmoses ligament sheet along the shafts of two bones
Interosseous membrane
A joint that joins two bones by a ligament only; ex. interosseous membrane
A joint that attaches a tooth to its socket
Types of cartilaginous joints
Synchondroses (SIN-con-DRO-seez)
Synchondrosis (SIN-con-DRO-sis)
A joint that uses hyaline cartilage to join two bones; ex. epiphyseal plate in childhood
A joint that has hyaline cartilage covering the bone ends, and fibrocartilage in between; ex. cartilaginous interpubic disc
Bony joint/Synostosis (SIN-oss-TOE-sis)
A joint in which two bones, once separate, have been fused together by osseous tissue;
ex. left and right bones of the maxilla
Synovial Joint
A joint in which two bones are separated by a space containing a slippery lubricant;
ex. knee joint
Suture's function
Synarthrosis (SIN-ar-THRO-sis)
Gomphosis' function
Synarthrosis (SIN-ar-THRO-sis)
Syndesmosis' function
Synchondrosis' function
Symphysis' function
Synovial's function
Synostosis' function
Most common joint in the body
Synovial Joint
The area containing synovial fluid
the joint/articular cavity
The texture of synovial fluid
viscous and slippery; similar to that of an egg white
What gives synovial fluid its texture
albumin and hyaluronic acid
the function of synovial fluid
1)nourish articular cartilage
2)remove their wastes
3)clean up wear and tear cartilage tissue debris with phagocytes
What covers the adjoining surfaces of the bones in a synovial joint
hyaline articular cartilage
what encloses the joint cavity
a fibrous joint/articular capsule
the components of the joint/articular capsule
1)fibrous capsule
2)synovial membrane
Fibrous capsule
the outer layer of the joint capsule; continuous with the periosteum of the adjoining bones
Synovial membrane
the inner layer of the joint capsule; made of areolar tissue; secretes synovial fluid
the function of the meniscus
1)absorb shock and pressure
2)guide bones across each other
3)reduce chance of dislocation
4)distribute force across entire joint
a strip or sheet of tough, collagenous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
a strip or sheet of tough, collagenous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another
a fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid
location of a bursa
between adjacent muscles
where a tendon passes over a bone
the function of bursae
1)cushion muscles
2)help tendons slide over joints
3)enhance the mechanical effect of a muscle by modifying the direction in which its tendon pulls
tendon sheets
elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendon
Types of synovial joints
1)Ball-and-socket 2)Hinge 3)Saddle 4)Gliding 5)Condyloid 6)Pivot
Types of joint movement
Shape of a hinge joint
one bone has a convex surface that fits in the concave depression of the other bone
the movement of a hinge joint
hinge joint examples
knee, elbow, interphalangeal joints
shape of a saddle joint
Each bone is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other
the movement of a saddle joint
saddle joint examples
the trapeziometacarpel joint at the base of the thumb, is the only saddle joint
Shape of a pivot joint
one bone has a projection that fits into a ringlike ligament of the other bone
the movement of a pivot joint
pivot joint examples
a)atlantoaxial joint btwn 1st two vertebrae
b)proximal radioulnar joint
composition of menisci
shape of a gliding joint
both bones are flat or only slightly concave and convex
movement of a gliding joint
limited monaxial; amphiarthrosis
a gliding joint example
the joints between carpal bones
shape of a condyloid joint
one bone has an oval convex surface that fits into similarly shaped depression on the other bone
movement of a condyloid joint
examples of condyloid joints
a)radiocarpal joint
b)metacarpophalangeal joint
decreased/increased joint angle
(bent vs. straight)
Flexion, extension, hyperextension
lateral/medial joint movement
Abduction vs. adduction
up/down joint movement
elevation vs. depression
anterior/posterior joint movement
protraction vs. retraction
sideways/center sliding joint movement
lateral excursion vs. medial excursion
a joint movement in which one end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the other end makes a circular motion
joint movement in which a bone turns on its longitudinal axis
lateral vs. medial rotation
example: rotation of the forearm so that the palm is facing anterior/posterior
supination vs. pronation
movement of the thumb towards/away from fingertips
opposition vs. reposition
movement that enables hands to grasp objects
toes pointed upward/downward
dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion
soles turned laterally/medially
eversion vs. inversion
Range Of Motion
sensory nerve endings of tendons, ligaments, and muscles, that continually monitor and adjust joint angle and muscle tension
Factors affecting ROM and stability of a joint
1)muscle structure and action
2)structure of the bones' articular surfaces
3)strength and tautness of ligaments, tendons, and the joint capsule