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50 Cards in this Set

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Agency
the advantages of the most powerful, privileged actors, seen by some as biases created by existing global institutions and norms
Ethics
criteria for evaluating right and wrong behavior and the motives by individuals and groups
morality
principles about the norms for behavior that should govern actors' interactions
realism
the theoretical view that states are the most important global actors and that they are in relentless competition with one another for position and prosperity in the international hierarchy, dedicated to the promotion of their own interests at the expense of other states
civil society
a community composed of citizens that create institutions to protect civil liberties (such as free speech and freedom from arbitrary governmental interference) and that use peaceful methods for conflict resolution
human rights
the political rights and civil liberties recognized by the international community as inalienable and valid for individuals in all countries by virtue of their humanity
sanctions
punitive actions (short of military force) by one global actor against another to retaliate for its previous objectionable behavior
liberalism
a theory predicated on the hope that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just, and cooperative world, and that international anarchy and war can be policed by institutional reforms that empower organizations and international laws for global governance to protect human rights
paradigm
an example, a model, or an essential pattern; it structures thoughts about an area of inquiry
feminist theory
a body of scholarship emerging from teh social feminist movement to promote the political equality of women with men, critquing sexual biases and challenging gender roles that encourage female subordination and warfare
level of analysis
the focus on which inquiry centers, depending on whether analysis concentrates on individuals, states, or the global system
globalization
the integration of states, through increasing contact, communciation, and trade, to create a common global culture for all humanity
dependency theory
a perspective that perceives the global economic system as responsible for the less-developed Global South countries' dependence on, and exploitation by, the wealthy Global North countries
human needs
those basic physical, social, and political needs, such as food and freedom, that are required for survival and security
Human Development Index (HDI)
an index that uses life expectancy, literacy, average number of years of schooling, and income to assess a country's performance in providing for its people's welfare and security
purchasing power parity (PPP)
an index that calculates the true rate of exchange among currencies when parity -- when what can be purchased is the same -- is achieved; the index determines what can be bought with a unit of each currency
Third Way
an approach to governance advocated primarily by European leaders who, while recognizing few alternatives to liberal capitalism, seek to soften the cruel social impact of free-maret individualism by progressively allowing government intervention to preserve social justice and the rights of individuals to freedom from fear of the deprivations caused by disruptions in the global economy
human security
a measure popular in liberal theory of the degree to which the welfare of individuals is protected and promoted, in contrast to realist theory's emphasis on putting the state's interests in military and national security ahead of all other goals
two-level game
the probability that under conditions of global interdependence leaders will (or must) make foreign policy decisions both for international payoffs and at the same time for domestic political purposes
refugees
people who flee for safety to another country because of a well-founded fear of persecution
ethnic cleansing
the extermination of an ethnic minority group by a state, in violation of international law since the mid-1990s, before which governments could treat the people within their territory as they wished
failed states
countries whose governments have so mismanaged policy that they have lost the loyalty of their citizens who, in rebellion, seek independence to create their own state
Global South
a term now often used instead of "Third World" to designate the less-developed countries located primarily in the Southern Hemisphere
brain drain
the exodus of the most educated people from their home country to a more prosperous foreign country where the opportunities for high incomes are better, which deprives their homeland of teh emigrants' ability to contribute to its economic development
xenophobia
the suspicious dislike, disrespect, and disregard for members of a foreign nationality, ethnic, or linguistic group
atrocities
brutal and savage acts against targeted citizen groups or prisoners of war, defined as illegal under international law
asylum
the provision of sanctuary to safeguard refugees escaping from the threat of persecution in the country where they hold citizenship
sanctuary
a place refuge and protection
national security
a country's psychological freedom from fears that the state will be unable to resist threats to its survival and national values emanating from abroad or at home
indigenous peoples
the native ethnic and cultural inhabitant populations within countries ruled by a government controlled by others, referred to as the "Fourth World"
Fourth World
a term used to recognize the native national groups residing in many so-called united states who, although often minorities, occupied the states' territory first and refuse to accept domination, seeking instead to create a new state for themselves by splitting exisitng states or by gaining greater political freedom to govern themselves
genocide
the deliberate extermination of an ethnic or minority group
sovereignty
the legal doctrine that states have supreme authoity to govern their internal affairs and manage their foreign relations with other states and IGOs
devolution
states' granting of political power to minority ethnic groups and indigenous people in partiuclar national regions under the expectation that greater autonomy will curtail their quest for independence as a new state
clash of civilizations
political scientist Samuel Huntington's controversial thesis that in the twenty-first century the globe's major civilizations will conflict with one another, leading to anarchy and warfare similar to that resulting from conflicts between states over the past 500 years
ethnocentrism
a propensity to see one's nationality or state as the center of the world and therefore special, with the result that the values and perspectives of other groups are misunderstood and ridiculed
self-determination
the doctrine asserting that nationalities have the right to determine what political authority will represent and rule them
ethnic cleansing
the extermination of an ethnic minority group by a state government or rival majority ethnic group
irredentism
efforts by an ethnic or religious group to regain control of territory by force so that existing state boundaries will no longer separate the group
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
the UN Development Program's attempt to measure the extent of gender equality across the globe's countries, based on estimates of women's relative economic income, high-paying positions, and access to professional and parliamentary positions
role
the position a person holds and the expectations about how that position is to be performed that shapes the role-occupant's behavior
gender inequalities
differences between men and women in opportunity and reward that are determined by the values that guide states' foreign and domestic policies
ideology
a set of core philosophical principles that a group of leaders and citizens collectively hold about politics, the interests of political actors, and the ways people ought to ethically behave
constructivism
a theoretical perspective emphasizing the extraoridnary degree to which all interpretations -- be they those advanced by realism, liberalism, behavioral science, or feminism, -- are shaped by the assumptions observers and scholars, policymakers and intepreters embrace about the hidden meanings embedded by the views of teh groups with which they most closely identify
noncombatant immunity
the legal principle that military force should not be used against innocent civilians
international regime
the set of rules, norms and decision-making procedures that coordinates state behavior within a given issue area
regime
norms, rules and procedures for interaction agreed to by a set of states
humanitarian intervention
the use of peacekeeping troops by foreign states or international organizations to protect endangered people from gross violations of their human rights and from mass murder
noncombatants
those not engaged in fighting during wartime such as teachers and children, who, like soldiers, are often exposed to harm
war crimes
acts performed during war that the international community defines as illegal crimes against humanity, such as atrocities commited on an enemy's prisoners of war and civilians or the state's own minority population