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75 Cards in this Set

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A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth. Also called an articulation or arthrosis.

A joint; a point of contact between bones, cartilage and bones, or teeth and bones.
A joint or articulation.


The study of description of joints.


The study of the movement of the body parts.

Fibrous joints

A joint that allows little or no movement, such as a suture, syndesmosis, or interosseous membrane.

Cartilaginous joints

A joint without a synovial (joint) cavity where the articulating bones are held tightly together by cartilage, allowing little or no movement.

Synovial joints

A fully movable or diarthrotic joint in which a synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones.


An immovable joint such as a suture, gomphosis, or synchondrosis


A slightly movable joint, in which the articulating bony surfaces are separated by fibrous connective tissue or fibrocartilage to which both are attached; types are syndesmosis and symphysis.


A freely moveable joint; types are plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket


An immovable fibrous joint that joins skull bones.


A joint in which the dense fibrous connective tissue that unites bone, resulting in a complete fusion across the suture line.


A slightly movable joint in which articulating bones are united by fibrous connective tissue.


A fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket.


A cartilaginous joint in which articulating bones are united by fibrous connective tissue.


A line of union. A slightly movable cartilaginous joint such as the pubic symphysis.

synovial cavity

The space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, filled with synovial fluid. Also called a joint cavity.

articular cartilage

Hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces.


Dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to bone.

Synovial membrane

The deeper of the two layers of the articular capsule of a synovial joint, composed of areolar connective tissue that secretes synovial fluid into the synovial (joint) cavity.

synovial fluid

Secretion of synovial membranes that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage.

articular discs (menisci)

Fibrocartilage pad between articular surfaces of bones of some synovial joints. Also called meniscus.



Sac-like structures containing fluid similar to synovial fluid



Located between tendons, ligaments and bones



Cushion the movement of these body parts





Tendon sheaths


Wrap around tendons




Reduce friction at joints





Simple movement back-and-forth and from side-to-side


There is no significant alteration of the angle between the bones


Limited in range


Intercarpal joints

angular movements


Increase or a decrease in the angle between articulating bones


Angular movements include




















Lateral flexion










Movement in which there is a decrease in the angle between two bones.


An increase in an angle between two bones; restoring a body part to its anatomical position after flexion.

lateral flexion


Movement of the trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist

Continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position, as in bending the head backward.
Movement away from the midline of the body.


Movement toward the midline of the body.


A movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of a bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively stable.


Moving a bone around its own axis, with no other movement.

Special movements
Plantar flexion


Movement in which a part of the body moves superiorly.


Movement in which a part of the body moves inferiorly.


The movement of the mandible or shoulder girdle forward on a plane parallel with the ground.


The movement of a protracted part of the body posteriorly on a plane parallel to the ground, as in pulling the lower jaw back in line with upper jaw.


The movement of the sole medially at the ankle joint.


The movement of the sole laterally at the ankle joint or of an atrioventricular valve into an atrium during ventricular contraction.


Bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (upper surface)

Plantar flexion

Bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole).


A movement of the forearm in which the palm is turned anteriorly.


A movement of the forearm in which the palm is turned posteriorly


Movement of the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint in which the thumb moves across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers on the same hand.

plane joint

Joint in which the articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved that permits back-and-forth and side-to-side movement and rotation between the flat surfaces.

hinge joint

A synovial joint in which a convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another bone, such as the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal joints. Also called ginglymus joint.

pivot joint

A synovial joint in which a rounded, pointed, or conical surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament, as in the joint between the atlas and axis and between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna. Also called a trochoid.

condyloid joint

A synovial joint structured so that an oval-shaped condyle of one bone fits into an elliptical cavity of another bone, permitting side-to-side and back-and-forth movements. Such as joint at the wrist between the radius and carpals. Also called an ellipsoidal joint.

saddle joint

A synovial joint in which the articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped and the articular surface of the other bone is shaped like the legs of the rider sitting in the saddle, as in the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb.

ball-and-socket joint

A synovial joint in which the rounded surface of one bone moves within a cup shaped depression or socket of another bone, as in the shoulder or hip joint. Also called a spheroid joint.

Structure or shape of the articulating bones


Shape of bones determines how closely they fit together



Strength and tension (tautness) of the joint ligaments.


Ligaments are tense when the joint is in certain positions




Tense ligaments restrict the range of motion



Arrangements and tensions of the muscles


Muscle tension reinforces the restraint placed on a joint by its ligaments , and thus restricts movement

Contact of soft parts


The point at which one body surface contacts another may limit mobility


Movement be restricted by the presence of adipose tissue


A secretion of endocrine cells that alters the physiological activity of target cells of the body.



Movement may be restricted if a joint has not been used for an extended period

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)


Combined hinge and planar joint formed by the mandible and the temporal bone


Only movable joint between skull bones


Only the mandible moves

Articular disc (meniscus)

Fibrocartilage pad between articular surfaces of bones of some synovial joints.

Articular capsule

Sleevelike structure around a synovial joint composed of a fibrous capsule and a synovial membrane. Also called a capsule.

shoulder joint

A synovial joint where the humerous articulates with the scapula.

elbow joint


Hinge joint formed by the humerus, the ulna, and the radius

hip joint


Ball-and-socket joint formed by the femur and the hip bone

Knee joint


Largest and most complex joint of the body


Modified hinge joint

Articular capsule


A sleeve-like capsule encloses the synovial cavity

The articular capsule is composed of two layers

an outer fibrous capsule


an inner synovial membrane





Joints may be replaced surgically with artificial joints


Most commonly replaced are the hips, knees, and shoulders

Partial hip replacements

involve only the femur


Total hip replacements

involve both the acetabulum and head of the femur

Knee replacements


Actually a resurfacing of cartilage and may be partial or total


Potential complications of arthroplasty include infection, blood clots, loosening or dislocation of the replacement components, and nerve injury


Pubic symphysis


Between the anterior surfaces of the hip bones

Intervertebral joints between the vertebrae

Accessory Ligaments and Articular Discs
Collateral ligaments of the knee joint

Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint

Pads of cartilage lie between the articular surfaces of the bones
Allow bones of different shapes to fit together more tightly



Nerve and Blood Supply


Nerve endings convey information about pain from the joint to the spinal cord and brain


Nerve endings respond to the degree of movement and stretch at a joint


Arterial branches from several different arteries merge around a joint before penetrating the articular capsule




May result in decreased production of synovial fluid


The articular cartilage becomes thinner


Ligaments shorten and lose some of their flexibility


Osteoarthritis is partially ___ -related


Stretching and aerobic exercises are helpful in minimizing the effects