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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Any gene of viral or cellular origin that is thought to contribute to malignant transformation of cells when mutated or abnormally expressed.
Any oncogene normally found in the mammalian genome
Tumor-suppressor gene
Genes whose protein product suppresses cancer. Inactivation or loss of these genes contribute to cancer transformation.
What are Tumor-specific-antigens (TSA)
on tumor cells, not found on self
where do Tumor-specific-antigens (TSA) come from?
arise from cancers that start with a viral infection

also can come from carcinogens
Tumor-associated antigens (TAA)
normally found as self antigens,
can be expressed at somepoint in development, and will be expressed later (for example an antigen expressed fetaly can be seen later in cancer)
there are 3 possible mechanisms of tumor escape, please list them
1. Lack of immunogenicity (we dont have an anti-body for the tumor antigen because the tumor specific antigen isnt expressed)

2. Tumor-induced immunosuppression

3. Loss of tumor MHC antigens (lost on surface, can't be targeted by CD8 T cells)
What recognizes and kills cancer cells in the body?

the cytotoxic T cell
what is the concept of immune surveillance?
The hypothesis is that cells of the immune system, in addition to checking for foreign antigens (i.e. pathogens), constantly survey the body for abnormal cells, like cancer. Then, the immune system would play a large role in controlling the growth of these cancer cells.
what is adoptive cellular therapy
isolate lymphocytes from blood or tumor infiltrate from cancer pt

culture with IL-2 (to get more of them)

trasfer lymphocytes into pt w/ or w/o systemic IL-2

leads to tumor regression
Dendritic cell vaccines for cancer immunotherapy
Autologous dendritic cells (DC) loaded with tumor antigens + cytokine

Re-infuse DC to induce anti-tumor immune response
what would be the use of monoclonal antibodies?
that reacts to a TSA or TAA can mediate tumor cell destruction by ADCC, or by the direct conjugation of toxins to the antibody molecule. The monoclonal antibody targets the tumor cells, then the toxin would destroy them
what are the limitations to antibody immunotherapy? 3
a) Inadequate antibody penetration into large tumor masses
b) Inappropriate binding to normal cells displaying TAA
c) Host immune response to mouse monoclonal antibody
what are recombinant humanized antibodies
no longer use mouse, mostly human protein (but maintains the mouse binding site that you engineered)

then the body doesn't try to reject it as much
use of Herceptin® for HER-2 over expressing breast cancer is what kind of cancer treatment?
of recombinant humanized antibodies
neoplasms of the immune system include what 3 things?
leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas.
hematological neoplasm in which malignant cells are present in the bone marrow and blood


loose cells
a localized proliferation of lymphoid cells forming a solid tissue mass
**NOTE Many neoplasms will show both patterns of involvement and are thus hard to distinguish

compact mass
cancerous plasma cell that can produce antibody

a malignant proliferation of plasma cells. Patients often present with recurrent infections, renal failure, bone pain, anemia. Serum will contain a paraprotein.
patients that present with a paraprotein have what?
what indicates the stage of development at which a malignant cell was transformed.
What is the M band seen on a electrophoresis of serum that can be important?
paraprotein for MYELOMA
what 3 cytokines have been shown to have anti-tumor effects?
interferon, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor
woman presents with fatigue and bone pain


will also tend to have increased infections and bone lesions
if you see bone resorbed and destroyed (especially in skull or ribs) what should you be thinking
How does myeloma lead to the diffuse problems that it causes
(fatigue, bone resorption, infection)

transformed plasma cell in bone marrow

get bad RBC/WBC production

bone lesions are due to increased creation of Osteoclasts in bone marrow
--will see hypercalcemia
what causes the increased osteoclast activity seen in myeloma?
RANK ligand is increased (which is a growth factor for osteoclasts)
Bence-Jones proteins are what?
immuglobulin light chains found in urine

as a result of Myeloma

causes renal failure!
elderly man presents with unusually large shingles, what are you thinking?
CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukima)

tend to see this in ppl who are immunosuppressed
What CDs are associated with T and B cells respectively?
CD19-T Cells
CD5- B cells
in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) what will their lymphocytes look like
they will appear normal, but if you look closely you will see CD19 expressed on the surface in addition to CD5

and CD19 is normally seen on T-cell
what are the symptoms associated with myeloma (think of CRAB)
C=Calcium (hyper)
R=Renal failure
B=Bone pain