Cancer Immunotherapy Research Paper

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Cancer Immunotherapy: using immune based therapies to enhance the immune system to fight cancer cells.
Introduction
Cancer immunotherapy involves using components of the immune system to fight cancer cells. The immune system is very effective in getting rid of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. The concept of unleashing the body’s ability to defend itself against cancer cells has long been a scientific discussion (Nathanson L. 1976). Over the last 10 years, scientists have synthesized drugs that block pathways to keep cancer cells into evading the immune system. Several immune based therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, T-CARS and checkpoint inhibitors and therapeutic vaccines are available and analyze to fight cancer. So, it now appears
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These steps include dendritic cells promoting tumor antigens obtained from tumor microenvironments or dead tumor cells, recruitment of activated T-cells to cause responses and circumventing immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment (Kershaw, Devaud et. 2013). Dendritic cells can present antigens using MHC class I and II molecules by moving to the lymph nodes to expose antigens to T cells upon receiving a stimulus (Vegh , Wang et. 1993). The activated naïve T cells can migrate to region containing antigens and target cancer cells displaying these antigens. Furthermore, T-cells often face challenges penetrating tumors to carry their function, thus another barrier presenting by immune suppression. An effective immune response using immunotherapy would need to overcome many barriers. The immune system can fight cancer when it is properly trained or given the right resources to mount an effective antitumor …show more content…
Tumor cells often take advantage of these mechanisms by using immunological brakes or checkpoints to escape the immune system. Cytotoxic T -lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed death 1 (PD-1) are targets for cancer treatment. CTLA-4 is a protein found on surface of T cells that binds to B7 family molecules expressed by dendritic cells through an inhibitory pathway, thus preventing CD28 from binding to B7 (Pardoll 2012). This pathway leads to suppression of T cell activation freeing cancer cells from immunosurveilance. Researchers have developed monoclonal antibodies (drugs) for CTLA-4 to activate the CD28/B7 T cell activation and elicit an immune response against tumors (Alegre & Fallarino 2006). Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of immunotherapy that recognizes and attaches to cells or proteins. It can stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells. The most recent monoclonal antibody drug approved for metastatic melanoma is

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