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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is Taj Mahal located?
Agra (N), now New Delhi
When was Islam established?
7th c
Monotheistic religion
Islam: single, universal vision of Truth
Who is Islam's Prophet?
Muhammad (619 recited Koran)
Is Pluralistic vision accepted in Islam?
No, must believe in one.
How was Islam introduced to the West Coast of India?
By Arab traders
How did the Sultanate of Delhi establish?
Raids upon N and W of India by Turks and Afghans
Who was the founding Sultan?
Qutb al-Din Aybak
Who created the first mosque?
Qutb al-Din Aybak
What are the two main monuments?
Mosques and tombs
What is the holiest sanctuary of Islam?
Kaaba in Mecca, center of Islamic world
What does the Fourth wall (qibla or front) marks a direction of?
mark as direction of Mecca toward which Muslims face for prayer
What are Arabesque?
flowery curves designs in Islamic Art
Where is Quwwat al-Islam Mosque (Might of Islam) located?
Delhi, India
When was Quwwat al-Islam Mosque (Might of Islam) established?
Alai Darvazah
- Ceremonial gate of Quwwat al-Islam Mosque
- Completed in 1311
Qutb Minar
- Minaret tower-like of Quwwat al-Islam Mosque
- Completed in 13th c.
- Used for focal point and to call prayers
When was the Prayer Hall of Quwwat al-Islam Mosque completed?
12th c.
When was the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque's corbelled arch added?
When did the Islamic culture emerge to India?
14th c.
Tughlak dynasty
- Current Delhi Sultanate
- Founder built massive fortified capital city name Tughlakabad
Timur invading Tughlak dynasty caused what?
Delhi deserted for 15 years
Lodi Dynasty
- Emerged by 15th c.
- last dynasty of Delhi Sultanate
- Erected many tomb structures in New Delhi
- Iranian double dome introduced
What was tomb building a symbol of?
- royal prerogative and a status symbol
What kind of tombs did Sultans build themselves?
octagonal tombs
What kind of tombs did nobles build themselves?
square ones
Deccan Sultanates (14th c.), Bahmani line
Mughal Empire
- 1526-1858
- Mughal were Turkish-Mongolian heritage
- Ruled from Afghanistan to borders of Bengal (N India)
Babur (Mughal Empire)
- 1526, ruler of central Asian principality
- Defeated the Lodi sultans in India and established himself in Delhi as emperor
Akbar (Mughal Empire)
- R. 1556-1603
- Third monarch
- stabilized and expanded empire and left his imprint on architecture and painting of India
- doctrine removed discrimination against Hindus
- Created centralized bureaucracy by organizing official into military ranks
Humayun's Tomb
- 1st grand Mughal garden tomb placed in middle of char bagh (four part garden divided by four water channels)
- More Indian (Red sandstone)
- Persian features
-Geometric decoration
Fatehpur Sikri
- Akbar's most ambitious project - - His new capital (S of New Delhi)
- Abandoned within 15 years
Shah Jahan
- 1628-1658
- Mughal architecture use more marble extensively than before
- Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
- 1631-1643
- Central tomb contains Shah Jahan's wife (Mumtaz Mahal) and Shah Jahan
Who did the architect of Taj Mahal?
Ustad Ahmed Lahori
Who was the calligrapher for Taj Mahal?
Amanat Khan
What was Shah Jahan's new capital city's name?
- Shahjahanabad (Abode of Shah Jahan)
- 1648
tomb honoring a person
Jami Mosque
- c. 1650-1656
- Located in Shahjahanabad
- Red sandstone
Where is Shahjahanabad located?
North of Mughal Delhi
What is the earliest surviving illustrated manuscripts in W Indian style
12th c.
What did Sultanate art of the book introduce?
paper to Indian paintings
- mid - 14th c.
- Kingdom of Vijayanagara (ruled by Hindu monarchs)
When did 5 smaller Deccani sultanates form in Bahmani?
16th c.
- Deccani Sultanates
- formed under Ibrahim Adil Shah II
- efflorescence painting, "the S Indian vision of Iran"
- 1605-1627
- Son of Akbar
- Symbolic relationship between patron and artist
- Associate flower, animal and literary painting to Jahangir
Nur Jahan
- Jahangir's wife
- one women patrons in India
- popularized the use of realistic figures
- Her greater contribution lay in architecture and gardens
How did Mughal Empire influence art?
- Secular, pluralistic outlook: urbanism, individualism and more objective approach to nature
- engagement with external world, realism
- close relationship between patron and artist
17th c. paintings is dominated by two tendencies:
formal Persian arrangement of lines and colors and the new requirements of naturalism (inspired by European prints)
Mughal painting reflects Akbar's policies of cultural synthesis:
flat decorative beginnings through blend with the lively Rajasthani style and the move towards realism
Mughal paintings were also know as what and why?
miniatures, all work was illustration of manuscripts
Two artists who earned privileged positions close to the throne:
Dasavanth and Basavan
What was Basavan's specialty?
- specialty was portraiture
- responsible for composition
When was Islam introduced to Sumatra and Java?
introduced in 14th-15th c.
- gaining large number of followers in Asia
Muslim art
abstract ideas rather than openly expressed or graphic symbolism
Javanese legend of nine walis (saints) who were the 1st propagate the faith there
some described as Chinese descent
What helped Islam spread religion to Asia?
Growing prosperity of Islamic trading center
What kind of beliefs of Islam did SE Asia accommodate?
older beliefs and social practices (magic, ritual and spirituality)
- medium Hindu forms given a new Islamic interpretation
- Art of decorating cloth with a wax-resisted dye
- In Java, for royal use
Early mosques
- adapted from the local timber pavilions/ palaces were on square plan and had a hipped roof
- sites that were already sacred, recycling materials from existing structures
mythical beast fusing elements from various sources

- Batik Motif derived from Islamic and Hindu traditions
Calligraphy: Malaysia and Java
- Malay manuscripts were rarely illustrated as Javanese
Javanese, less constrained by Islamic disapproval of depiction of human figure
major part in articulation of religious ideas and talismanic properties of holy scriptures invoked in number of media